The Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Online ISSN : 1880-3989
Print ISSN : 0388-1350
ISSN-L : 0388-1350
Volume 22 , Issue SupplementII
Showing 1-9 articles out of 9 articles from the selected issue
  • Shinji SUGIMOTO, Miho IMAWAKA, Ryoetsu IMAI, Kenichi KANAMARU, Takayas ...
    1997 Volume 22 Issue SupplementII Pages 315-325
    Published: November 13, 1997
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A procedure for recording the electroretinogram (ERG) in pigmented mice, C57BL, based on the ERG recording technique reported previously in albino mice, ICR, and giving careful consideration to the influence of anesthetics and dark-adaptation, was developed in order to examine retinal toxicity. Pigmented mice were given a single i.v. injection of monoiodoacetic acid (IAA), a known retinotoxic compound, via a tail vein at a dose of 30, 45 or 60 mg/kg, and the ERG was recorded periodically over the next 14days. In addition, the retinas were examined histopathologically on day 15. The results were as follows. 1. The oscillatory potentials were not distinct in the ERGs from mice anesthetized with pentobarbital as compared to the ERGs from non-anesthetized mice. ERG waveforms obtained from mice anesthetized with a mixture of urethane, xylazine and ketamine or xylazine and ketamine were almost the same as those obtained from non-anesthetized mice. Therefore, the ERGs were recorded under mixed anesthesia, ketamine and xylazine, in the following study. Stable ERGs could be recorded after 40 min of dark-adaptation. 2. IAA at doses of 30 and 45 mg/kg caused slight depression of the amplitudes of the a-, b- and c-waves; however, these changes were no longer observed 7 days after dosing. At a dose of 60 mg/kg, the ERG waves were markedly depressed 1 day after dosing, and recovery was not observed until day 14. 3. Upon histopathologic examination of the retinas, a remarkable decrease in visual cells and thinning of the rod and cone layers and outer plexiform layer were observed with IAA at a dose of 60 mg/kg. 4. Using this newly developed recording technique, it was confirmed that stable ERGs could be recorded from pigmented mice repeatedly for 14 days, and the effects of IAA on the ERG could be detected. Histopathological abnormalities in the retinas correlated well with the changes in the ERGs. These results indicate that the newly developed ERG recording procedure is useful for evaluating retinal toxicity in pigmented mice.
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  • Naoki HISHIDA, Hiroshi KUSE, Takaaki YAMAMURA, Michishige NOGUCHI, Yos ...
    1997 Volume 22 Issue SupplementII Pages 327-334
    Published: November 13, 1997
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The acute toxicity studies of taltirelin tetrahydrate (TA-0910), a new thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) analogue, were performed in Slc:ddY mice, Slc:Wistar rats and beagle dogs of both sexes. The drug was administered to mice and rats by oral(p.o.), intravenous (i.v.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) routes, and to dogs by the p.o. and i.v. routes. LD<50%gt; values were more than 5000 mg/kg in mice and rats of both sexes by the p.o. and s.c. routes. Some mice and rats died immediately after i.v. injection, the LD<50%gt; values were more than 2000 mg/kg in mice of both sexes and calculated as 799 and 946 mg/kg in male and female rats, respectively. The minimum lethal doses were more than 2000 mg/kg in dogs of both sexes by the p.o. route. Though all dogs treated intravenously with 1000mg/kg could survive during the observation period, a female dog with 500 mg/kg died on the day after administration. In general condition, hyperactivity, tremor and straub tail, that reflected central stimulatory effects of TA-0910, were observed in mice and rats, and also wet dog shaking in only rats. Vomiting and hyperactivity were seen in dogs by the p.o.route, and exaltation (during the dosing) and sedation by the i.v. route. In addition, salivation and transient tachycardia were observed in the both routes. In blood chemical examination, the transient changes of glucose, protein, lipid and/or serum enzyme were shown. In autopsy, no notable changes were seen in mice, rats and dogs.
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  • Toshihide INUI, Toshihisa FUJIWARA, Masayuki SUSAMI, Naoki HISHIDA, Yu ...
