Enniatins are so-called “emerging mycotoxins” that commonly occur in milligrams per kilogram levels in grains and their derived products, as well as in fish, dried fruits, nuts, spices, cocoa, and coffee. The present study investigated the 28-day repeated oral dose toxicity of enniatin complex in CD1(ICR) mice. Enniatin B, enniatin B1, and enniatin A1 at a ratio of 4:4:1 were administered to male and female mice at doses of 0 (vehicle controls), 0.8, 4, and 20 mg/kg body weight/day. In life parameters did not change during the study period, with the exception of slight reductions in food consumption in male mice administered 4 and 20 mg/kg and in female mice administered 20 mg/kg. Body and organ weights did not change, and no alterations in hematology, blood biochemistry, or histopathology parameters were observed at the end of the administration period. Thus, we determined that the no-observed-adverse-effect level of enniatin complex was 20 mg/kg/day for both sexes under the present experimental conditions.
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is one of the major causes for the discontinuation of drug development and withdrawal of drugs from the market. Since it is known that reactive metabolite formation and being substrates or inhibitors of cytochrome P450s (P450s) are associated with DILI, we systematically investigated the association between human P450 inhibition and DILI. The inhibitory activity of 266 DILI-positive drugs (DILI drugs) and 92 DILI-negative drugs (no-DILI drugs), which were selected from Liver Toxicity Knowledge Base (US Food and Drug Administration), against 8 human P450 forms was assessed using recombinant enzymes and luminescent substrates, and the threshold values showing the highest balanced accuracy for DILI discrimination were determined for each P450 enzyme using receiver operating characteristic analyses. The results showed that among the P450s tested, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 were inhibited by DILI drugs more than no-DILI drugs with a statistical significance. We found that 91% of drugs that showed inhibitory activity greater than the threshold values against CYP1A1 or CYP1B1 were DILI drugs. The results of internal 5-fold cross-validation confirmed the usefulness of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 inhibition data for the threshold-based discrimination of DILI drugs. Although the contribution of these P450s to drug metabolism in the liver is considered minimal, our present findings suggest that the assessment of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 inhibition is useful for screening DILI risk of drug candidates at the early stage of drug development.
Chemical modification of the thiol group on protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) 1B triggers an activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling that is mimicked by environmental electrophiles through S-modification of PTP1B. While activation of PTP1B/EGFR by a single exposure to an electrophile has been established, the effects of combined exposure to electrophiles are unknown. Here, we examined the activation of EGFR signaling by combined exposure to ambient electrophiles in human epithelial carcinoma A431 cells. Simultaneous exposure to 1,2- and 1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ) augmented the S-modification of endogenous and recombinant human PTP1B (hPTP1B). Combined exposure of hPTP1B or A431 cells to 1,2- and 1,4-NQ escalated the inactivation of PTP compared with individual exposure. Phosphorylation of EGFR and its downstream kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 by 1,2-NQ exposure was facilitated by simultaneous exposure to 1,2-NQ with 10 µM 1,4-NQ. An EGFR inhibitor diminished the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, indicating that ERK was phosphorylated following EGFR activation by the NQ cocktail. The combined exposure to NQs also accelerated cell death in A431 cells compared with each NQ alone. While no EGFR/ERK activation was seen following 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ) treatment, exposure to 1,4-NQ in the presence of 1,4-BQ increased 1,4-NQ-mediated activation of EGFR. This suggests that the enhancement of 1,4-NQ-dependent EGFR activation by 1,4-BQ is caused by a different mechanism than 1,2-NQ with 1,4-NQ. These results suggest that combined exposure to ambient electrophiles, even at low concentrations, can induce stronger activation of redox signaling than individual exposure. Our findings indicate that combining different electrophiles may produce unexpected effects.
Tissue factor (TF) is the initiator of the coagulation cascade, constitutively expressed in subendothelial cells such as vascular smooth muscle cells and initiating rapid coagulation when the vascular vessel is damaged. TF has been shown to be involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Arsenic, an environmental pollutant, is related to the progression of atherosclerosis, although the pathogenic mechanisms are not fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of arsenite on the expression of TF in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) and the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that (1) arsenite stimulated TF synthesis and activated the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway in HASMCs, (2) sulforaphane, an Nrf2 activator, also stimulated TF synthesis in HASMCs, and (3) arsenite-induced upregulation of TF synthesis was prevented by Nrf2 knockdown in HASMCs. These results suggest that arsenite promotes TF synthesis by activating the Nrf2 pathway in HASMCs and that the induction of TF expression by arsenite may be related to the progression of atherosclerosis.