The purpose of this study was to compare the characteristics of ADL ability among disabled older adult groups : G1 did not use assisting devices for movement ; G2 used a stick or a walker ; G3 used a wheelchair ; G4 could not move. ADL ability level of G1 was higher than the other 3 groups. In G1, upper liImbs ability level was lower than other activities. G2 could achieve manual activities as well as G1, but was inferior in lower limb activities to G1. G3 was inferior in lower limb activities, excretion, and eating compared to G2.G4 could achieve only the most basic activities,
The purpose of this study was to investigate the structure of psycho-social factors regarding the image of illness. Self-report questionnaires to patients and physicians were administered and the were analyzed statistically. The subjects results were informed of the purpose of the study and consented to participate in. There were 101 subjects. 77 hematological disease patients and 24 of their physicians-in-charge. The survey was conducted from December 1994 to October 1995. According to path analysis, there were the following findings: (1) the depression of the patients was influenced directly by the distress of the symptoms and the image of the illness, (2) the distress of the symptoms, the interpersonal dependent behavior and the perceived emotional support from the physicians influenced patients'depression indirectly through the image of the illness, and (3) patients'perceived emotional support from physicians tended to be influenced negatively by the distress of symptoms and positively by the physician's sense of esteem for others.
We proposed a new interface that have two areas. One is called the input area which is located on the right and left sides of the display. The orther is called the guide area which is located on the central part of the display. The guide area is useful for search of the position of a desired character. We could almost distinguish between non-input and input-fixations. However the distinction was not perfect. So we investigated characteristic of non-input and input fixations'duration, saccadic duration and saccadic amplitude. We also investigated the effect of the saccadic characters on distinction between non-input and input fixations. We found non-input and input fixations. were almost able to separate by their duration. We suggested that it was effective for the distinction to use the saccadic characters.
The effects of the materials and the yarn structures for active sportswear on thermoregulatory responses were compared among the four samples (polyester / cotton=100 / 0% or 50 / 50%). The subjects wearing T-shirt and short-pants ran on a treadmill with 60%Vo_2max for 30min with a wind (3m / sec) at 32℃, 70%RH. The rise of body temperature during the exercise was lowest in the T-shirt of E_1 fabric, made of polyester yarn which composed of a heavy-denier filament covered about 80% by fine filaments, which we have previously estimated the most desirable using a simulation method. The skin temperature, the clothing microclimate temperature and the humaidity of clothing microclimate were also lowest in E_1 T-shirt. The subjects also confirmed that E_1 T-shirt was the most comfortable. It was concluded that the material and yarn structure affects human thermoregulation.
The present study was carried out to examine the hypothesis that ocular surface temperature measured at the site over the iris by an infrared radiation thermometer could be an indication of core body temperature. In healthy young subjects, ocular surface (T_<os>), tympanic(T_<ty>), esophageal(T_<es>), mean skin(T^-_<sk>) temperatures, and local sweating rates and skin temperature of the forehead(T_<sf>) were measured in a chamber controlled at a moderate climate of 28℃-40%(rh) on two separate tests, a passive body warming and an exercise. The passive body warming was induced by immersion of lower limbs in hot water bath regulated 43℃. The moderate exercise was performed with cycle ergometer at the intensity of 80 W. In both tests, T_<os> didn't follow either core (T_<ty>, T_<es>) or shell (T^-_<sk>, T_<sf>) body temperatures. In the second series of experiments, ambient temperature (T_<am>) was raised from 27℃ to 34℃, or lowered from 34℃ to 27℃ for 10 min. In both tests, T_<os> followed the change of (T_<am>) rapidly in spite of the steady T_<ty>, and the change rates of T_<os> were greater than of T_<sf>. When T_<am> was raised slowly from 20℃ to 23℃ for 20 min, the T_<os> rise was almost simultaneous with the T_<am> rise, and there was a high correlation between these two factors (r=0.99). Moreover, the regional thermograms around eyes showed that skin temperature surrounding eyes was significantly higher than T_<os> (p<0.01). These results suggest that ocular surface temperature measured by an infrared radiation thermometer might reflect corneal temperature rather than iris temperature, and could not be an indication of core temperature.
The purposes of this study were to select the crude drugs of the medicated baths calendar for each of the twelve months of the year, and to clarify the physiological responses of this medicated baths. To ultimately establish a set of crude drugs for use in medicated baths, the history and make-up of medicated baths were researched and the characteristics of seasonal events were investigated. Next, characteristics of crude drugs particular to each Japanese season that would affect baths and formulation our bath drugs using readily accessible materials were sought. The result was an assortment of crude drugs specifically designed for effectiveness throughout the year. In experiments, skin temperatures, blood flow, and amounts of perspiration were monitored. The findings revealed that the medicated baths were highly effective in keeping the skin temperature high in that they caused a little decrease in mean skin temperature over a period of time and a longer period of perspiration in comparison to normal bath. These medicated baths were also found to increase the amound of blood flow and the secretion of nor adrenaline, making the drugs a notably more effective promoter of blood circulation than normal bath. The results proved the medicated baths to be beneficial, healthy bathing methods.