Effect of glutathione (GSH) depletion on paraquat (PQ) toxicity in the liver and kidneys of mice was examined. Glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels in plasma of mice were hardly changed by treatment with 150 μmol/kg of PQ. However, significant increases in the plasma GPT and BUN levels after PQ injection were observed in mice which were pretreated with L-buthionine-SR-sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of GSH synthesis, at 4 hr prior to PQ administration. This result supports the previous observation that hepatotoxicity of PQ was enhanced in diethyl maleate-pretreated mice (Cagen and Gibson, 1977). In the present study, lipid peroxidation evaluated by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) level in the liver of mice given PQ was elevated by pretreatment with BSO. Moreover, enhancement of PQ cytotoxicity by BSO pretreatment was also observed in cultured mouse hepatoma cell line (NCTC clone 1469). Vitamin E, an antioxidant, and Desferal, an iron chelator, significantly prevented mice from the BSO-enhanced hepato-and nephrotoxicity of PQ. These findings suggest that the tissues or cells of low GSH concentration are highly vulnerable to PQ toxicity and GSH may play a major role in diminishing the toxic action of PQ exerted through oxidative stress.
Morphologically and functionally intact human hepatocytes were isolated from small liver biopsy samples weighing about 1-2 g by initial digestion with collagenase followed by repeated digestions with trypsin. The usual yield of hepato-cytes was greater than 1 × 107 cells per g of liver sample and cell viability, as judged by dye exclusion test, was routinely over 90%. The isolated human hepatocytes showed intact morphology under scanning electron microscope. Formation of membrane protrusions upon phalloidin addition demonstrated that the actin in isolated hepatocytes was maintained with its structural integrity. The cultured human hepatocytes retained a variety of liver-specific functions which were similarly exhibited by rat hepatocytes isolated using the same procedure. The cultured human hepatocytes exhibited a specific cytochrome P-450 related enzyme activity, and active amino acid uptake that increased upon addition of hormones like glucagon and dexamethasone. Additionally, the cultured human hepatocytes synthesized DNA actively and, human serum albumin, and was found to be responsive to modulation by growth modulating hormones, cytokines and hepatotoxic agents. Based on the profile of activity described above, the presently established conditions for isolation and culturing of human hepatocytes demonstrate that functional liver cells can be obtained from small biopsied liver samples.
Optimal experimental methods for antigenicity studies in guinea pigs were investigated on : (1) the effects of different immunizing methods using complete or incomplete Freund's adjuvants (CFA or IFA), and various injection sites, the number of immunizations, the immunizing doses, and the immunizing periods, (2) the relationship between the severity of active systemic anaphylaxis (ASA) reactions and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) titers, (3) positive control for oral administration, and (4) the effects of incubation mixture of drug and serum protein as the challenge for the ASA assay. The following results provided useful information for designing more appropriate methods for antigenicity studies : (1) The optimal immunization method for benzylpeni-cillin (PcG), cephaloridine, 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and adriamycin, which were selected as positive controls for low molecular medicines in this experiment, involved subcutaneous administration of 1 ml of a test substance in CFA (1st immunization) or IFA (2nd and 3rd immunizations) at two doses, 1 and 10 mg/animal, 3 times at 2-week intervals on the back of a guinea pig. Blood collection for PCA assay was needed 2 weeks after the last immunization, and ASA assay, 1 or 2 days after the blood collection. (2) The insensitivity of ASA reactions in bovine serum albuminimmunized animals with very high PCA titers was overcome by increasing the challenge antigen dose from 1 to 10 mg/animal. (3) Most animals administered lysozyme at 0.1, 1 or l0 mg/animal by gavage for 2 weeks or more showed ASA and PCA reactions. (4) Incubation of a mixture of 20 mg/ml of PcG and 2 mg/ml of guinea pig serum albumin for 4 hr was the most effective as challenge for the induction of ASA reaction in PcG-immunized guinea pigs.
