The Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Online ISSN : 1880-3989
Print ISSN : 0388-1350
ISSN-L : 0388-1350
Volume 22 , Issue SupplementI
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • Yasuyuki NISHIGUCHI, Masaru YOSHIDA, Mutsumi TARUI, Motokuni NAKAZAWA, ...
    1997 Volume 22 Issue SupplementI Pages 1-13
    Published: April 25, 1997
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Comparative single-dose toxicity studies of (±)-4-diethylamino-1, 1-dimethylbut-2-yn- 1-yl 2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate monohydrochloride monohydrate(NS-21), a new drug for the treatment of urinary frequency and incontinence, were conducted in ddY mice and Sprague-Dawley rats after oral(p.o.), intraperitoneal(i.p.) and subcutaneous(s.c.) administration, and in Beagle dogs after p.o. administration. The p.o. LD50 values of NS-21 were 852 and 1167 mg/kg for male and female mice, 2839 and 1739 mg/kg for male and female rats, respectively. The i.p. LD50 values were 324 and 390 mg/kg for male and female mice, and 423 and 359 mg/kg for male and female rats, respectively. No death occurred in mice and rats at doses up to s.c. 5000 mg/kg. Minimum lethal dose for dogs could not be determined because of vomiting. Mydriasis was noted in all three species tested without regard to administration route. In addition, decreased spontaneous locomotor activity, prone or lateral position, hypopnea, hypothemia, ataxic gait, twitch and clonic convulsion were observed in mice and rats after p.o. and i.p. administration. In rats, salivation was observed after p.o. administration and lacrimation was observed after p.o. and i.p. administration. After s.c. administration, scab formation at the site of injection was observed in mice and rats. In dogs, vomiting, hyperemia of both conjunctiva and oral mucosa, prone position, tremor and clonic convulsion were observed after p.o. administration. Body weight was decreased or its gain was suppressed in mice and rats without regard to administration route. Body weight and food consumption were decreased in dogs after p.o. administration. Pathological examination showed congestion of lung in dead mice and rats after p.o. and i.p. administration. Distention of small intestine was observed in dead mice and rats after p.o. administration and in sacrificed rats after p.o. administration. Adhesion between the abdominal organs was observed in sacrificed mice and rats after i.p. administration. Thymic atrophy associated with a decrease in its organ weight was observed in dogs after p.o. administration.
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  • Nobuo NISHIMURA, Junichi KOBAYASHI, Mitsuo MORO, Tomoyoshi KATSUMATA, ...
    1997 Volume 22 Issue SupplementI Pages 15-25
    Published: April 25, 1997
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    NS-21, (±)-4-diethylamino-1, 1-dimethylbut-2-yn-1-yl 2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate monohydrochloride monohydrate, is a new drug for the treatment of urinary frequency and incontinence. To evaluate acute toxicities of its related compounds including the optical isomers of NS-21 ((S)NS-21 and (R)NS-21), the active metabolite of NS-21 ((R/S)RCC-36), the optical isomers of (IVS)RCC-36 ((S)RCC-36 and (R)RCC-36), the hydrolysis products of NS-21 (RCC-32 and RCC-38) and the bi-product of NS-21(RCC-66), single-dose intraperitoneal toxicity studies were conducted in ddY mice. The LD50 values of these compounds in male and female mice were as follows: 199 and 184 mg/kg for (S)NS-21, 261 and 240 mg/kg for (R)NS-21, 74 and 100-150 mg/kg for (R/S)RCC-36, 93 mg/kg for (S)RCC-36 in both sexes, 83 and 104 mg/kg for (R)RCC-36, higher than 510 mg/kg for RCC-32 in both sexes, 340-510 mg/kg for RCC-38 in both sexes, and 1000-2000 mg/kg for RCC-66 in both sexes, respectively. The clinical signs included decreased spontaneous locomotor activity, prone or lateralposition, ataxic gait, clonic convulsion, hypopnea, hypothermia, pale skin, mydriasis, abdominal distention and unkempt fur for (S)NS-21, (R)NS-21, (R/S)RCC-36, (S)RCC-36 and (R)RCC-36, decreased spontaneous locomotor activity, prone position, ataxic gait, clonic convulsion, tail elevation and hypopnea for RCC-32 and RCC-38, and decreased spontaneous locomotor activity and unkempt fur for RCC-66. Body weight was decreased or its gain was suppressed for every compound examined. Pathological examination of the dead mice showed atrophy of the thymus and spleen, intestinal distention with the retention of dark red contents, white spots or white materials in the abdominal fatty tissue for (S)NS-21, (R)NS-21, (R/S)RCC-36, (S)RCC-36, (R)RCC-36 and RCC-66, but no treatment related change for RCC-32 and RCC-38. Adhesion between the abdominal organs was observed in survivors treated with (S)NS-21, (R)NS-21, (S)RCC-36, (R)RCC-36, RCC-32 and RCC-66.
