Age and sex differences of carbon clearance from the peripheral blood of the rat were investigated. The clearance of carbon was more rapid in the young rats than in the old. Sex difference was significant in the rats of 10 and 14 weeks old, but not significant in the rats of 3 weeks old. Liver blood flow, extraction rate of carbon by the liver and whole circulating blood volume may be the factors involved in the sex and age differences of the blood clearance of carbon.
Allergic contact dermatitis occurred with 2, 4-toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in BALB/c mice. The results were obtained by the measurement of the ear thickness after challenged to the ear with 1% TDI in olive oil in mice previously sensitized with 5% TDI. The ear swelling rate at 48 hr postchallenge in sensitized mice was more than twice of that in unsensitized mice. In BALB/c-nu/nu (nude) mice, delayed type hypersensitivity could not be induced even when a 30% TDI solution was applied. These results suggest that T cells may play an essential role in contact sensitivity to TDI in BALB/c mice.
Reason of acute toxicity to fish caused by coal-tar dyes and their industrial effluents were studied from the three points of view. 1) Partition coefficient (n-octanol/water) was determined on several coal-tar dyes, and it was found that the larger the ratio was, the stronger was toxicity to fish. 2) As a result of determination about existent form of xanthene dyes under photo-irradiation, it was clarified that dyes in solution were in the form of excited triplet state and halogen in dye molecule was liberated in free form. 3) When coal-tar dyes were treated with sodium hypochlorite, harmful chloroform was detected from dye solution. Chloroform and its homologous compounds showed the low TLm value and had the serious effect on fish.
A method for the determining the amount of carbon monoxide (CO) in blood is described. CO bound to hemoglobin is released with potassium ferricyanide into a known volume of head space of a disposable syringe. Vapor in the head space is withdrawn with a gastight microcyringe and injected into the gas chromatograph. CO dissolved in saturated blood is also measured by head space analysis to ascertain that dissolved CO is able to be removed with only one shaking of blood with nitrogen (N2). N2 put into the head space previously is used as internal standard. The advantages of this method lie in the ease and speed of operation with a simple and widely available instrument.
Acute and subacute toxicities of clobetasone-17-butyrate, a new anti-inflammatory corticosteriod, were studied in mice and rats. In the acute toxicity tests intraperitoneal LD50 values of the drug were estimated to be around 5 g/kg for both sexes of mice, 1.51 g/kg for male and 1.66g/kg for female rats. Subcutaneous and oral administration induced no fatal cases at dose of 3.6 (mice, s.c.), 2.6 (rats, s.c.) and 6.0 g/kg (mice and rats, p.o.). As for the toxic signs in both mice and rats after the i.p. and s.c. administrations, emaciation was marked, and atrophy of thymus, spleen and adrenals were observed. No marked symptoms, however, were induced in animals administered orally. In the subacute toxicity tests male and female rats were subcutaneously administered with the drug at daily, doses of 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100 mg/kg for one month. Dose dependent symptoms such as suppression in body weight, gain, emaciation, regressive changes in adrenal, lymphatic and hematopoietic tissues, decrease in circulating white blood cell and lymphocyte counts, and increase in total cholesterol level of serum were induced in the rats administered at 0.1 mg/kg/day and more than that, indicating that the maximum nontoxic dose in this experimental condition was 0.03 mg/kg/day. In recovery tests it was observed that the rats, which had been administered with the drug at 1.0 mg/kg/day for one month, were almost normal two months after the final administration.
Basic experiments on safety evaluation of 0.3%, 1% and 3% solution of KW-1062 (DE-020 eye drops) were carried out. These eye drops applied topically to rabbits eyes had no undesirable local or systemic effects as follows : 1. Repeated instillations of DE-020 eye drops (One drop every 1 hr for 4 hrs) showed no significant irritation except only a temporary and slight congestion localized at the conjunctivae. 2. Daily instillation of DE-020 eye drops (3 times daily for 28 days) showed no abnormal findings in the eye mucosa, clinical signs, body weight, hematological examination, biochemical examination, autopsy, organ weight and histopathological examination.
The effects of peroral administration of raw garlic juice and extracted-aged garlic juice (garlic extract) were studied with female Wistar strain rats. For the examination, 5, 5 and 10 rats were sacrificed after 3, 8 and 21 days respectively. In the group to which raw garlic juice (5 ml/kg) was administered 5 rats died of the serious stomach injury in 21 days and body weight of still living rats was down at the begining as food and water intake were decreased. The growth of rats to which raw garlic juice administered group was retarded. The retardation of growth was thought to be caused by the stomach injury due to raw garlic, which limited in fundus. The injured section of stomach was not far gone by the longer administration, however, the mucous secretion of the surface and neck area were stimulated. Swelling of the liver, hypertrophy of the spleen and adrenal glands, and the decrease of erythrocytes with various morphological changes were clearly observed after 3 and 8 days on the group dosed high raw garlic juice, but almost these changes were not observed at any time on extracted-aged garlic juice administration.