In order to develop a system for evaluating the allergenicity of drugs in clinical use, we tested drugs for the ability to induce drug-specific immune responses in guinea pigs and mice. Test drugs were benzylpenicillin, procainamide, hydralazine, isoniazid, α-methyldopa, D-penicillamine, captopril, sulfamethoxazole and 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), which are known to induce allergic responses in man including hypersensitivity reactions and drug-induced auto-immune responses. Guinea pigs were immunized with an emulsion of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) and 25 mg of each drug. Mice were immunized with an emulsion of CFA and 2 mg of each drug or a mixture of aluminum hydroxide gel and 2 mg of each drug. In order to examine drug-specific immune responses, we employed detection of antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis tests, active systemic anaphylaxis (ASA) tests and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) tests. In guinea pigs, drug-specific antibodies were detected following immunization with benzylpenicillin, procainamide, hydralazine, isoniazid, captopril, sulfamethoxazole or DNCB. Some of these drugs were also positive in DTH tests and/or ASA tests. In mice, however, only DNCB gave positive results. Therefore, our system involving immunization of guinea pigs with CFA emulsion of a drug and detection of drug-specific immune responses is considered to be an effective test method for evaluating drug allergenicity.
The effect of estrogen on plasma membrane was investigated using the primary cultured rat hepatocytes treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and the isolated plasma membrane of rat liver. 17 β-Estradiol (E2), at concentrations of 10-10M to 10-4M, 10-8M to 10-6M and 10-12M to 10-4M, had an inhibitory effect on the CCl4-induced leakage of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase, respectively from primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Diethylstilbestrol, which caused inhibition at a dose of 10-4, did not inhibit any enzyme leakage ;at any further concentrations of 10-12M to 10-6M. In the isolated plasma membrane of rat liver, Mg2+- and Na+, K+- adenosine triphosphatase activity was increased by E2 treatment at concentrations of 10-6M and 10-4M.
Alterations of tyrosine hydroxylase activity in various regions of brain from rats postnatally exposed to lead were tested. Three groups of animals were prepared; (1) Rats exposed to lead at a low dose (0.05 % lead acetate, PbAc) ; (2) Rats exposed to lead at a high dose (0.2 % PbAc) ; (3) Age-matched normal control rats. At 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age, weight of brain and body, and concentrations of lead in whole brain of animals in each group were measured. Activities of tyrosine hydlroxylase and Na+-K+ ATPase were also measured at the same ages in 4 brain regions of each animal. Body weight gain was decreased after 6 weeks of age in rats exposed to lead at a high dose. Concentrations of lead in whole brain were increased from 0.37 to 0.83 (ng/mg wet tissue) in these animals. Exposure of rats to lead generally increased tyrosine hydroxylase activity and decreased Na+-K+ ATPase activity. However, changes of tyrosine hydroxylase activity were detected without concomitant changes of Na+-K+ ATPase activity in pons-medulla at 2 weeks of age and telencephalon at 6 weeks of age in rats exposed to lead at a low dose, and in midbrain at 4 and 6 weeks of age in rats exposed to lead at a high dose. These data imply that catecholaminergic nervous system in the brain regions described above could be selectively affected by lead.
Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) was administered intravenously in a single dose to rats (400μg/kg) and in a single and repeated doses to dogs (40μg/kg). Severe leukopenia was observed in both species. The leukopenia in rats was due to a decreased number of both lymphocytes and neutrophils while the leukopenia in dogs was mainly due to a decreased number of neutrophils. The rats recovered from leukopenia much faster than the dogs. The dog which received a single injection developed focal fibrosis in the lungs, Rats showed only slight localized hemorrhage in the lungs, although the rats received a ten-fold larger dose of PMA than the dogs. Lungs of dogs which received multiple injections revealed severe hemorrhage lesions in most alveoli. Lung lesions induced by PMA are thought to be mediated by activated leukocytes. This suggests that the severity of lung lesion correlates with the degree and duration of neutropenia. In conclusion, intravenous administration of PMA caused lung damage in rats and dogs. However, rats show much less sensitivity to PMA than dogs, resulting from the different response of leukocytes to PMA.
The appropriate conditions for the plaque forming cell (PFC) assay using rat splenocytes were determined and effects of cyclophosphamide on PFC response were investigated using these conditions. The number of PFCs produced by immunization with a suspension of sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) was higher with i. v. injection than with i. p. injection. Subcutaneous injection of the suspension did not produce PFCs. The highest PFC response was observed when the number of PFCs was determined 4 days after i. v. immunization with 0.5 ml of a 1% SRBC suspension. Cyclophosphamide (3, 10, 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) dose-dependently decreased PFC response under the above-mentioned optimal conditions; and decreased PFC responses were noted even at the very low dose of 3 mg/kg : a dose at which a decrease in the number of PFCs has not been reported in studies using mice. From these results, the appropriate conditions for the PFC assay in rats are considered to be i. v. immunization with 0.5 ml of a 1% SRBC suspension and determination of the number of PFCs 4 days after immunization. Furthermore, it is considered that the PFC assay using rats might be more sensitive to immunosuppressive agents than that using mice.
Carcinogenicity of 1-nitropyrene (NP) oxides (1-NP 4, 5-oxide and 1-NP 9, 10-oxide) and related chemicals (1-NP and 1-nitro-6-hydroxypyrene) was examined in the newborn mouse model by i.p. administration at 1, 8, 15 days after birth (each chemical was given at a total dose of 700 nmol per mouse). Low incidences of hepatocellular neoplasms were recognized in male mice exposed to either of these chemicals. However, the incidences were not significantly different from those of animals given solvent alone or of non-treatment. Lymphoma was infrequently seen in female mice given some of tested chemicals. The incidences were also not significantly different from those of mice with the solvent alone or of the controls. The results suggest that although these aromatic hydrocarbons exert genotoxicity or mutagenicity, they may not be potent carcinogens, or the assay with use of newborn mice may be insufficient to monitor carcinogenicity of such chemicals.
The cytotoxicity of two types of nickel oxide particles was investigated in rat alveolar macrophages cultured in vitro. The trypan blue dye exclusion test and the release of lactate dehydrogenase into culture medium were used as cytotoxic indices. Although both types of nickel oxide particles were produced by the same manufacturer and were commercially sold under the same name of "nickel oxide", one type of the nickel oxide particles which had black color was much more cytotoxic than the other type of green color. The black nickel oxide particles were more soluble in various kinds of solutions than the green nickel oxide particles. Therefore, it appears that the difference in the cytotoxicity of the black and green nickel oxide particles may be attributable to the difference in the solubility of the particles.