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  • Yasuyuki NISHIGUCHI, Takahiro ADACHI, Motokuni NAKAZAWA, Takeharu TAWA ...
    1997 Volume 22 Issue SupplementI Pages 27-57
    Published: April 25, 1997
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A 13-week oral repeated dose toxicity study of (±)-4-diethylamino-1, 1-dimethylbut-2-yn-1-yl 2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate monohydrochloride monohydrate (NS-21), a new drug for the treatment of urinary frequency and incontinence, was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats. Male and female rats were given the drug orally for 13 weeks at doses of 0 (control), 6, 30, 150 and 750 mg/kg. After discontinuation of the treatment, a 5-week recovery test was also conducted at doses of 0, 30, 150 and 750 mg/kg. Nine cases of death occurred in the 750 mg/kg group. Main pathological findings in these cases were congestion and edema in lung. Mydriasis, salivation, lacrimation and a decrease in body weight or a suppression of its weight gain were seen in the 30 mg/kg group and over. Piloerection and an increase in water consumption were seen in the 150 and 750mg/kg groups. In addition, a decrease in spontaneous locomotor activity, abdominal distention, unkempt fur, soft stool, diarrhea and decreases in feces and food consumption were seen in the 750 mg/kg group. Ophthalmologic examination confirmed mydriasis and lacrimation in the 30 mg/kg group and over. Urinalysis showed decreases in Na+ and K+ excretions in the 30 mg/kg group and over, an increase in urinary protein in the 150 and 750mg/kg groups, and a decrease in urine volume in the 750 mg/kg group. Hematological examination showed decreases in hemoglobin and hematocrit in the 150 and 750 mg/kg groups, and a decrease in lymphocytes in the 750 mg/kg group. Blood chemical examination showed an increase in total protein in the 30 mg/kg group and over, a decrease in triglyceride in the 150 and 750 mg/kg groups, and an increase in BUN in the 750 mg/kg group. Pathological examination disclosed hepatocellular hyrpertrophy caused by hyperplasia of smooth-ER in the 30 mg/kg group and over, and a decrease in number of glycogen granules in the 150 and 750 mg/kg groups. Stimulated thyroid follicles were seen in the 30 mg/kg group and over. Increases in incidence and severity of chronic progressive nephropathy were observed in the 150 and 750 mg/kg groups. Ultrastructual features of the renal lesions were swelling and foot process loss of the glomerular epithelial cells, absorption droplets in the glomerular epithelial cells, increase of lysosomes in the proximal tubular cells and hyaline casts in the tubular lumen. Adrenocortical hypertrophy was seen in the 150 and 750 mg/kg groups. In the 750 mg/kg group, a decrease of hematopoietic tissue in bone marrow and thymic and testicular tubular atrophy were observed. The recovery test showed that the above-mentioned changes were satisfactorily reversible or the degree and frequency of these changes were lowered. No treatment-related effects were seen in the 6mg/kg group. These results show that the NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) of NS-21 is 6mg/kg for 13-week oral toxicity in rats.
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  • Keikou OKSAKI, Sumiaki BABA, Hiroaki IKEDA, Yutaka CHIHAYA, Shigeru SA ...
