Dithiocarbamate propineb and maneb are organometal fungicides, which are widely used for the control of diseases in plants. Female Wistar rats were exposed orally to 200 and 400 ppm propineb (Zn-containing dithiocarbamate) and 250 ppm maneb (Mn-containing dithiocarbamate), from the 6th day of gestation up to birth. We found that the body weights of both newborn litters and their fungicide-treated mothers were lower than those of controls. Histological examination of the livers of fungicide-treated pregnant females and the offspring showed a variety of histopathological effects. Moreover, the analysis of Zn and Mn concentrations in the livers of pregnant females exposed to organometallic fungicides during pregnancy demonstrated that the metal concentrations in the liver were higher than those of controls. Similarly, the hepatic metal concentrations were significantly increased in the litters, indicating the transplacental passage of the organometallic fungicides.
The mutagenicity of 4-phenyl-1, 3-dithia-2-thioxo-cycLopent-4-ene (DT827B) was examined in reverse mutation tests using Salmonella tryphimurium and Escherichia coli, in the chromosomal aberration test with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and in the micronucleus test using mice bone-marrow. In reverse mutation assay on DT827B according to Ames' method, DT827B was not mutagenic to S. tryphimurium or E. coli when tested in dimethylsulfoxide to the limit of its solubility where precipitation occurred. In chromosomal aberration assay using CHO cells, DT827B was not clastogenic to induce structural chromosomal aberration but capable of inducing polyploidy. In micronucleus test, DT827B did not show micronucleus-inducing potential at the maximum dose. In conclusion of the three mutagenicity studies, DT827B was considered to cause no mutagenicity under the conditions used in the present experiments except the increase in polyploidy, which probably is due to a toxic effect of the compound.
In the present collaborative study, popliteal lymph node (PLN) responses to penicillin G (an allergenic chemical), D-penicillamine (an autoimmunity-inducing chemical), and barbital (a negative reference chemical) were investigated in three different mouse strains by ten pharmaceutical companies. Two inbred mouse strains (BALB/c and A/J) and one outbred strain (ICR) were subcutaneously injected with saline solutions containing penicillin G (1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/mouse), D-penicillamine (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/mouse), or barbital (2 mg/mouse) into one hind footpad and saline only was injected into the contralateral footpad. PLN cellularity indices were determined on day 7. In the three strains tested, the penicillin G and D-penicillamine injections resulted in approximately dose-dependent responses. In contrast, barbital failed to generate a significant PLN reaction. In the typical data from one of the participating laboratories, the PLN responses of A/J, BALB/c, and ICR to penicillin G were high, intermediate and low, respectively, while their PLN responses to D-penicillamine were all high. Some variation in PLN cellularity indices was observed among the participating laboratories, but reproducibility of the popliteal lymph node assay (PLNA) evaluation was partly confirmed. Although the appropriate selection of mouse strains and drug dosage levels has to be considered, these results suggest that the PLNA may be an appropriate screening system for prediction of the allergic or autoimmunity-inducing potentials of low-molecular-weight drugs.
The skin toxicities of propranolol were studied in guinea pigs. In the primary and cumulative skin irritation studies, the skin reactions and the histopathological changes were observed in all animals treated with propranolol, and those tended to increase with the increase of propranolol dosage. The skin reactions increased with the application times of propranolol up to 7 days in the cumulative skin irritation study. In the skin sensitization, the phototoxicity and the skin photosensitization studies, no skin reactions were observed in any animals used in the studies. These results indicate that propranolol caused skin irritation, but was negative for skin sensitization, phototoxicity and skin photosensitization in guinea Pigs.
This study aims to determine the pH that peripheral veins can tolerate. Intravenous nutrient solutions with different pHs (from 4.25 to 6.71) were infused into rabbit ear veins, and the veins were examined histopatologically. After 6-hr infusion at 10 mL/kg/hr, a commercial 2.72% amino acid/7.5% glucose solution with electrolytes (AG) caused obvious phlebitic changes, such as loss of venous endothelial cells, inflammatory cell infiltration, and perivascular edema, in all 6 rabbits because of its low pH (4.52) and high titratable acidity (22 mEq/L). The phlebitis was reduced when the solution was neutralized with NaOH to pH 5.93, and was almost eliminated when the pH was neutralized to 6.49. After 8-hr infusion at 15 mL/kg/hr, AF-adjusted pH to 6.30 caused slight phlebitic changes, but AG-adjusted pH to 6.71 scarcely caused any change. Furthermore, 24-hr infusion of the pH 6.49 solution caused no histopathological changes in 3 rabbits. These results suggest that the tolerance pH for the peripheral vein is about 6.5, and that an infusion solution does not cause phlebitis due to acidity if the pH is not lower than the tolerance pH.
The sensitivities of three skin sensitization tests such as the Guinea pig maximization test (GPMT), Adjuvant and patch test (APT) and Buehler test (BT), were quantitatively compared with reference to induction and challenge concentrations. Four chemicals which had different physico-chemical properties (octanol-water partition coefficient (logP) and reactivity with NH2-group) were used in order to clarify the effect of the physico-chemical properties of chemicals on the sensitivity of the different methods. The induction concentrations inducing a 50% positive response (IC50) demonstrated extreme variation with the three methods. For example, the BT/GPMT ratio of IC50 values for 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene was 33, whereas that for maleic anhydride was 300, 000. The results were thought to be caused by difference properties such as the logP and reactivity of chemicals. This correlation was confirmed by using 2-dodecen-1-yl succinic anhydride, which had the same reactivity but higher logP than that of maleic anhydride. On the other hand, the challenge concentrations inducing 50% positive responses (CC50) were less affected by the methods and the BT/GPMT ratios for CC50 values were all within a 10-fold range. These results suggest that the sensitivity might be strongly different with reference to induction concentration, but not challenge concentration among the three methods.
In order to examine the influences by long-term feeding of 24R, 25 dihydroxyvitamin D3[24R, 25(OH)2D3], an active form of vitamin D, Wistar rats (14-week-old, male, 20 rats/group) were fed a powder diet containing 0 or 5 ppm 24R, 25(OH)2D3 for 57 weeks. Final body weights and total food consumption were comparable between the groups. Urinary calcium levels were significantly (p<0.05 or 0.01) increased by the administration of 24R, 25(OH)2D3 at weeks 3, 22 and 56, although the levels of serum calcium did not differ between the groups at the termination of week 57. In the 24R, 25(OH)2D3 group, weights of the adrenals and femurs were significantly (p<0.01) increased. Histopathologically this was found due to thickening of cortical bone in the femurs, and medullary hyperplasia and pheochromocytoma of the adrenals. Immunohistochemically, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-labeling indices for intact adrenal medulla, medullary hyperplasia and pheochromocytoma in the 24R, 25(OH)2D3 group were respectively 1.82±1.21, 5.88±4.13 and 16, all higher than that for the adrenal medulla in the control group (0.87±0.67). These results indicate that 24R, 25(OH)2D3 at a dose with which serum calcium is not chronically increased causes thickening of the cortex of the femur, and development of adrenal proliferative lesions, suggesting that rats may be too sensitive for results to be relevant to human risk assessment.