The Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Online ISSN : 1880-3989
Print ISSN : 0388-1350
ISSN-L : 0388-1350
Volume 19 , Issue SupplementII
Showing 1-10 articles out of 10 articles from the selected issue
  • Kyoichi ASANO, Masaya YAMANO, Kiyoshi HARUYAMA, Etuo IKAWA, Kazumasa N ...
    1994 Volume 19 Issue SupplementII Pages 131-143
    Published: October 15, 1994
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A histopathological study was performed to examine the influence of propagermanium and germanium dioxide (GeO2) on chemically induced renal lesions in rats. Animals were treated with adriamycin or mercuric chloride to induce glomerular or proximal tubular damage, and then given drinking water containing propagermanium (480 or 2, 400 ppm solution) or GeO2 (300 or 1, 500 ppm solution: equivalent to propagermanium in terms of germanium contents). The distal tubular epithelium after 8 weeks dosage with the 1, 500 ppm solution of GeO2 was characterized by vacuolization and deposits of PAS-positive material not only in adriamycin-treated rats, but also in normal rats. In contrast, propagermanium administration was not associated with any alteration in the changes induced by adriamycin or mercuric chloride. We previously clarified that propagermanium had no biochemical influence on the renal function of these renal injured rats. The histological demonstration that this compound does not exert renal toxicity, even when given at a high dosage to renal injured rats, further indicates that it would not exacerbate renal dysfunction already present. This confirms that propagermanium may be a safe compound for use in individuals with compromised kidneys.
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  • Taiji HAYASHI, Hideaki YADA, Makiko ANAI, Takaaki UMANO, Kouji KAWAZU, ...
    1994 Volume 19 Issue SupplementII Pages 145-153
    Published: October 15, 1994
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Tazobactam (TAZ) is a newly developed β-lactamase inhibitor. Tazobactam/Piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC) is a formulation consisting of TAZ and PIPC in a ratio of 1:4. Single-dose toxicity studies of TAZ/PIPC and TAZ were carried out using mice and rats of both sexes and male dogs. The results were as follows. 1. A common clinical sign in mice and rats administered TAZ/PIPC or TAZ by all routes was soft stool. Other signs in mice and rats included a decrease in spontaneous motor activity and/or a decreased respiratory rate for the intraperitoneal (i.p.), subcutaneous (s.c.) or intravenous (i.v.) route. The animals administered by the i.v. route showed tremor for mice and clonic convulsion for rats before death. Hyperemia, hemorrhage or edema of the lung, and hemorrhage of the digestive tract were observed in these animals at necropsy. An enlargement of the spleen was seen in some of the surviving animals treated with TAZ/PIPC. 2. In dogs, TAZ/PIPC caused vomiting, and TAZ caused vomiting, respiratory abnormality, soft stool and diarrhea by the intravenous (i.v.) administration. 3. TAZ/PIPC or TAZ caused clinical signs such as the loss of hair at the injection site for the s.c. route, and necrosis of the tail for the i.v. route in mice and rats, also caused limping of the injected anterior limb in dogs. Necrosis and hemorrhage at the injection site, and peritonitis by the i.p. injection Were observed at necropsy. These findings were due to the irritation of TAZ/PIPC or TAZ. 4. The LD50 values of TAZ/PIPC were as follows: more than 5, 000 mg/kg for both sexes in mice and rats by the oral (p.o.), s.c. or i.p. route; more than 5, 000 mg/kg for males, 4, 565 mg/kg for females in mice, 3, 157 mg/kg for males, 3, 992 mg/kg for females in rats and more than 5, 000 mg/kg for males in dogs by the i.v. route. The LD50 value of TAZ was more than 5, 000 mg/kg for both sexes in mice and rats by the p.o., s.c., i.p. or i.v. route and in male dogs by the i.v. route.
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  • Taiji HAYASHI, Hideaki YADA, Carol S. AULETTA, Ira W. DALY, Aleksandar ...