    1997 Volume 22 Issue SupplementI Pages 59-92
    Published: April 25, 1997
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A 26-week oral repeated dose toxicity study of (±)-4-diethylamino-1, 1-dimethylbut-2-yn-1-yl 2-cyclohexy1-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate monohydrochloride monohydrate (NS-21), a new drug for the treatment of urinary frequency and incontinence, was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats. Male and female rats were given the drug orally for 26 weeks at doses of 0 (control), 5, 50 and 500 mg/kg. After discontinuation of the treatment, a 9-week recovery test was also conducted. Two cases of death occurred in the 500 mg/kg group. Mydriasis, salivation and lacrimation were seen in the 50 and 500 mg/kg groups. Alopecia, a suppression of body weight gain and an increase in water consumption were seen in the 50O mg/kg group. Food consumption measurement showed no abnormalities attributable to the treatment. Ophthalmologic examination confirmed mydriasis in the 50 and 500 mg/kg groups. Urinalysis showed an increase in urine volume in the 50 and 500 mg/kg groups, and an increase in urinary protein and decreases in Na+, K+ and Cl- excretions in the 500 mg/kg group. Hematological examination showed decreases in hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV MCH, MCHC and lymphocytes in the 500 mg/kg group. Blood chemical examination showed increases in total cholesterol, phospholipid and total protein and decreases in glucose, triglyceride, free T3 and T4 in the 500 mg/kg group. Measurements of liver drug-metabolizing enzymes showed an increase in T4UDP-GT activity in the 50 and 500 mg/kg groups, and an increase in cytochrome P-450 in the 500 mg/kg group. Pathological examination disclosed hepatocellular hypertrophy caused by hyperplasia of smooth-ER in the 50 and 500 mt/kg groups, and a decrease in number of glycogen granules in the 500mg/kg group. Stimulated thyroid follicles were seen in the 50 and 500 mg/kg groups. Increases in incidence and severity of chronic progressive nephropathy were also observed in the 500 mg/kg group. In this dose group, adrenocortical hypertrophy was also observed. The recovery test showed that the above-mentioned changes were satisfactorily reversible. The serum concentrations of NS-21 and its active metabolite, RCC-36, in the treated groups were increased in a dose-dependent manner. No treatment-related effects were seen in the 5mg/kg group. These results show that the NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) of NS-21 is 5mg/kg for 26-week oral toxicity in rats.
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  • Shigenori FURUKAWA, Hachiro KOUYAMA, Mikito KIKUMORI, Yuzou TANIGUCHI, ...
    1997 Volume 22 Issue SupplementI Pages 93-124
    Published: April 25, 1997
    Released: February 21, 2008
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    Oral single-dose and 13-week repeat-dose toxicity studies of (±)-4-ethylamino- 1, 1-dimethylbut-2-yn-1-yl 2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate monohydrochloride (RCC-36), an active metabolite of (±)-4-diethylamino-1, 1-dimethylbut-2-yn-1-yl 2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate monohydrochloride monohydrate (NS-21), a new drug for the treatment of urinary frequency and incontinence, were conducted in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. In the single-dose toxicity study, rats were given the drug at doses of 0 (contol), 400, 600, 900, 1350 and 2030 mg/kg. In the 13-week repeat-dose toxicity study, rats were given the drug for 13 weeks at doses of 0 (control), 3, 30 and 300 mg/kg. After discontinuation of the treatment, a 5-week recovery test was also conducted. In the single-dose toxicity study, death occurred in the 600 mg/kg group and over, and LD%lt;50> values were 735 mg/kg in both sexes. The major clinical signs observed following the administration of this drug were mydriasis, salivation, decreased spontaneous locomotor activity, ataxic gait, lacrimation and urorrhea in the 400 mg/kg group and over hypopnea and soft feces in the 600 mg/kg group and over. In addition, prone or lateral position and tonic or clonic convulsion were observed in the dead animals. Rats showed a decrease in body weight or a suppression of its weight gain in the 400 mg/kg group and over. Macroscopic findings in the dead animals were congestion in lung and retention of foamy mucinous fluid in trachea. The animals alive showed no abnormalities attributable to the treatment. In the 13-week repeat-dose toxicity study, 13 cases of death occurred in the 300 mg/kg group. Main pathological findings in these cases were congestion and edema in lung. Mydriasis was seen in the 30 mg/kg group and over. Lacrimation, salivation, wheezing, emaciaion wasting and unkempt fur were seen in the 300 mg/kg. A suppression of body weight gain and a decrease in food consumption were observed in the 300 mg/kg group. An increase in water consumption was seen in the 30 and 300 mg/kg groups. Ophthalmologic examination confirmed the mydriasis in the 30 mg/kg group and over. Urinalysis showed an increase in urine volume and a decrease in Na+ excretion in the 30 and 300 mg/kg groups and decreases in K+ and Cl- excretions in the 300 mg/kg group. Hematological examination showed decreases in hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV and MCH, and an increase in MCHC in the 300 mg/kg group. Blood chemical examination showed decreases in triglyceride and glucose, and an increase in total protein in the 300 mg/kg group. Pathological examination disclosed hepatocellular hypertrophy associated with hyperplasia of smooth-ER, a decrease in number of glycogen granules and an increase in number of lipofuscin in the 300 mg/kg group. Stimulated thyroid follicles were seen in the 300 mg/kg/group. In kidney, an increase in number of hyaline droplets in the proximal tubular epithelium, in which lysosomes and dense bodies were increased, was observed in the 300 mg/kg group. Dense bodies were increased also in the glomerular epithelium. In this dose group, adrenocortical hypertrophy was also observed. The recovery test showed that the above-mentioned changes were satisfactorily reversible or the degree and frequency of these changes were lowered. No treatment-related effects were seen in the 3 mg/kg group. These results show that the NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) of RCC-36 is 3 mg/kg for 13-week oral toxicity in rats.
