Although toxicities of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) have been found to be related with activities of macrophages phagocytosing the fibers, the exact relationship between macrophage population and pathogenesis of fibrosis and mesotheliomas induced by MWCNTs is largely unknown. CCL2-CCR2 axis, a major monocyte/macrophage infiltration route, is thought to be involved in not only acute inflammation but also the formation of tumor microenvironment. We therefore described a time-course of alteration of macrophage population in an attempt to clarify the contribution of the Ccr2 gene to mesotheliomagenesis. Wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice and Ccr2-knockout (KO) mice were intraperitoneally administered with MWNT-7 and were sequentially necropsied at 1, 7, 28, 90, and 245 day(s) after the injection. Peritoneal fibrosis was prominent in all MWCNT-treated mice, with a lower severity in the KO mice. No differences were observed in the incidences of neoplastic lesions of mesothelia between WT and KO mice. A flow cytometric analysis revealed that after gross disappearance of macrophages after MWCNT exposure, small peritoneal macrophages (SPMs) were exclusively refurbished by the CCR2-dependent route at day 1 (as Ly-6C+MHC class II− cells), followed by additional CCR2-independent routes (as Ly-6C−MHC class II− cells); i.e., the only route in KO mice; with a delay of 1–7 days. The SPMs derived from both routes appeared to differentiate into maturated cells as Ly-6C−MHC class II+, whose ratio increased in a time-dependent manner among the total SPM population. Additionally, most macrophages expressed M1-like features, but a small fraction of macrophages exhibited an M1/M2 mixed status in MWCNT-treated animals. Our findings demonstrate a long-persistent activation of the CCL2-CCR2 axis after MWCNT exposure and enable a better understanding of the participation and potential roles of SPMs in fibrous material-induced chronic toxicities.
Guanfacine hydrochloride extended-release (GXR) is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It is a selective α2A-adrenorecepor agonist that was reported to cause QT prolongation and hypotension in the event of overdosing. We report the case of a 17-year-old man who took 226 tablets of GXR 3 mg for attempted suicide. He was found complaining of dyspnea, and emergency medical services were called. When the patient was transferred to our hospital, his Glasgow coma scale was 12 (E4V3M5). He was agitated and hypoxemic. He was intubated for invasive mechanical ventilation under sedation. His chest X-ray and computed tomography scan showed pulmonary edema. Transthoracic echocardiography showed markedly reduced cardiac function. His serum guanfacine concentration peaked on day 3 after admission. His pulmonary edema improved quickly after a decrease in serum guanfacine concentration, but cardiac decompensation persisted for about 1 month. This case reveals that the decline in cardiac function after guanfacine intoxication is prolonged even after its serum concentration has decreased.
Antiparasitic ivermectin has been reported to induce cardiovascular adverse events, including orthostatic hypotension, tachycardia and cardiopulmonary arrest, of which the underlying pathophysiology remains unknown. Since its drug repurposing as an antiviral agent is underway at higher doses than those for antiparasitic, we evaluated the cardiovascular safety pharmacology of ivermectin using isoflurane-anesthetized beagle dogs (n=4). Ivermectin in doses of 0.1 followed by 1 mg/kg was intravenously infused over 10 min with an interval of 20 min, attaining peak plasma concentrations of 0.94 ± 0.04 and 8.82 ± 1.25 μg/mL, which were 29-31 and 276-288 times higher than those observed after its antiparasitic oral dose of 12 mg/body, respectively. The latter peak concentration was > 2 times greater than those inhibiting proliferation of dengue virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and hepatitis B virus in vitro. Ivermectin decreased heart rate without altering mean blood pressure, suggesting that ivermectin does not cause hypotension or tachycardia directly. Ivermectin hardly altered atrioventricular nodal or intraventricular conduction, indicating a lack of inhibitory action on Ca2+ or Na+ channel in vivo. Ivermectin prolonged QT interval/QTcV in a dose-related manner and tended to slow the repolarization speed in a reverse frequency-dependent manner, supporting previously described its IKr inhibition, which would explain Tpeak-Tend prolongation and heart-rate reduction in this study. Meanwhile, ivermectin did not significantly prolong J-Tpeakc or terminal repolarization period, indicating torsadogenic potential of ivermectin leading to the onset of cardiopulmonary arrest would be small. Thus, ivermectin has a broad range of cardiovascular safety profiles, which will help facilitate its drug repurposing.
Vascular endothelial cell growth is essential for the repair of intimal injury. Perlecan, a large heparan sulfate proteoglycan, intensifies fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) signaling as a co-receptor for FGF-2 and its receptor, and promotes the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells. Previously, we reported that 2 µM of lead, a toxic heavy metal, downregulated perlecan core protein expression and then suppressed the growth of vascular endothelial cells. However, since the mechanisms involved in the repression of perlecan by lead remains unclear, we analyzed its detailed signaling pathway using cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. Our findings indicate that 2 µM of lead inhibited protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity and induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) via phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2). In addition, among the prostanoids regulated by COX-2, prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) specifically contributes to the downregulation of perlecan expression by lead. This study revealed an intracellular pathway—the EGFR-ERK1/2-COX-2-PGI2 pathway activated by inhibition of PTP by lead—as a pathway that downregulates endothelial perlecan synthesis. The pathway is suggested to serve as a mechanism for the repression of perlecan expression, which leads to a delay in cell proliferation by lead.