In current researches, it is understood that female's death rate is high in disasters and male's death rate is high in daily accidents. To take measures by which casualties in disasters and accidents is reduced, we should think about this problem. In this report, we tried to understand the realities of the sex difference of casualties due to disasters and accidents and clarify the relation to the sex difference that human being have naturally. As a result, it was clarified that the sex difference of casualties has a close relation to the social sex difference.
The intensity of the effect of stress caused by the process of learning of hand-sewing using a thimble on the behavior was measured, and its effects on the autnomic activities (heart rate, variability of the pulse intervals, etc.) and electroencephalograms were evaluated, in 8 unskilled and 6 skilled female college students during hand-sewing with and without a thimble. In the skilled sewers, the stitch was significantly longer with the thimble than without a thimble. In the unskilled subjects, no difference was observed in the efficiency of work between the two conditions. The HF component of the variability of pulse intervals was significantly lower with a thimble in both groups. However, the LF/(LF+HF) component was not different between the sewing and resting periods under both conditions in the unskilled subjects while it was significantly higher with than without a thimble in the skilled sewers. No significant difference was noted in electroencephalograms between with and without a thimble. However, the activities in the β zone during sewing without a thimble were higher at sites Fz and Cz in the unskilled subjects than the skilled subjects. The activities at site Pz during sewing with a thimble were also higher in the unskilled subjects. The mean activities of the α zone at the three sites were lower in the unskilled subjects but those of the β zone were higher in the unskilled subjects. These results suggest that the use of a thimble facilitates the work for skilled sewers but may cause stress that interferes with the learning of hand-sewing using a thimble in unskilled sewers.
We studied the effects of an additive flavor on human physiological responses accompanied with normal tea ingestion. In this study, we prepared and used a newly devised cup that gives aroma while subjects are drinking tea. As a result, we observed higher relative power value of α waves[α p/(αp+βp)x100, p : power value] of EEG at Pz position when the subjects drink tea with an additive flavor than when normal tea. In addition, the records of HRV and skin blood flow showed that the additive flavor moderated the level of the increase in the hear rate and the activity of sympathetic nervous system accompanied with normal tea ingestion. These results suggest that the additive flavor enhanced the relaxation of normal tea ingestion.
The aim of the present study was to investigate a suitable step frequency during running to the metabolic energy cost and running performance. Trained runners (n=5; age 19.6±0.6 yr, x±SD) underwent running on a treadmill (fixed speed; 200m/min, 1% grade added every1 min) with three different step frequencies, freely chosen step frequency (FP), a increased 5 % step frequency from FP (IP), a decreased 5 % step frequency from FP (DP) to voluntary exhaustion. Breath-by-breath pulmonary ventilation (VE), O_2 uptake (V^^・O_2), and CO_2 output (V^^・CO_2) were determined by computerized metabolic system and subject's gas exchange threshold (GET) could be evaluated using V-slope method. At maximum effort of exercise, there were no significant differences in peak values of metabolic variables including V^^・O_2 V^^・CO_2, and VE among three differences of step frequencies. The V^^・O_2 at gas exchange threshold (V^^・O_<2GET>) during submaximal running under IP condition (56.9±1.4 m〓/kg/min) , however, was significantly higher compared with FP conditions (FP;51.3±3.8 m〓/kg/min). Besides we found a significantly inverve correlation between 5000m running record and V^^・O_<2GET> in FP (r = 0.94, p<0.05), even if no significant difference between them were observed in either IP or DP and 5000m running record (IP, r = 0.29, DP, r = 0.49), indicating that IP could induce the augmentation of V^^・O_<2GET> in runners who had a lower performance record. These results suggest that a increased 5% step frequency from freely chosen one can take physiologically advantage effects on an oxidative metabolic response and then would remarkably improve their running performance on long distance.
A new method utilizing 'virtual body fat' is proposed in the present research in order to investigate effects of body fat on physical activity, and it is applied to four sport tests, i. e. 50 m run, vertical jump, step test and side step. Some distributed weights are attached to bodies of 21 subjects as the virtual body fat in the experiments, and the effects of the total fat including the virtual body fat on their records are clarified. Furthermore, the effects of the body fat are compared among the four tests by employing a statistical normalization method.
The purpose of this study was to assess the physiological effects of aquatic exercise on lower back pain in elderly patients. Lower back pain is caused by such factors as reduction in muscle strength, loss of flexibility, poor posture, stress, and obesity. In this study, aquatic exercise was carried out in 70 minute sessions, twice a week over a period of 4 months. Eighteen subjects (age:61.0±5.5, weight:59.9±8.2, %fat:22.4±58.8) participated in the study. The anthropometry of the subjects studied such as their body weight, triceps skinfold thickness, subscaper skinfold thickness, and %fat were decreased as a result of the aquatic exercise. Cardiorespiratory function, anerobic capacity improved significantly and VO2max improved slightly. The subjects showed significant improvements in muscle strength such as in right knee extension and left knee extension. Flexibility in standing trunk flexion and upper body flexibility improved significantly. In a standardized questionaire set by The Orthopaedic Society of Japan used prior to and following the 4 month period of exercise, a significant increase was seen in the number of points of the categories ″Subjective Symptoms″ and ″Daily Activities″ as well as a significant increase in the total number of points. According to a post testing questionaire concerning the aquatic exercise program, all subjects felt ″Good″ or ″Great improvements″ in their physical condition. In addition, in a questionaire regarding the efficacy of PNF training under water, ten of the eleven male respondents indicated ″Very Effective″ or ″Effective″ and none of them indicated ″Bad Effect″. These results (improvements in muscle strength, flexibility, subjective symptoms and daily activities) suggested that the aquatic exercise was effective for elderly patients suffering from lower back pain.
Judging from your results, it is difficult to conclude that the characteristics of water absorbancy, evaporation and air permeability is more important for thermal comfort than that of moisture regain under profuse sweating and windy conditions, because you did not test 100% cotton material.
Our conclusions should never deny the importance of the moisture absorption for active sportswear. The rise of body temperature during the exercise was lowest in the T-shirt of E_1 fabric, made of polyester yarn. The moisture absorption of E_1 fabric is very poor and the air permeability is very good. Therefore, we concluded that the air permeability played an important part in the clothing comfort at these experimental conditions. It should be also considered that the skin clinging is an indispensable factor for active sportswear.