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  • Masaru YOSHIDA, Takaaki OKA, Takeharu TAWARATANI, Seitaro ISHIBASHI, M ...
    1997 Volume 22 Issue SupplementI Pages 125-146
    Published: April 25, 1997
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    13-week oral repeated dose toxicity study of (±)-4-diethylamino-1, 1-dimethylbut-2-yn-1-yl 2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate monohydrochloride monohydrate (NS-21), a new drug for the treatment of urinary frequency and incontinence, was conducted in beagle dogs. Male and female dogs were given the drug orally for 13 weeks at doses of 0 (control), 5, 25 and 125 mg/kg. After discontinuation of the treatment, a 5-week recovery test was also conducted. No effects related to the treatment were observed on survival. Mydriasis and a decrease in body weight or a suppression of its weight gain were seen in the 25 and 125 mg/kg groups. Vomiting, salivation and a decrease in food consumption were seen in the 125mg/kg group. Ophthalmologic examination confirmed the mydriasid in the 125 mg/kg group. Electrocardiographic examination and urinalysis showed no abnormalities attributable to the treatment. Hematological examination showed an increase in number of platelets in the 125 mg/kg group. Blood chemical examination revealed increases in GPT and ALP and a decrease in albumin in the 25 and 125 mg/kg groups, and an increase in triglyceride in the 125 mg/kg group. Pathological examination disclosed hepatocellular hypertrophy in the 125 mg/kg group, hyperplasia of smooth-ER and concentric lamellar bodies derived from the smooth-ER, and bile pigments in the bile capillary, hepatocyte and stellate cells of Kupffer in the 25 and 125 mg/kg groups. Megakaryocytes in mesenteric lymph node were observed in the 25 and 125 mg/kg groups. The recovery test showed that the above-mentioned changes were satisfactorily reversible or the degree and frequency of these changes were lowered. No treatment-related effects were seen in the 5 mg/kg group. These results show that the NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) of NS-21 is 5mg/kg for 13-week oral toxicity in dogs.
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  • Masaru YOSHIDA, Akitaka KAWAMINAMI, Takeharu TAWARAIANI, Seitaro ISHIB ...
    1997 Volume 22 Issue SupplementI Pages 147-175
    Published: April 25, 1997
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A 12-month oral repeated dose toxicity study of (±)-4-diethylamino-1, 1-dimethylbut-2-yn-1-y1 2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate monohydrochloride monohydrate (NS-21), a new drug for the treatment of urinary frequency and incontinence, was conducted in beagle dogs. Male and female dogs were given the drug orally for 12 months at doses of 0 (control), 3, 17.5 and 100 mg/kg. After discontinuation of the treatment, a 2-month recovery test was also conducted. No effects related to the treatment were observed on survival find water consumption. Mydriasis, vomiting and a decrease in body weight or a suppression of its weight gain were seen in the 17.5 and 100 mg/kg groups. Salivation and a decrease in food consumption were seen in the 100 mg/kg group. Ophthalmologic examination confirmed the mydriasis in the 17.5 and 100 mg/kg groups. Electrocardiographic and hematological examinations and urinalysis showed no abnormalities attributable to the treatment. Blood chemical examination revealed increases in GPT and ALP in the 17.5 and 100 mg/kg groups, increases in GOT and triglyceride and a decrease in total protein in the 100 mg/kg group. Pathological examination disclosed hepatocellular hypertrophy and concentric lamellar bodies derived from the smooth-ER in the 100 mg/kg group, and hyperplasia of smooth-ER, an increase in number of lysosomes and bile pigments in the bile capillary, hepatocyte and stellate cells of Kupffer in the 17.5 and 100 mg/kg groups. The recovery test showed that the above-mentioned changes were satisfactorily reversible or the degree and frequency of these changes were lowered. The serum concentrations of NS-21 and its active metabolite, RCC-36, in the treated groups were increased in a dose-dependent manner No treatment-related effects were seen in the 3 mg/kg group. These results show that the NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) of NS-21 is 3mg/kg for 12-month oral toxicity in dogs.