    1997 Volume 22 Issue SupplementII Pages 335-356
    Published: November 13, 1997
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Four-, 13- and 52-week repeated dose toxicity studies of taltirelin tetrahydrate (TA-0910), a thyrotropin-releasing hormone(TRH) analogue, were carried out in rats. Through the three studies, TA-0910 solution was administered orally at doses of 3, 30 and 300 mg/kg/day. The animals receiving TA-0910 showed hyperlocomotion, grooming and wet dog shaking which were attributable to the central effects similar to those of TRH, but there was no death nor obvious deterioration of health caused by the treatment. Body weights decreased in males of 300 mg/kg group, and food consumption was on the upward trend in females in 300 mg/kg group. In 13- and 52-week studies, females receiving 300 mg/kg showed elongated estrous cycle, although it was not an evident change. Blood examinations revealed increases in erythrocyte count, hemoglobin and hematocrit in 300 mg/kg group. Reductions in serum(plasma) proteins and lipids, and drug-metabolizing enzyme activity of the liver were regarded as non-specific changes, as they were sporadic and slight in 300 mg/kg group. Salivary gland and adrenal weights increased in 30O mg/kg group. For the thyroid, weights increased in 300 mg/kg group in the 4- and 13-week studies, and increases of microfollicles and cell debris were observed microscopically in each treated group in the 52-week study. These changes seemed to be related with hormonal action of TA-0910, but the effects on animals were judged slight from plasma TSH and thyroid hormone levels after 4weeks of dosing. The non-toxic dose was estimated to be 30 mg/kg/day, through the rat repeated dose toxicity studies. All the above changes were alleviated or abolished by 4-week recovery period.
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  • Toshihide INUI, Hirofumi YUASA, Tamiko ADACHI, Yoshiaki KAWAI, Satoru ...
    1997 Volume 22 Issue SupplementII Pages 357-369
    Published: November 13, 1997
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Taltirelin tetrahydrate (TA-0910), novel thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) analogue, was orally administered to dogs as dose levels 0.5, 5, and 50 mg/kg for 13weeks and 0.15, 1.5 and 15 mg/kg for 52 weeks. Blood concentrations of test substance measured in 52-week study revealed that absorption of TA-0910 was with dose-dependent manner and not changed through the treatment period. These toxicokinetics suggested that there were no alterations on metabolism of TA-0910 with repeated treatment. The animals receiving 5 or 50 mg/kg showed decrease in body weight or suppression of body weight gain, and decrease in food intake (13-week study). As an abnormality in general conditions, vomiting and salivation (5 mg/kg or more, both in 13- and 52-week studies), increase in behavior as water intake (5 mg/kg or more, 13-week study), and hyperlocomotion (50mg/kg) were observed. Elevating GPT values were noted temporally in the animals treated with 5 mg/kg or more (both in 13- and 52-week studies) without abnormal findings in histopathology. The thyroid weights were increased in treated animals receiving 5 or 50mg/kg in 13-week study, but no histopathological changes were noted. Electron microscopy revealed dilatation of granular endoplasmic reticulums in follicular cells of thyroid from 50mg/kg group in 13-week study. It was concluded that no-effect levels of 13- and 52-week studies were 0.5 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg, respectively.
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  • Hiroshi IMAHIE, Takashi KOBAYASHI, Nahoko IMADO, Toshihide INUI, Fumio ...
    1997 Volume 22 Issue SupplementII Pages 371-379
    Published: November 13, 1997
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Fertility study of taltirelin hydrate, a thyrotropin releasing hormone analogue, was carried out in Wistar rats. Taltirelin hydrate was orally administrated at a dose of 0 (control), 0.15, 1.5, or 15 mg/kg. Male rats were given the drug from 63 days before mating to the day before autopsy (total of 121 days), and female rats were treated from 14 days before mating to day 7 of gestation. The females were sacrificed on day 21 of gestation and pregnancy outcome was determined. In the 15 mg/kg group, wet dog shaking behavior and hyperlocomotion were observed in males and females, and the food consumption was slightly decreased in male rats. These changes induced by taltirelin hydrate were not found in the 0.15 and 1.5 mg/kg groups. No adverse effects of taltirelin hydrate on reproductive function were detected in any groups. In the fetal examination, taltirelin hydrate had no teratogenic, lethal, or growth retardation effects in any groups. These results show that the no-toxic dose levels of taltirelin hydrate are 1.5 mg/kg for general toxicity in parent animals, and 15 mg/kg for reproductive function of parent animals and for development of their fetuses.
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  • Hiroshi IMAHIE, Takashi KOBAYASHI, Atsuyuki NISHIDA, Nahoko IMADO, Yuz ...