    1994 Volume 19 Issue SupplementII Pages 155-176
    Published: October 15, 1994
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Tazobactam (TAZ) is a newly developed β-lactamase inhibitor. Tazobactam/Piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC) is a formulation consisting of TAZ and PIPC in a ratio of 1:4. A six-month intraperitoneal repeated dose toxicity study of TAZ/PIPC and TAZ incliding a one-month recovery period were carried out using male and female rats. The doses were 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg/day for TAZ/PIPC, and 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg/day for TAZ. The results were as follows. 1. No test article-related deaths occurred during the study period. No effect on clinical finding of survival rats was evident. 2. There was no dose-related increases of food consumption in both the males and females given TAZ/PIPC and PIPC. Slight reductions in body weight gain occurred in males given 800 mg/kg/day of TAZ/PIPC. 3. Decreases in erythrocyte, hemoglobin and hematocrit, and increases in reticulocytes were seen only at study termination, in the group given 800 mg/kg/day of TAZ/PIPC. Increases in reticulocytes were seen only at study termination in the females given 80 or 160 mg/kg/day of TAZ. 4. A decrease in triglyceride levels was observed in the males given 800 mg/kg/day of TAZ/PIPC or 160 mg/kg/day of TAZ. 5. The ophthalmoscopic examination or urinalysis show no test article-related changes. 6. Enlarged ceca in all groups of animals given TAZ/PIPC and in the females given 160 mg/kg/day of TAZ were observed. 7. An increase of relative organ weight in liver was noted in the males and females given 800 mg/kg/day of TAZ/PIPC, in the males given 80 or 160 mg/kg/day of TAZ and in the females given 160 mg/kg/day of TAZ. 8. In the hepatocytes, accumulation of PAS-positive materials which was identified histochemically and ultrastructurally as glycogen, was present in the males given 800 mg/kg/day 6f TAZ/PIPC and in the males given 80 or 160 mg/kg/day of TAZ. 9. After a one-month recovery period, the changes of liver had generally disappeared, suggesting that they were reversible. 10. From the histopathlogical changes of liver, the no-toxic dose level in both the males and females was 400 mg/kg/day and 40 mg/kg/day for TAZ/PIPC and TAZ, respectively.
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  • Taiji HAYASHI, Hideaki YADA, Malcolm BLAIR, Kathryn A. LAUGHLIN, Gary ...
    1994 Volume 19 Issue SupplementII Pages 177-197
    Published: October 15, 1994
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Tazobactam (TAZ) is a newly developed β-lactamase inhibitor. Tazobactam/Piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC) is a formulation consisting of TAZ and PIPC in a ratio of 1:4. A six-month intravenous repeated dose toxicity study of TAZ/PIPC and TAZ including a one-month recovery period were carried out using male and female dogs. The doses were 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg/day for TAZ/PIPC, and 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg/day for TAZ. The results were as follows. 1. No test article-related deaths occurred during the study period. No effects on clinical findings, body weight and food consumption were evident. 2. No test article-related changes were noted in hematological, serum biochemical and urinalysis evaluations, and ophthalmological and electrocardiographic examinations. 3. There were no test article-related changes in macroscopic findings or organ weight. 4. The histopathological examination revealed deposition of marked PAS-positive aggregates in liver cells of dogs given 400 mg/kg/day or more of TAZ/PIPC and 80 mg/kg/day or more of TAZ. Electron micrographs of hepatocytes revealed glycogen granules to be accumulated in the cytoplasm, and an increase of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. 5. After a one-month recovery period, the histopathological changes had generally disappeared, suggesting that they were reversible. 6. From the histopopathological changes of liver, the no-toxic dose levels for TAZ/PIPC and TAZ were 200 mg/kg/day and 40 mg/kg/day, respectively.
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  • Toshikazu SATO, Elizabeth A. LOCHRY, Alan M. HOBERMAN, Mildred S. CHRI ...