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  • Motokuni NAKAZAWA, Eita KITAYAMA, Takahiro ADACHI, Masaru YOSHIDA, Sei ...
    1997 Volume 22 Issue SupplementI Pages 177-185
    Published: April 25, 1997
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Toxicokinetics of (±)-4-diethylamino-1, 1-dimethylbut-2-yn-1-yl 2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate monohydrochloride monohydrate(NS-21), a new drug for the treatment of urinary frequency and incontinence, were studied in mice and rats during a 13-week dietary administration to determine the toxicokinetic profiles of NS-21 and its active metabolite (±)-4-ethylamino-1, 1-dimethylbut-2-yn-1-yl 2-cylohexyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate monohydrochloride (RCC-36) in dietary carcinogenicity studies. Male and female mice were given the drug in the diet at doses of 0(control), 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day, and male and female rats were given the drug at doses of 0(control), 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg/day. The chosen doses and means of administration were identical to those of a 78-week dietary carcinogenicity study in mice and 2-year dietary carcinogenicity study in rats. The plasma concentrations were measured on the first and the last day of the administration. For every treatment period, the plasma concentrations of NS-21 and RCC-36 increased with dose in mice and rats. The sum of the area under the concentration-time curve(AUC) of NS-21 and RCC-36 was 2694 to 8614 ng·hr/ml in the maximum dose of mice, and 2232 to 3593 ng·hr/ml in the maximum dose of rats through the administration period. These results show that, when compared with therapeutic dose in humans (682 ng·hr/ml at 10mg/body/day), the total maximal exposure to NS-21 and RCC-36 in the earlier dietary carcinogenicity studies were estimated to be 4 to 13 times higher in mice, and 3 to 5 times higher in rats.
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  • Seitaro ISHIBASHI, Motokuni NAKAZAWA, Takeharu TAWARATANI, Masaru YOSH ...
    1997 Volume 22 Issue SupplementI Pages 187-199
    Published: April 25, 1997
    Released: February 21, 2008
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    A study was conducted to elucidate the mechanism of the increased thyroidal function caused by oral administration of (±)-4-diethylamino-1, 1-dimethylbut-2-yn- 1-yl 2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate monohydrochloride monohydrate (NS-21), a new drug for the treatment of urinary frequency and incontinence, in rats. Rats were given 500 mg/kg of NS-21 orally for 13 weeks. Rats were also given 500 mg/kg of the drug and 15 μg/animal of thyroxine (T4) in order to assess the influence of T4 treatment. NS-21 caused decreases in both total and free T4 and increases in TSH and thyroxine uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase (T4UDP-GT). Morphological examination of thyroid gland revealed stimulated follicles indicating heightened thyroidal function. The treatment of T4 inhibited the stimulating effect of NS-21 on thyroid gland. These results show that the administration of NS-21 caused induction of T4UDP-GT, which resulted in a compensatory stimulation of the thyroidal function by the increased secretion of pituitary TSH in response to increased blood thyroid hormone metabolism.
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  • James L. SCHARDEIN, Raymond G. YORK, Hironori NINOMIYA, Masataka WATAN ...
