Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) is the most widely used organophosphorus flame retardant, which is now used instead of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). TDCPP has frequently been detected in inorganic environmental matrices, such as soil, water and air as well as biota. In vitro effects of TDCPP on cells had not been previously elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, cytotoxicity, DNA damage, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis caused by TDCPP was studied in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. TDCPP reduced viability of RAW264.7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner and caused damage to DNA that was detected by use of the comet assay and caused up-regulation of the level of γ-H2AX. TDCPP increased the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in RAW264.7 cells up to 1.44-fold compared to the control group at 12 hr. Percentages of cells in G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle were dose-dependently greater in cells exposed to TDCPP. TDCPP significantly down-regulated expression of CDK-4, Cyclin D1, Cyclin B1, CDC-2, which are regulators of G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle. These results demonstrated that TDCPP is cytotoxic and damages DNA in RAW264.7 cells, which resulted in arrest of the cell cycle at G1 and G2 phases and resulted in apoptosis, suggest the necessity to evaluate the effects of TDCPP on the immune system at the cellular level.
A high incidence of positive results is obtained with in vitro genotoxicity tests, which do not correlate with the in vivo negative results in many cases. To address this issue, the metabolic profile of rat liver 9000 × g supernatant fraction (S9) pretreated with phenobarbital (PB) and 5,6-benzoflavone (BNF) was characterized. Furthermore, the in vitro micronucleus tests of 10 compounds were performed with PB-BNF-induced rat S9. PB-BNF increased cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity and CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B1/2, CYP2C6, CYP3A1, and CYP3A2 expression in rat S9, whereas it decreased CYP2C11 and CYP2E1 expression. PB-BNF-induced S9 enhanced the micronucleus induction (MI) of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), cyclophosphamide (CPA), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine hydrochloride (PhIP), which are metabolized by CYP1A1, CYP2C6, and CYP1A2, respectively. In contrast, coumarin and chlorpheniramine showed MI with PB-BNF-induced S9 despite the fact that they show negative results in the in vivo studies. Furthermore, diclofenac, piroxicam, lansoprazole, and caffeine showed MI regardless of the enzyme induction by PB-BNF, whereas phenacetin did not show MI. These results indicate that PB-BNF-induced rat S9 is effective in detecting the genotoxic potential of promutagens, such as BaP, CPA, and PhIP, but not of coumarin and chlorpheniramine, probably due to the differences in the in vitro and in vivo metabolic profile and its exposure levels of the drugs.
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are increasingly utilized in a number of applications. This study was designed to investigate AgNPs induced cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat tracheal epithelial cells (RTE). The RTE cells were treated with 0, 100 μg/L and 10,000 μg/L of the AgNPs with diameters of 10 nm and 100 nm for 12 hr. The cell inhibition level, apoptosis ratio, reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and metallothionein (MT) content were determined. The mRNA expression of cytoc, caspase 3, and caspase 9 was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In addition, we also analyzed the cytoc, caspase 3, pro-caspase 3, caspase 9, and pro-caspase 9 protein expression by western blotting. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) analysis showed that the growth and proliferation of RTE cells were significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner under AgNPs exposure. The cell dynamic changes induced by 10 nm AgNPs were more severe than that of the 100 nm AgNPs exposure group. The intracellular MT, ROS, and MDA content increased when the exposure concentration increased and size reduced, whereas Ca2+-ATPase activity and Na+/K+-ATPase activity changed inversely. The relative expression of protein of cytoc, caspase 3, and caspase 9 were upregulated significantly, which indicated that AgNPs induced apoptosis of RTE cells through the caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathway. Our results demonstrate that AgNPs caused obvious cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in RTE cells, which promoted the releasing of cytochrome C and pro-apoptotic proteins into the cytoplasm to activate the caspase cascade and finally led to apoptosis.
The aim of this study was to explore the role of the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing (NLRP3) inflammasome and autophagy in Astragaloside IV (AS IV)-mediated protection against cisplatin-induced liver and kidney injury in rats. Rats were intraperitoneally administered cisplatin at a dose of 15 mg/kg and orally administered AS IV for 7 days. Histopathological and biochemical analysis were used to assess liver and kidney function. The levels and localization of NLRP3 and autophagy-associated protein were determined by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Intraperitoneal administration of cisplatin induced acute liver and kidney injury, and activated the NLRP3 inflammasome. Oral administration of AS IV for 7 days protected against the cisplatin-induced injury, and inhibited the expression of NLRP3, as well as the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, cisplatin modulated the conversion of LC3 II and the expression of p62, thereby inhibiting autophagy and the activation of NLRP3. AS IV effectively protected against cisplatin-induced injury by inducing autophagy and limiting the expression of NLRP3. Autophagy-mediated NLRP3 inhibition might play a crucial role in AS IV-mediated protection against cisplatin-induced toxicity. These results provide evidence of a novel therapeutic that may be used to alleviate the toxic effects of platinum-based chemotherapy.