    1994 Volume 19 Issue SupplementII Pages 199-214
    Published: October 15, 1994
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Tazobactam (TAZ) is a newly developed β-lactamase inhibitor and piperacillin (PIPC) is an antibiotics which is used in clinical field widely. The combination of TAZ and PIPC (TAZ/PIPC), which is combined with TAZ and PIPC at rate of 1:4, has been developed because of PIPC is unstable to various β-lactamases. Fertility and general reproductive performance were studied in rats given daily intraperitoneal doses of TAZ/PIPC (200, 800 or 1600 mg/kg/day) or TAZ (40, 160 or 640 mg/kg/day). TAZ/PIPC or TAZ were given during premating period (70 days in males and 15 days in females), the pairing period (in males and females) and the gestation and lactation periods (in females). Total daily doses were administered in two equally divided doses. The study includes evaluation of the F1 generation and the F2 generation through weaning. In the TAZ/PIPC, maternal toxicity (decreased food consumption) was observed at 200 mg/kg and above dosage groups. At maternotoxic doses of 800 and 1600 mg/kg groups, increased resorptions, decreased live litter size, and increased fetal variations (reversible changes in ribs) were observed. Reversible delays in ossification of caudal vertebrae were also observed at 1600 mg/kg group. In the TAZ, maternal toxicities were observed at 160 mg/kg group (decreased food consumption) and 640 mg/kg group (decreased body weight gain and food consumption). Furthermore, necropsy (raised and/or colored areas present in the cecum) revealed slight increases at 40 mg/kg and above dosage groups. Slight decreases in implantations and resultant slight decreases in live litter size, reversible delays in renal development, and increased stillbirths were observed at 640 mg/kg group. Postnatal growth and development, behavior and reproductive performance of the F1 generation were not affected by the administration of TAZ/PIPC or TAZ. There were no effects on any of the fetal or pup parameters evaluated in the F2 generation. In conclusion, mating behavior and fertility were not affected by TAZ/PIPC or TAZ in this study. TAZ/PIPC or TAZ caused adverse change in reproductive performance of the F0 generation only at doses that caused maternal toxicity. The F1 and F2 generation were not affected. Therefore, it is seemed that the non-observed effect dose levels (NOELs) of TAZ/PIPC and TAZ for parent rats is less than 200 mg/kg/day and 40 mg/kg/day in general toxicity respectively, however in reproductive ability (mating and fertility ability) of parents, NOELs of TAZ/PIPC is 1600 mg/kg/day or more and that of TAZ is 640 mg/kg/day or more, and for their offspring, NOELs of TAZ/PIPC is 200 mg/kg/day and that of TAZ is 160 mg/kg/day under the condition of this study.
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  • Toshikazu SATO, Elizabeth A. LOCHRY, Alan M. HOBERMAN, Mildred S. CHRI ...
    1994 Volume 19 Issue SupplementII Pages 215-232
    Published: October 15, 1994
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Tazobactam (TAZ) is a newly developed β-lactamase inhibitor and piperacillin (PIPC) is an antibiotics which is used in clinical field widely. The combination of TAZ and PIPC (TAZ/PIPC), which is combined with TAZ and PIPC at rate of 1:4, has been developed because of PIPC is unstable to various β-lactamases. Teratogenic potential were studied in rats given daily intravenous doses of TAZ/PIPC (625, 1250, 2500 or 3750 mg/kg/day) or TAZ (125, 500 or 3000 mg/kg/day). TAZ/PIPC or TAZ were given from day 7 to day 17 of pregnancy. Total daily doses were administered in two equally divided doses. The study includes postnatal evaluation of the growth and development and reproductive performance of the F1 generation. Maternal deaths occurred in all groups given TAZ/PIPC. The incidence (range of 3 to 6 animals/group) was not dose dependent. Maternal body weight was decreased in rats receiving 3000 mg/kg of TAZ and food consumption was reduced in all drug-treated groups. Slight decreases in fetal body weights were observed at some doses that caused maternal body-weight or food-consumption decreases (2500 or 3750mg/kg of TAZ/PIPC, 3000 mg/kg of TAZ). But these depressions of fetal body weights were not significant from control data. There were no fetal malformations or variations attributable to the test articles. Postnatal growth and development, behavior and reproductive performance of the F1 generation were not affected by the administration of TAZ/PIPC or TAZ. In conclusion, TAZ/PIPC or TAZ was not teratogenic in the rats. It is seemed that non-observed effect dose levels (NOELs) of TAZ/PIPC and TAZ for dams is less than 625 and 125 mg/kg/day in general toxicity respectively, however NOELs of TAZ/PIPC is 3750 mg/kg/day of more and that of TAZ is 3000 mg/kg/day or more for their offspring under the condition of this study.