Effects of ethanol, caffeine and nicotine, pleasurable substances, on wheel-running and drinking in mice that were housed under a 12 : 12-hr light-dark schedule (lighting period ; 6:00-18:00) were investigated. All drug administrations were carried out at 11:00, a mid-light period. Although ethanol (0.8-2.4 g/kg p.o.) scarcely changed both the wheel-running and drinking during the light period, it was followed by a strong suppression of both behaviors during the coming dark period (18:00-6:00). The same treatment with caffeine (1-10 mg/kg s.c.) produced significant increase in the drinking during the light period, but suppression of the wheel-running during the dark period. Nicotine (0.1-1 mg/kg s.c.) significantly suppressed the wheel-running, but not drinking, during the dark period. The coadministration of nicotine (0.1-1 mg/kg) with ethanol (2.4 g/kg) reduced the behavioral suppression during the dark period. Whereas nicotine (0.1-1 mg/kg) reduced the increased drinking during light period by caffeine (10 mg/kg), but enhanced the caffeine-induced behavioral suppression during the dark period. These results indicate that the administration of pleasurable substances in the mid-light period results in a delayed effect which is characterized by a suppression of either and/or both wheel-running and drinking during the coming dark period starting 7 hr after the administration, and that nicotine acts to antagonize the effect of ethanol, but contrally to enhance the effect of caffeine.
Effects of pravastatin and simvastatin on the humoral immune response were studied using Cunningham's method of the IgM plaque-forming cell (PFC) assay system in mice. The vehicle (0.5% CMC), pravastatin (1 mg/body : about 50 mg/kg) or simvastatin (0.5 mg/body : about 25 mg/kg) were given orally for 14 days in experiment (Exp)-I and Exp-II. The vehicle, pravastatin (0.5 mg/body : about 25 mg/kg) or simvastatin (0.25 mg/body : about 12.5 mg/kg) were given orally 29 times for 32 days in Exp-III. There were no significant differences in the mean numbers of PFCs per 106 splenocytes between the pravastatin groups and the vehicle groups. In the simvastatin groups, however, there were significant reductions of the numbers of PFCs in Exp-I, Exp-II and Exp-III, as compared with the vehicle group. Based on these results, it was considered that suppressive effect on IgM antibody production was induced by simvastatin, whereas such a suppression was not observed with pravastatin.
Delayed neurotoxicity induced by leptophos, an organophosphorus insecticide, was intensified in hens when phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) at dose of 30, 60, and 120 mg/kg body weight was administered at different time intervals (24 hr, 3 days, and 5 days) for each dose of PMSF after the hens were exposed to 30 mg/kg (i.v.) of leptophos. The scores for organophosphorus-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) in all groups treated with 120 mg/kg PMSF were significantly higher than those in the group treated with leptophos only (P<0.05 or P<0.01) and the initial signs of OPIDN appeared 2 or 3 days earlier in the former groups than in the latter group. Further, the greater the PMSF post-treatment dose, the more severe were the signs of OPIDN. These findings indicate that post-treatment with PMSF promotes leptophosinduced OPIDN and reduces the period to OPIDN onset. We also examined the effects of various time intervals between PMSF administration and exposure to leptophos on the development of OPIDN. The OPIDN scores in the two groups of hen treated with PMSF on days 3 and 5 after leptophos exposure were high, especially the score of the 5 days treated group became significantly higher on the 18th and 19th day after leptophos administration than even that of the 24 hr treated group with PMSF (P<0.05). These findings suggest that variations in both the dose of PMSF and the time intervals of PMSF post-treatment may affect the delayed neurotoxicity induced by leptophos. Moreover, these results also indicate that PMSF should not be used for either the treatment or the prevention of OPIDN.
The mutagenicity of palm fruit carotene was examined using the reverse mutation test with bacteria, the chromosomal aberration test with mammalian cells and the micronucleus test in mice. The carotene induced neither reverse mutation in Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA1537, TA100, TA1535 and in Escherichia coli WP2uvrA, nor structural and numerical (polyploidy) chromosomal aberrations in the Chinese hamster fibroblast cell line (CHL). In addition, no increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes was elicited in the micronucleus test in CD-1(ICR) male mice. It is concluded that palm fruit carotene had no mutagenic activity in these in vitro and in vivo tests.