The purpose of this study is to examine how background music (BGM) influences the retrieval processes of pictures in memory. In this study, 9 subjects (4 males, 5 females) looked at three different pictures. Each picture was shown with a different piece of music playing in the background. None of the subjects knew that they would be asked about the music later. As a result, although the music was not consciously heard, the music itself has a factor that becomes associated with memory. Therefore, retrieval processes in memory are promoted by music. This indicates that humans use information that may not even be consciously identified to unify their confusing environment.
We have estimated the sleep stages by using heart rate variability. Polysomnographic monitoring was performed in five healthy subjects, aged between 26-27 years. Electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiratory data were analyzed for every 30 seconds interval by using Least Square Cosine Spectrum Method. To make quantitative analysis of respiratory pattern during sleep, we have developed an index derived from heart rate variability (HRV) and referred to as "RA (Rhythm Adaptability)". The RA of respiration showed positive correlations with the RA of heart rate. The RA of heart rate showed 90-minutes rhythm during sleep, and positive correlations with electroencephalogram (EEG) power in delta and theta waves (P<0.001). The RA was lower during REM sleep and WAKE, and was higher during sleep stages 3 and 4. We confirmed that the RA might be useful parameter for the evaluation of sleep stages.
Objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of intervention, as asking Japanese university students to get foods including protein and Vitamin B6 (especially recommending fermented soy-beans and banana) at breakfast and to be exposed to sun-lights after that for one month (October-November, 2008), on sleep-wake cycle during the intervention. Participants of 83 attending university soccer-club were divided to three groups (G1: no intervention; G2: asking them to have protein resources and Vitamin B6 resource at breakfast; G3: asking them to do as G2 plus sun light exposure after breakfast). Sleep diary was noted by themselves through one month of intervention period to evaluate the effects of it. Phase advance tended to be shown at all 4 phase points (bed time, sleep-in time, med-point of sleep, wake-up time) in the last week, period of intervention month only in G3 (P=0.100,0.148,0.070,0.148). The integrated intervention to breakfast and the following light exposure might be effective for evening-typed Japanese students to be shifted to be more morning-typed only within 2-4 weeks.
Subjective congruence between pitch shift of a sound and moving pictures consisting of vertical, horizontal and size transformation was examined by rating experiments for Japanese, Korean, and Chinese participants. The combinations of a rising image and an ascending pitch, a falling image and a descending pitch, an enlarging image and an ascending pitch, and a reducing image and a descending pitch created high congruence between moving pictures and sounds. In particular, the combinations of a rising image and an ascending pitch, and a reducing image and a descending pitch had a strong effect. The horizontal transformation was less effective to create congruence than the other two transformations.