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  • Toshikazu SATO, Alan M. HOBERMAN, Mildred S. CHRISTIAN
    1994 Volume 19 Issue SupplementII Pages 233-247
    Published: October 15, 1994
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Tazobactam (TAZ) is a newly developed β-lactamase inhibitor and piperacillin(PIPC) is an antibiotics which is used in clinical field widely. The combination of TAZ and PIPC (TAZ/PIPC), which is combined with TAZ and PIPC at rate of 1:4, has been developed because of PIPC is unstable to various β-lactamases. Perinatal and postnatal toxicity were studied in rats given daily intraperitoneal doses of TAZ/PIPC (200, 800 or 1600 mg/kg/day) or TAZ (40, 320 or 1280 mg/kg/day). TAZ/PIPC or TAZ were given from day 17 of pregnancy through day 21 of lactation. Total daily doses were administered in two equally divided doses. In this study, evaluation of the late stage of gestation, parturition, lactation and maternal behavior in adult rats and postnatal evaluation of the growth and development, and reproductive performance of the F1 generation occurred. In the TAZ/PIPC, maternal toxicity (decreased food consumption) was observed at 800 and 1600 mg/kg groups during perinatal period. A slight decreased in body weight gain during perinatal period and increased pup mortality and decreased pup weight in lactation period were observed at 1600 mg/kg group. An increase in stillbirths also was observed at 1600 mg/kg group. In the TAZ, maternal toxicity (decreased food consumption) was observed at all dosage groups during perinatal period. A decrease in body weight gain also were observed during perinatal period at 1280 mg/kg group. At maternotoxic doses of 320 and 1280 mg/kg groups, decreased pup weight were observed during lactation period. An increase in stillbirths also was observed at 1280 mg/kg group. Transient, significant decrease in pup body weights at 1280 mg/kg group in early postweaning period. No other effects occurred for the F1 generation rats. In conclusion, perinatal development and postnatal growth and development of offspring were affected only at the intermediate and high doses that caused maternal toxicity in this study. Therefore it is seemed that non-observed effect dose levels (NOELs) of TAZ/PIPC for dams is less than 200 mg/kg/day and that of TAZ is less than 40 mg/mg/day, and NOELs of TAZ/PIPC is 200 mg/kg/day and that of TAZ is 40 mg/kg/day for offspring under the condition of this study.
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  • Minoru TAKEMOTO, Kouya MATSUO, Motoharu OGURO, Yasuhide KOUCHI
    1994 Volume 19 Issue SupplementII Pages 249-262
    Published: October 15, 1994
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The antigenicity tests of Tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC), tazobactam (TAZ: β-lactamase inhibitor) and piperacillin (PIPC: penicillin antibiotic) were performed in mice and guinea pigs. The following results were obtained. 1. TAZ/PIPC, TAZ or PIPC had no immunogenicity and allergenicity in either passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) test using BALB/c and C3H/He mice or in PCA test using guinea pigs. 2. Guinea pigs sensitized with TAZ/PIPC, TAZ or PIPC showed no anaphylactic symptons in active systemic anaphylaxis (ASA) test. 3. Guinea pig PCA tests using protein conjugates as sensitizing and challenging antigens showed positive reactions. Immunological cross-reactivity tests were performed by using these conjugates in guinea pig PCA reaction. Results showed that TAZ/PIPC and PIPC cross-reacted with penicillin G (PCG) and ampicillin (ABPC), but not with cephalothin (CET) and cephmetazol (CMZ). TAZ did not cross-react with PCG, ABPC, CET or CMZ. 4. From the results of the passive hemagglutination (PHA) test, no antibody against TAZ/PIPC, TAZ or PIPC was detected. 5. In direct Coombs' test using human blood, TAZ/PIPC, TAZ, PCG and CET showed positive reactions at 20∼80, 5∼20, 80 and 10∼20 mg/ml, respectively. 6. The results of a test on in vitro covalent binding activity with human serum albumin indicated that the order of binding potency was CET>CMZ>ABPC>PCG=PIPC>TAZ under the physiological condition (pH 7.2∼7.4), and was CMZ>CET>ABPC>PIPC>TAZ>PCG under the alkaline condition (pH 10.0∼10.5), respectively.
