In control rats, the arsenic level in the spleen and blood cells was 1.59 and 10.79 μg/g wet tissue, respectively. In the kidney, lung, heart, brain, and hair, the arsenic level was lower than 1.1 μg/g wet tissue. In rats in which a pellet containing 2mg of arsenic tsioxide was implanted subcutaneously, the arsenic level in the spleen and blood cells was markedly high for at least 2 months after implantation; after 67 days of implantation, the arsenic level in the spleen and blood cells was 16.79 and 66.34 μg/g wet tissue, respectively. In the kidney, liver, lung, heart, brain, and hair, the increase in arsenic after implantation was smaller than that in the spleen. In the plasma, arsenic was not detected before and after arsenic implantation. It is concluded that arsenic implanted subcutaneously concentrates in the blood cells, possibly in the red cells, In rats.
The effect of mersalyl on the relaxation of catch by various monoamines was studied in the anterior byssal retractor muscle of Mytilus. As has already been reported, mersalyl blocked the relaxing response to indoleamines but not block that to catecholamines. The relaxations in response to catecho-amine-related compounds (dopa, octopamine, tyramine, phenylephrine, β-phenyl-ethylamine and phenylethanolamine) and hexylamine were, however, antagonized more or less effectively with mersalyl. It was suggested that the catecholamine-related compounds and hexylamine can act on relaxing nerve endings to increase neurotransmitter serotonin in the junctional clefts, and mersalyl antagonizes the relaxation in response to these compounds by blocking the serotonin.
The toxicity of 14 commercial natural dyes which are widely used as food additives in Japan was studied on Paramecium caudatum. Laccaic acid and capsanthin were found to be very toxic to Paramecium caudatum. Some of the commercially available carminic acid and crocin were also toxic. The inhibitory effect of natural food dyes on leucine aminopeptidase, acid phosphatase and esterase in vitro was proportional to the toxic effect of the dyes on the survival time of Paramecium caudatum. Analyses of the commercial natural food dyes by high performance liquid chromatography failed to identify the toxic components.
Antibody to clioquinol (5-chloro-7-iodo-8-hydroxyquinoline: CIHQ) was detected by passive hemagglutinating reaction in rabbits receiving a prolonged administration of Emaform which was once a commercial preparation of CIHQ. The antibody was shown to be in the immunoglobulin fractions by separation with a specific immunoadsorbent, and it had relatively broad antigenic specificity. The antibody was also demonstrated in sera from patients who suffered from Subacute Myelo-Optico-Neuropathy (SMON) and from normal healthy individuals. However, its titer and frequency of positive reactors in the former were higher than those in the latter, and the two groups could be differentiated each other in frequency distribution patterns of the antibody proprietors. From these results, we discussed on desirable application of sero-epidemiological study to assessment of effects of chemical pollutants on living systems.
The dose-related response of the mammary growth was studied in immature ICR-JCL female mice given 0.03 μg of estradiol per animal subcutaneously, and 0.005-1.0 mg of either of the following phenothiazines (chlorpromazine, levometh iomeprazine, promethazine, perphenazine, thioridazine and propericiazine) per 10g of body weight was given orally once a day for 9 days starting on the 5th day after ovariectomy. The right second mamma of the chest was used to compare the hypertrophic effects. All the phenothiazines used produced mammary growth in the intensity sequence of thioridazine > chlorpromazine > promethazine > propericiazine > perphenazine > levomethiomeprazine. An optimal dose of each of the phenothiazines required to produce the maximum hypetrophy of the mammary gland was examined. From the results obtained, the relationship between the side-chain moiety of the compounds and the mammary growth activity could not be revealed.
Cadmium in the liver and kidney increased with the dosage of this injection. There was a parallel relation between the increase of cadmium in the whole liver and that in the metallothionein. In the liver and kidney, zinc highly increased in the low dose group than in the high dose group. In the 5.0mg/kg group, zinc in the liver was not different from that of the control group, and about 30% of zinc in the 30, 000 g supernatant existed in the metallothionein. By the DEAE-cellulose chromatography of metallothionein, two forms of metallothionein were obtained.
Tamarind seed polysaccharide (Glyloid) was incorporated at the level of 4, 8, 12% in a standard commercial diet and fed ad lib. to male and female rats for 2 years. No significant changes were noted in the behavior, mortality, body weight, food intake, biochemical analysis of urine and blood, hematological test, organ weight and histopathological findings of rats receiving Glyloid. In all groups containing control group, spontaneous diseases with aging, such as myocardial change, nephropathy, mammary tumor (in female), pituitary tumor etc., were seen. These diseases played important role as the cause of death of the dead rats.