    1997 Volume 22 Issue SupplementII Pages 381-394
    Published: November 13, 1997
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Teratogenicity study of taltirelin hydrate, a thyrotropin releasing hormone analogue, was carried out in Wistar rats. Female rats were orally given taltirelin hydrate at a dose of 0 (control), 0.15, 1.5, or 15 mg/kg from day 7 to day 17 of gestation. Twenty-seven female rats in each group were sacrificed on day 21 of gestation and their fetuses were examined. The remaining 13 female rats in each group were allowed to deliver spontaneously and their newborns were examined. In the 15 mg/kg group, the dams (P) showed wet dog shaking behavior and hyperlocomotion. No adverse effect of taltirelin hydrate on the body weight gain, food consumption, water intake, and reproductive performance was observed in this group. In the 0.15 and 1.5mg/kg groups, taltirelin hydrate did not show any adverse effects. In F1 generation groups, taltirelin hydrate had no teratogenic, lethal, or growth retardation effects in any groups. There were also no adverse effects of taltirelin hydrate on postnatal development, emotionality, coordinated activity, sensitivity, learning ability, and reproductive performance of F1 offspring, and development of F2 fetuses. These results show that the no-toxic dose levels of taltirelin hydrate are 1.5 mg/kg for general toxicity in dams, and 15 mg/kg for reproductive function of dams (P) and for development of F1 generation.
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  • Hiroshi IMAHIE, Atsuyuki NISHIDA, Nahoko IMADO, Yuzo ASANO
    1997 Volume 22 Issue SupplementII Pages 395-403
    Published: November 13, 1997
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Teratogenicity study of taltirelin hydrate, a thyrotropin releasing hormone analogue, was carried out in Japanese white rabbits. Female rabbits were orally given taltirelin hydrate at a dose of 0 (control), 0.15, 1.5, or 15mg/kg from day 6 today 18 of gestation. Females were sacrificed on day 29 and their fetuses were examined. Neither death nor adverse effects on food consumption in dams were found in any dose groups. In the 15 mg/kg group, rapid breathing and decreased body weight gain in dams were temporally observed. No adverse effect of taltirelin hydrate on reproductive function was detected in any groups. In, the fetal examination, taltirelin hydrate had no teratogenic, lethal, or growth retardation effects in any groups. These results show that the no-toxic dose levels of taltirelin hydrate are 1.5 mg/kg for general toxicity in dams, and 15 mg/kg for reproductive function of dams and for development of their offspring.
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  • Hiroshi IMAHIE, Akane KOGUCHI, Takashi KOBAYASHI, Yuzo ASANO
    1997 Volume 22 Issue SupplementII Pages 405-417
    Published: November 13, 1997
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Perinatal and postnatal study of taltirelin hydrate, a thyrotropin releasing hormone analogue, was carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats. Female rats were given taltirelin hydrate at a dose of 0 (control), 0.15, 1.5, or 15 mg/kg from day 17 of gestation to day 20 after delivery. All pregnant rats were allowed to deliver spontaneously and their offspring were examined. In the 15 mg/kg group, the dams showed the central nervous effects such as wet dog shaking during gestation periods. No adverse effect of taltirelin hydrate on the body weight gain, food consumption and reproductive performance was observed in this group. In the 0.15 and 1.5 mg/kg groups, the drug did not have any adverse effects. Taltirelin hydrate did not have any adverse effects on viability, growth, physical differentiation, functional and behavioral development (coordinated activity, auditory function, emotionality, learning ability, and spontaneous motor activity), and reproductive performance of F1 offspring, and development of F2 fetuses. These results show that the no-toxic dose levels of taltirelin hydrate are 1.5 mg/kg for general toxicity in dams, and 15 mg/kg for reproductive function of dams and for their off spring.
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  • Takaaki YAMAMURA, Tomonari NISHIMURA, Yuki KUWAMURA, Toshihide INUI, P ...
    1997 Volume 22 Issue SupplementII Pages 419-430
    Published: November 13, 1997
    Released: February 21, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Oncogenicity studies of taltirelin tetrahydrate (TA-0910), a new thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) analogue, were carried out on CD-1 mice and CD rats. Groups of 60 male and 60 female CD-1 mice received TA-0910, by oral gavage, at dosages of 5, 15 or 50 mg/kg/day. Treatment continued for a minimum period of 104 weeks. Groups of 55 male and 55 female CD rats received TA-0910, by oral gavage, at dosages of 20, 60 or 200 mg/kg/day. Treatment continued for a minimum period of 90 or 94 weeks for males and females, respectively. Of the treatment-related behavioral changes noted, the majority were considered to be directly related to the known pharmacological activity of the test substance and, as such, to be of questionable direct toxicological significance. In mice, there was no evidence of a treatment-related effect on the incidence of neoplasms. In rats, slightly higher incidences of pituitary adenoma, in males given 60 or 200 mg/kg/day, and thyroid follicular adenoma, in females given 200 mg/kg/day, were noted. However, in neither case was statistical significance attained in pair-wise comparisons, and the incidences were within expectation from background data. There was no evidence of any oncogenic potential of TA-0910 in these studies.
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