    1997 Volume 22 Issue SupplementI Pages 201-212
    Published: April 25, 1997
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Fertility and developmental toxicity study of (±)-4-diethylamino-1, 1-dimethylbut-2-yn-1-yl 2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate monohydrochloride monohydrate (NS-21), a new drug for the treatment of urinary frequency and incontinence, was conducted in Crl:CD rats. Male rats were given NS-21 orally from 60 days before mating to the day of necropsy, and female rats were given NS-21 orally from 14 days before mating to day 7 of pregnancy. The dose levels for both males and females were 0 (control), 2, 30 and 500 mg/kg. On day 20 of pregnancy, the females were sacrificed and their fetuses examined. At the 500 mg/kg dosage level, one male and one female died. Salivation and dilated pupils occurred at the 30 and 500 mg/kg dosage levels, and rales occurred at 500 mg/kg. Body weights and food consumption were decreased, and water consumption was increased in both males and females at the 500 mg/kg dosage level. Decreases in the numbers of corpora lutea and implantations per litter and a lower number of live fetuses per litter were found at the 500 mg/kg dosage level. However, the incidence and number of postimplantation loss per litter were comparable among the treatment and control groups. These results demonstrate that the NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) of NS-21 is 2 mg/kg for general toxicity in parental animals, and 30 mg/kg for reproductive function of the parent animals and for embryo-fetal development.
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  • James L. SCHARDEIN, Raymond G. YORK, Hironori NINOMIYA, Masataka WATAN ...
    1997 Volume 22 Issue SupplementI Pages 213-228
    Published: April 25, 1997
    Released: February 21, 2008
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    A study of teratogenicity and developmental toxicity of (±)-4-diethylamino-1, 1-dimethylbut-2-yn-1-yl 2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate monohydrochloride monohydrate (NS-21), a new drug for the treatment of urinary frequency and incontinence, was conducted in Crl:CD rats. Female rats were given NS-21 orally at dose levels of 0 (control), 2, 25 and 300 mg/kg from day 7 to day 17 of pregnancy. Twenty-two female rats per dose level were sacrificed on day 20 of pregnancy for examination of their fetuses, and the remaining pregnant rats (twenty-three per dose level) were allowed to deliver naturally for postnatal examination of their offspring. At the 300 mg/kg dosage level, rales, partially closed eyes and reduced activity were observed in pregnant rats. Decreases in body weight gain, food consumption and water consumption were observed in the dams at the 300 mg/kg dosage level. Fetal body weights were decreased at the 300 mg/kg dosage level. The drug never altered the numbers of corpora lutea and implantations, fetal mortality, the number of live fetuses, sex ratio, placental weight, and external, visceral and skeletal development of fetuses. NS-21 did not affect the delivery of dams, the number of live newborns, birth index, body weight or survival index. Nor did NS-21 have any adverse effect on the postnatal development of the offspring, including physical and functional development, emotionality, motor activity, learning ability and reproductive performance. These results demonstrate that the NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) of NS-21 is 25 mg/kg for general toxicity in mother animals, 300 mg/kg for reproductive function in mother animal and 25 mg/kg for developmental toxicity.
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  • James L. SCHARDEIN, Raymond G. YORK, Hironori NINOMIYA, Masataka WATAN ...
    1997 Volume 22 Issue SupplementI Pages 229-237
    Published: April 25, 1997
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A study of the effect of (±)-4-diethylamino-1, 1-dimethylbut-2-yn-1-yl 2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate monohydrochloride monohydrate (NS-21), a new drug for the treatment of urinary frequency and incontinence, was conducted in New Zealand White rabbits during the period of fetal organogenesis. Female rabbits were given NS-21 orally at dose levels of 0 (control), 2, 10 and 50 mg/kg from day 6 to day 18 of pregnancy. Female rabbits were sacrificed on day 29 of pregnancy for examination of their fetuses. Five does in the 10 mg/kg dosage group and one doe in the 50 mg/kg dosage group died or were sacrificed in moribund condition. Two does in the control group died. Lacrimation and convulsion were observed in the 10 and 50 mg/kg groups, and no or soft stool was observed in the 50 mg/kg dosage group. Body weight gain, food and water consumptions were decreased in the 50 mg/kg dosage group. There were no effects of NS-21 in necropsy findings at cesarean sections in does at any dosage level. Developmental toxicity of fetuses was not apparent at any dosage level. These results demonstrate that the NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) of NS-21 is 2 mg/kg for maternal toxicity and 50 mg/kg for fetal toxicity.