Recent studies have shown that sevoflurane can cause long-term neurotoxicity and learning and memory impairment in developing and progressively neurodegenerative brains. Sevoflurane is a widely used volatile anesthetic in clinical practice. Late gestation is a rapidly developing period in the fetal brain, but whether sevoflurane anesthesia during late gestation affects learning and memory of offspring is not fully elucidated. Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) plays an important regulatory role in learning and memory. This study examined the effect of maternal sevoflurane exposure on learning and memory in offspring and the underlying role of HDAC2. The Morris water maze (MWM) test was used to evaluate learning and memory function. Q-PCR and immunofluorescence staining were used to measure the expression levels of genes related to learning and memory. The results showed that sevoflurane anesthesia during late gestation impaired learning and memory in offspring rats (e.g., showing increase of the escape latency and decrease of the platform-crossing times and target quadrant traveling time in behavior tests) and upregulated the expression of HDAC2, while downregulating the expression of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) and the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2 subunit B (NR2B) mRNA and protein in the hippocampus of offspring in a time-dependent manner. HDAC2 inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) treatment alleviated all of these changes in offspring rats. Therefore, the present study indicates that sevoflurane exposure during late gestation impairs offspring rat’s learning and memory via upregulation of the expression of HDAC2 and downregulation of the expression of CREB and NR2B. SAHA can alleviate these impairments.
Exposure to organic mercury, especially methylmercury (MeHg), causes Minamata disease, a severe chronic neurological disorder. Minamata disease predominantly affects the central nervous system, and therefore, studies on the mechanisms of MeHg neurotoxicity have focused primarily on the brain. Although the peripheral nervous system is also affected by the organometallic compound and shows signs of neural degeneration, the mechanisms of peripheral MeHg neurotoxicity remain unclear. In the present study, we performed quantitative immunohistochemical analyses of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and associated sensory and motor fibers to clarify the mechanisms of MeHg-induced peripheral neurotoxicity in Wistar rats. Methylmercury chloride (6.7 mg/kg/day) was orally administrated for 5 days, followed by 2 days without administration, and this cycle was repeated once again. Seven and 14 days after the beginning of MeHg exposure, rats were anesthetized, and their DRGs and sensory and motor nerve fibers were removed and processed for immunohistochemical analyses. The frozen sections were immunostained for neuronal, Schwann cell, microglial and macrophage markers. DRG sensory neuron somata and axons showed significant degeneration on day 14. At the same time, an accumulation of microglia and the infiltration of macrophages were observed in the DRGs and sensory nerve fibers. In addition, MeHg caused significant Schwann cell proliferation in the sensory nerve fibers. In comparison, there was no noticeable change in the motor fibers. Our findings suggest that in the peripheral nervous system, MeHg toxicity is associated with neurodegenerative changes to DRG sensory neurons and the induction of a neuroprotective and/or enhancement of neurodegenerative host response.
This study was aimed to predict drug-induced liver injury caused by reactive metabolites. Reactive metabolites covalently bind to proteins and could result in severe outcomes in patients. However, the relation between the extent of covalent binding and clinical hepatotoxicity is still unclear. From a perspective of body burden (human in vivo exposure to reactive metabolites), we developed a risk assessment method in which reactive metabolite burden (RM burden), an index that could reflect the body burden associated with reactive metabolite exposure, is calculated using the extent of covalent binding, clinical dose, and human in vivo clearance. The relationship between RM burden and hepatotoxicity in humans was then investigated. The results indicated that this RM burden assessment exhibited good predictability for sensitivity and specificity, and drugs with over 10 mg/day RM burden have high-risk for hepatotoxicity. Furthermore, a quantitative trapping assay using radiolabeled trapping agents ([35S]cysteine and [14C]KCN) was also developed, to detect reactive metabolite formation in the early drug discovery stage. RM burden calculated using this assay showed as good predictability as RM burden calculated using conventional time- and cost-consuming covalent binding assays. These results indicated that the combination of RM burden and our trapping assay would be a good risk assessment method for reactive metabolites from the drug discovery stage.
The human cell line activation test (h-CLAT) is a skin sensitization test that measures the expression of cell surface proteins CD86 and CD54 to evaluate the skin sensitization potential of test chemicals. However, some skin irritants have been reported to induce dramatically high CD54 expression leading to false-positive h-CLAT results. Furthermore, CD54 expression is strongly induced by cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, or danger signals that activate its signaling pathways. In this study, we focused on the relationship between CD54 expression and the Nucleotide binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, a protein complex that plays a pivotal role in intra-cellular inflammation. We observed the activation of caspase-1 and production of IL-1β after exposure of THP-1 cells to 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB, sensitizer), octanoic acid (OA, non-sensitizer), and salicylic acid (SA, non-sensitizer), implying NLRP3 activation. These observations confirmed the activation of the inflammasome by CD54-only positive chemicals. CD54 expression, induced by OA and SA, was suppressed by potassium chloride, a typical inhibitor of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. These results suggested that the NLRP3 inflammasome may be activated in THP-1 cells resulting in the expression of CD54, and subsequently leading to false-positive results.