A major function of the human prefrontal cortex is inhibition of the ongoing reaction tendency for adaptation to changing environments. The go/no-go task is a representative method of investigating this inhibitory function. This study was carried out at 4-night-5-day and 30-night-31-day summer camps and investigated the responses to go/no-go tasks during pre- and post-camp periods. The findings showed that the numbers of errors in the no-go tasks decreased significantly at both camps, suggesting the possibility that the inhibitory function of subjects improved through the camp experience.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the difference in fat thickness distribution between Japanese women in their twenties and these in their forties. The subjects consisted of 15 young women (average age 23.2 years) and 15 middle-aged women (average age 45.3 years). The fat thickness of the subjects at 30 different points on the body were measured with a B-mode ultrasonic device. As a reference, anthropometric measurements were investigated using the martin method. The fat thickness data obtained were analyzed by using two different multiple statistical analyses, that is a principal component analysis and a distinction analysis. As a result of the principal component analysis, the first component was interpreted as a size factor which explained the amount of total body fat, second and third components were two shape factors, which explained contrast between the amount of fat at the trunk and the at the lower extremity, and that at the upper extremity and at the lower extremity, respectively. The middle-aged group had a larger first component score and smaller second component score, which means that the middle-aged group had thicker fat as a whole, but less fat in the lower extremities, such as the buttocks and medial thigh compared to the trunk. This tendency of fat distribution in the middle-aged group was also supported by the results of the anthropometric measurement. It was found by using the distinction analysis method that the umbilicus and the loin were the most useful measuring points for characterizing the differences in fat thickness distribution between the two age groups.
In order to realize a human-directed manufacturing system, it is indispensable to investigate behavior of human operators from the viewpoints of operational efficiency, accuracy, physical safety, fatigue, etc. The present paper deals with difference of the behavior between skilled and unskilled operators in small-hole drilling operations using a milling machine. The experimental result shows that there are strong correlations between operational and physiological measurements, and operator's skill level such as tool breakage, operational error and efficiency. Hence, the skill level can be estimated by using the measurements. In addition, it is confirmed that the skilled operators make their body movement small, and keep their respiration rate low and constant.
Psychological stress reactions of preschool children have been paid very little attention, compared to those of school age children. However, in order to encourage stable mental and physical development at early stages of our lives, it is necessary to study the meaning of psychological stress reactions of preschool children. In this paper, conceptual difficulties behind the problem are discussed, reviewing the findings in the areas of child care and education, developmental psychology, and developmental psychopathology. The following concepts are suggested for further study: 1) A comparison of daily stress reactions and specific stress reactions of preschool children; 2) Mothers and preschool teachers as multiple sources of data; 3) The application of the concept of resilience.
The present study was undertaken to examine the relationship of the clothes-purchasing choices of elderly women to their self-concept and body cathexis, as compared with those of female university students. Clothes-purchasing choices, self-concept and the degree of body cathexis were investigated in 1998. The subjects were 130 elderly women (aged 60 to 84 years ) and 129 female students (aged 18 to 24 years). In both the elderly woman group and the female student group, a correlation was found between clothes-purchasing choice and self-concept. This means that clothing choices change as self-concept improves, and that self-concept improves as clothing changes. A correlation was also noted between body cathexis and self-concept. That is, an increase in self-cathexis resulted in an improvement in self-concept. These results suggest that increasing the supply of clothes that elevate the self-concept of elderly women will have a positive effect is desirable. When designing clothing intended to elevate the self-concept of elderly women, it seems essential to consider not only comfort while wearing the clothing but also its style (color, lines, detailing, etc.).
As a protective clothing for fire fighting which correspond to flames and a radiant heat is an air tight cloth, it is important to give off metabolic heat of the human body. Therefore, partial cooling of armpit and back, the bellows effect associated with neck opening and other attempts were made. The purpose of this study was to examine a few methods which improve heat stress of fireman with protective clothing for fire fighting. The subjects were four healthy males. The skin temperature was calculated on 7 points of Hady & DuBois method. The skin temperatures of neck, back thigh and the temperature within clothes and inside a helmet were also measured. The experiment was composed of the rest for 5 minutes, the 120W/m^2 exercise for 20 minutes and the rest for 5 minutes in the climatic chamber of temperature 30.0 ± 0.5 ℃, relative humidity of 50 ± 5%. As a result, the cooling effect by partial cooling of armpit and back with refrigerant and the neck opening were not admitted in this study. Furthermore, the partial cooling had the harmful effect on the body, which caused temperature rise of head and decrease of abdomen temperature.
The objective of this study is to evaluate the anthropometric data and physiological stress for universal design and barrier free design. With consideration that the working height influences on the physical load, working posture and COP(center of pressure) have been studied with respect to pulling and exercises with upper extremities. The results of perceived posture shows that the load level at olecranon height is higher than that at metacarpal head height. The result of COP measurement also indicates significant differences in the peak loads between at olecranon height and at acromion height. On the other hand, the load level of normal pulling exercise is highest at eye height. Furthermore, a correlation is found in loads between the younger and the aged. To illustrate the mechanism of physiological stress, it will be necessary for us to examine physiological characteristic data in detail.