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  • James L. SCHARDEIN, Raymond G. YORK, Hironori NINOMIYA, Masataka WATAN ...
    1997 Volume 22 Issue SupplementI Pages 239-249
    Published: April 25, 1997
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A study of the effect of (±)-4-diethylamino-1, 1-dimethylbut-2-yn-1-yl 2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate monohydrochloride monohydrate (NS-21), a new drug for the treatment of urinary frequency and incontinence, was conducted in Crl:CD rats during the perinatal and lactational periods. Female rats(thirty-three per dose level) were given NS-21 orally at dose levels of 0 (control), 2, 25 and 300 mg/kg from day 17 of pregnancy to day 21 after delivery. All pregnant rats were allowed to deliver naturally for postnatal examination of their offspring. At the 300 mg/kg dosage level, reduced activity, salivation and rales were observed in dams, and five dams died. Decreases in body weight gain, food consumption and water consumption were also observed in the dams at the 300 mg/kg. The number of remaining implantation sites was increased at 300 mg/kg, indicating fetal morality. The number of live newborns, birth index and survival index at the birth were decreased at the 300 mg/kg dosage level. Reduced activity, paleness in color and/or discoloration were observed for many pups at the 300 mg/kg on lactation day 0. Body weights of male and female offspring at the birth were also decreased at the 300 mg/kg dosage group. Survival index at the 4 days was decreased at the 300 mg/kg dosage level. Body weight gains of male and female offspring were decreased at the 300 mg/kg during the lactational period and after weaning. NS-21 did not affect the postnatal development of the offspring, including physical and functional development, motor activity, emotionality, learning ability and reproductive performance. These results demonstrate that the NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) of NS-21 is 25 mg/kg for general toxicity and reproductive function in mother rats and 25 mg/kg for developmental toxicity of their offspring.
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  • Masanori OTSUKA, Yoshitsugu KAJIWARA, Syozo AJIMI, Hiroko SHIMAZAKI, T ...
    1997 Volume 22 Issue SupplementI Pages 251-261
    Published: April 25, 1997
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The mutagenicity of (±)-4-diethylamino-1, 1-dimethylbut-2-yn-1-yl 2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate monohydrochloride monohydrate (NS-21), a new drug for the treatment of urinary frequency and incontinence, was investigated by the reverse mutation test in bacteria, the chromosome aberration test in vitro, and the micronucleus test in mice. The reverse mutation test was performed at a dose from 31.3 to 4000 μg/plate, at which dose cell killing was observed, using Salmonella ryphimurium TA100, TA1535, TA98, and TA1537, and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA. NS-21 did not increase revertant colonies significantly in any of the test strains with or without metabolic activation system (S9 mix). The chromosome aberration test was carried out at a dose from 3.75 to 140 μg/ml, at which dose more than 50% cell proliferation was inhibited, using cultured Chinese hamster lung cells (CHL/LU). No significant increases of the frequencies of cells with chromosome aberrations were observed with or without S9 mix. The micronucleus test was conducted in the bone marrow cells of Slc : ddY male mice. Mice were given NS-21 by a single oral administration at doses of 0, 43.8, 87.5, 175, and 350 mg/kg, the geometric mean dose between the maximum tolerated dose and the minimum lethal dose. There were no significant increases in the frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes at any dose levels. These results show that NS-21 has no mutagenic activity in vitro or in vivo.
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  • Hironobu TAMURA, Yasuhiro YAMASHITA, Eita KITAYAMA, Keiko IWAKURA, Mas ...
    1997 Volume 22 Issue SupplementI Pages 263-274
    Published: April 25, 1997
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The mutagenicity of (±)-4-ethylamino-1, 1-dimethylbut-2-yn-1-yl 2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate monohydrochloride (RCC-36), an active metabolite of (±)-4-diethylamino-1, 1-dimethylbut-2-yn-1-yl 2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate monohydrochloride monohydrate (NS-21), was investigated by the reverse mutation test in bacteria, the chromosome aberration test in vitro, and the micronucleus test in mice. The reverse mutation test was performed at a dose range of 6.25-400 μg/plate using Salmonella typhimurium TA100, TA1535, TA98, and TA1537, and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA. RCC-36 did not increase revertant colonies significantly in any of the test strains with or without metabolic activation system (S9 mix). The chromosome aberration test was carried out at a dose range of 2.5-20 μg/ml without S9 mix and 10-80 μg/ml with S9 mix using cultured Chinese hamster lung cells (CHL/IU). No significant increases of the frequencies of cells with chromosome aberrations were observed with or without S9 mix. The micronucleus test was conducted in the bone marrow cells of Slc:ddY male mice. Mice were given RCC-36 by a single intraperitoneal administration at doses of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg. There were no significant increases in the frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes at any dose levels. These results show that RCC-36 has no mutagenic activity in vitro or in vivo.