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  • Akinobu OHUCHIDA, Akemi TANIGUTI, Yasuhide KOUCHI, Yasuhiro MAEDA, Aki ...
    1994 Volume 19 Issue SupplementII Pages 263-280
    Published: October 15, 1994
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    As a part of safety tests of tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC), the reverse mutation tests using bacteria, the chromosomal aberration tests using cultured cells and the micronucleus tests using male mice were conducted in order to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo mutagenicity of TAZ, PIPC, TAZTIPC. 1. The reverse mutation tests were carried out on TAZ, PIPC and TAZ/PIPC at dose ranges, where few antibacterial effects could be detected, using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100, TA1535, TA98 and TA1537, and Escherichia coli WR2uvrA. All of three test articles showed that no significant increases were observed in the number of colonies in all tester strains in both systems, with and without mammalian metabolic activation (S9 Mix), as compared with solvent controls. 2. The chromosomal aberration tests were carried out on these test articles using cultured Chinese hamster lung cells (CHL). The cells were treated with TAZ, PIPC or TAZ/PIPC at the doses of 2.5, 5.0 and 10 mM with and without S9 Mix. In the test of PIPC with S9 Mix, the dose of 1.25 mM was set in addition to the three doses. The incidences of structural- and numeral- aberration were 0-3% in the absence or presence of mammalian metabolic activation system, and no significant increases were observed in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations as compared with solvent controls. 3. The micronucleus tests were carried out at doses of 625∼5000 mg/kg of TAZ or TAZ/PIPC, or at 625∼2500 mg/kg of PIPC. The femoral marrow cells were sampled 48 h after administering intravenously to CD-1 male mice. The frequencies of polychromatic erythrocyte with micronuclei were 0.02∼0.17%, 0.02∼0.10% and 0.03∼0.07% in the groups treated with TAZ, PIPC and TAZ/PIPC, respectively, and no significant increases were observed with dose dependence. The results indicated that these test articles were negative in the assessment standard using the background data. 4. The present study indicates that TAZ, PIPC and TAZ/PIPC have no in vitro and in vivo mutagenic potential.
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  • Shozo NAKAMURA, Takahiro SANZEN, Shigehito NAKAGAWA, Kazuharu YOSHIDA, ...
    1994 Volume 19 Issue SupplementII Pages 281-294
    Published: October 15, 1994
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Desethyl-piperacillin (desethyl-PIPC) is an active metabolite of PIPC which was newly found in clinical field. We carried out a single intravenous toxicity study at the dosage of 2000 mg/kg, and 28-days intravenous toxicity study at the daily dosage of 400 mg/kg followed by 28-days recovery study using both sexes of rats. The following results were obtained. In the single dose toxicity study, no deaths occured in rats injected 2000 mg/kg of desethyl-PIPC, therefore it is presumed that minimal lethal dose of desethyl-PIPC is over 2000 mg/kg in both sexes. As clinical signs, decrease in locomotor activity, deep breath and loose stool were observed. In the pathological study, dilatation of cecal lumen was observed macroscopically, but no significant changes were observed histologically. In the repeated dose toxicity study, loose stool, increase in water consumption, dilatation of cecal lumen and increase in its weight were noted. These abnormal findings were considered to be due to antimicrobial activity of desethyl-PIPC. In addition, decrease in the ratio of serum γ-globulin and increase in the ratio of α1-globulin were observed, but A/G ratio was not affected. After withdrawal of desethyl-PIPC administration, these abnormal findings tended to disappear. As mentioned above, the minimal lethal dose of desethyl-PIPC is over 2000 mg/kg in the single dose toxicity study and abnormal signs were slight in the repeated dose toxicity study at the dosage of 400 mg/kg of desethyl-PIPC for 28 days in rats. It is, therefore, concluded that desethyl-PIPC is a low toxic metabolite of PIPC.
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