Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is capable of metal imaging by acquiring local spatial information. However, the preparation of an appropriate standard for quantitative analysis is difficult because the matrices between the standard and the sample should match, and homogeneity of metal concentration in the standard is required. Hence, the aim of this study was to establish a highly quantitative mercury imaging method that utilizes LA-ICP-MS and an appropriate mercury standard consisting of rat tissue. Our standard showed homogeneous mercury concentration and good linearity between concentration and signal intensity, and met the qualifications for quantitative imaging by LA-ICP-MS. Mercury concentration in MeHg-exposed rat kidneys obtained by LA-ICP-MS measurement of the standard (7.84 ± 0.57 µg/g) was comparable to that obtained by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS, 7.27 ± 0.46 µg/g). The results indicate that LA-ICP-MS enabled quantitative imaging with the appropriate standard.
Cardiovascular complications have been well documented as the downside to conventional cancer chemotherapy. As a notable side effect of cisplatin (CDDP), cardiotoxicity represents a major obstacle to the successful treatment of cancer. It has been reported that Salvianolic acid B (SalB) possesses cardioprotective quality. However, the effect of SalB on cardiac damage caused by conventional cancer chemotherapy remains unclear. In this study, we clarified the protective effect of SalB on cisplatin-induced heart injury. Furthermore, in H9c2 cells, SalB dramatically reduced cisplatin-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress by modulating the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway. In conclusion, SalB had great potential in mitigating cisplatin-induced cardiac injury. Furthermore, more attention should be placed on natural active compounds containing SalB with antioxidant effects for the treatment of cardiomyopathy.
Objective: To seek out the effect of curcumin on cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages and clarify its specific mechanism. Methods: THP-1 macrophages were cultured with curcumin at different concentrations, followed by detection of the toxicity of curcumin to cells utilizing CCK-8 assay. Following culturing with serum-free ox-LDL, THP-1 macrophages were transfected with mi-miR-125a-5p, or in-miR-125a-5p, or pcDNA3.1-SIRT6, or si-SIRT6 for 24 hr, prior to treatment with curcumin at different concentrations. Oil red O staining was applied to examine the formation rate of foam cells, the kits were used for measuring intracellular lipid content of THP-1 macrophages, and the fluorescence detection kit for observing the cholesterol efflux rate. The expressions of miR-125a-5p, SIRT6, and ABCA1 were assayed by qRT-PCR and Western blot. ELISA was adopted to assess the contents of TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1. The interaction between miR-125a-5p and SIRT6 was evaluated by dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. Results: The optimal dosage of curcumin could reduce foam cell formation and intracellular lipid content, and promote cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages. Meanwhile, curcumin markedly suppressed the expression of miR-125a-5p and upregulated the expression of SIRT6. MiR-125a-5p negatively targeted SIRT6. Overexpression of SIRT6 partially reversed the inhibition role of miR-125a-5p mimic in the biological function of curcumin. Silencing of SIRT6 could partially reverse the effect of the miR-125a-5p inhibitor on the biological function of curcumin. Conclusion: urcumin could promote cholesterol efflux of THP-1 macrophages through miR-125a-5p/SIRT6 axis and regulate the expression of ABCA1.
Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (SCMC) is an important absorbable biomaterial for anti-adhesion and hemostasis medical devices used in the abdominal cavity. However, the systemic toxicity of SCMC following intraperitoneal route has not been revealed sufficiently. Three SCMC solutions with gradient concentrations were intraperitoneally injected into 3 groups of rats with the doses of 50 mg/kg, 320 mg/kg and 2000 mg/kg respectively all at once to observe the dose-dependence of systemic reactions of SCMC and 10 rats (5 rats per sex) of each group were sacrificed 3 days, 7 days, 28 days and 90 days after injection to evaluate the time-dependence of the reactions. A range of adverse effects were shown in rats of the high-dose group which were found varied with time extending and virtually disappeared 90 days after injection. Slight reactions were observed in the medium-dose group while negligible effects were found in the low-dose group. The intraperitoneal application of SCMC can induce reversible systemic adverse effects to rats at the dose higher than 320 mg/kg and it is essential to take both dose- and time-dependent effects into account while designing a systemic toxicity study for absorbable biomaterials.
There has been an increased demand to eliminate animal experiments and to replace the experiments with alternative tests for assessing the safety of cosmetics. The SH test is an in vitro skin sensitization test that evaluates the protein binding abilities of a test substance. Skin sensitization must be evaluated by multiple test methods. The SH test uses the same cell line and measuring instruments as the human Cell-Line Activation Test (h-CLAT), which is one of the test methods used to evaluate different key events and is listed in the OECD test guidelines. There are cost advantages to usher the SH test into facilities that are already running the h-CLAT. The SH test is conducted only at a facility that has developed the SH test because studies on the between-facility reproducibility and validity have not been performed. Therefore, to verify the transferability of the SH test and the between-facilities reproducibility, we evaluated the reproducibility of the SH test results at three facilities, including the development facility. After an initial round of testing, the protocol was refined as follows to improve reproducibility among the three facilities: i) determine the optimum pH range, ii) change the maximum applicable concentration of water-soluble substances, and iii) define the appropriate dispersion conditions for evaluating hydrophobic substances. These refinements markedly enhanced the between-facility reproducibility (from 76.0% to 96.0%) for the 25 substances evaluated in this study. This study confirmed that the SH test is an effective skin sensitization test method with high technical transferability and between-facility reproducibility.
Modulation of the blood coagulation fibrinolytic system is an essential function of vascular endothelial cells. Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) are major fibrinolytic regulatory proteins synthesized by vascular endothelial cells; fibrinolytic activity is dependent on the balance between these proteins. Previously, we have reported that cadmium, an initiator of ischemic heart disease, induces PAI-1 expression and suppresses fibrinolytic activity in cultured human vascular endothelial cells. However, the key molecules involved in cadmium-induced PAI-1 induction remain unclear. Herein, we investigated the contribution of Smad2 and Smad3, transcriptional factors involved in PAI-1 induction via transforming growth factor-β, using the human vascular endothelial cell line EA.hy926 cells in culture. Our findings indicated that cadmium induces PAI-1 expression without affecting t-PA expression up to 20 µM, a non-cytotoxic concentration, and PAI-1 induction by cadmium is partly mediated via Smad2 and Smad3. This study provides a possible mechanism underlying cadmium-induced vascular disorders.