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  • Roger C. HATCH, Karen S. REGAN, Seitaro ISHIBASHI, Motokuni NAKAZAWA, ...
    1997 Volume 22 Issue SupplementI Pages 275-287
    Published: April 25, 1997
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The oncogenic potential of (±)-4-diethyldmino-1, 1-dimethylbut-2-yn-1-yl 2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate monohydrochloride monohydrate (NS-21), a new drug for the treatment of urinary frequency and incontinence, was assessed when it was administered in the diet of Charles River B6C3F1 mice for 78 weeks in dosages of 0, 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day. No drug-related effects occurred on survival, appearance or behavior, or occurrence, location or number of palpable masses. Average food consumption, food efficiency and hematologic values also were apparently unaffected. Statistically significantly low body weights were observed in the 100 and 300 mg/kg/day mice. The plasma concentrations of NS-21 and its active metabolite, RCC-36, in the treated groups were increased in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathological examinations disclosed midzonal hepatocellular vacuolization compatible with lipid vacuoles in both sexes at the 300mg/kg/day dose level. There were no test article-related effects on the incidence or type of neoplastic lesions. In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, no oncogenic effects were evident in B6C3F1 mice when NS-21 was administered in the diet in concentrations to produce an intake of up to 300 mg/kg/day for 78 weeks.
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  • Roger C. HATCH, Karen S. REGAN, Seitaro ISHIBASHI, Motokuni NAKAZAWA, ...
    1997 Volume 22 Issue SupplementI Pages 289-306
    Published: April 25, 1997
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The oncogenic potential of (±)-4-diethylamino-1, 1-dimethylbut-2-yn-1-yl 2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate monohydrochloride monohydrate (NS-21), a new drug for the treatment of urinary frequency and incontinence, was assessed when it was administered in the diet of Charles River Fischer-344 rats for 2 years in dosages of 0, 10, 30 and 100mg/kg/day. No drug-related effects occurred on survival, appearance or behavior, or occurrence, location or number of palpable masses. Food efficiency and hematologic values also were apparently unaffected. Statistically significantly low mean weekly body weights and average food consumption values were observed in the all dose groups. The plasma concentrations of NS-21 and its active metabolite, RCC-36, in the treated groups were increased in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathological examinations disclosed test article-related increases in the incidence of periportal hypertrophy and midzonal hepatocellular vacuolization in the livers of the 100 mg/kg/day animals. There were no test article-related effects on the incidence or type of neoplastic lesions. In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, no oncogenic effects were evident in Fischer-344 rats when NS-21 was administered in the diet in concentrations to produce an intake of up to 100 mg/kg/day for 2 years.
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  • Keikou OKASAKI, Ryoichi NAGATA, Mizuo OHNISHI, Hidenobu SAMEJIMA, Hiro ...
    1997 Volume 22 Issue SupplementI Pages 307-313
    Published: April 25, 1997
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An antigenicity study of (±)-4-diethyldmino-1, 1-dimethylbut-2-yn-1-yl 2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate monohydrochloride monohydrate (NS-21), a new drug for the treatment of urinary frequency and incontinence, was conducted in Hartley guinea pigs and BALB/cAnN mice. The following results were obtained. No active systemic anaphylaxis reactions were found in guinea pigs immunized by subcutaneous injection of NS-21 alone or in combination with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA). No 24-hr heterologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reactions were elicited in rats by sera from mice immunized by intraperitoneal injection of NS-21 alone or in combination with 3% aluminum hydroxide gel. No passive hemagglutination reactions were elicited by sera from mice immunized by subcutaneous injection of NS-21 in combination with FCA. These results show that NS-21 has no antigenicity under the present experimental conditions.
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