Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most widely used therapeutic class in clinical medicine. These are sub-divided based on their selectivity for inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms (COX-1 and COX-2) into: (1) non-selective (ns-NSAIDs), and (2) selective NSAIDs (s-NSAIDs) with preferential inhibition of COX-2 isozyme. The safety and pathophysiology of NSAIDs on the renal and cardiovascular systems have continued to evolve over the years following short- and long-term treatment in both preclinical models and humans. This review summarizes major learnings on cardiac and renal complications associated with pharmaceutical inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 with focus on preclinical to clinical translatability of cardio-renal data.
To predict the results of a 24-hr closed human patch test, we previously recommended the use of in vitro test with a reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) model adopted in OECD TG 439, and proposed the margin method, which includes evaluation of twice the concentration to avoid a false positive for surfactants. Therefore, in this study, we used LabCyte EPI-MODEL as a RhE model, and confirmed the reproducibility of this method using five surfactants, including benzalkonium chloride (BC), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and lauryl betaine (LB), for which false negative results have previously been reported, and three different surfactants. For all surfactants, prediction of patch test results using a margin of two revealed that human tests could be performed safely, confirming the utility of the margin method. In addition, we examined the relationship with critical micellar concentration (CMC). The IC50 for cell viability in the RhE model for three types of surfactants (BC, SLS, and LB) was 2.7- to 49.7-times the CMC. Therefore, the range of concentrations in which tests were performed with the present method was within the range of concentrations with high cleansing. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between cell viability and release of the inflammatory mediator interleukin-1α (IL-1α). IL-1α release was associated with cell viability, supporting the results of the human patch test.
Several studies have demonstrated the chemopreventive role of ketoconazole in animal models of liver injury. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this hepatoprotective effect are poorly understood. The present study assessed the potential of ketoconazole to enhance resistance to carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in vivo in a rat model. Ketoconazole pretreatment adult male rats were intraperitoneally injected with carbon tetrachloride for 24 hr and various hepatic parameters were analyzed. We observed decreased serum transaminases activity, reduced nuclear RelA/p65 expression, and suppressed production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the liver tissue. Histopathological examination demonstrated ketoconazole pretreatment to extensively prevent liver injury. In addition, it significantly increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein expression, glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, and antioxidant enzymes gene expression. These results suggest that ketoconazole pretreatment ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in rats, signifying its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions.
Polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG-p) is an active ingredient of humidifier disinfectants and causes severe lung injury resulting in pulmonary fibrosis. Current evidence indicates that pulmonary fibrosis is initiated as a result of epithelial damage, which can lead to an inflammatory response and fibrotic cell infiltration; however, the toxic mechanism of PHMG-p on the epithelium is still unknown. In this study, the toxic response of PHMG-p on human lung epithelial cells was evaluated, and its mechanisms associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, and its relationship with p53 activation were investigated. The toxic responses of epithelial cells were assessed by flow cytometry analysis and western blot analysis. The results revealed that PHMG-p induced G1/S arrest and apoptosis in A549 cells. Interestingly, p53 was activated by PHMG-p treatment and p53 knockdown suppressed PHMG-p-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. PHMG-p promoted ROS generation and consequently increased the expression of DNA damage markers such as ATM and H2AX phosphorylation. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine reduced the expression of phosphorylated ATM and H2AX, and the ATM inhibitor, caffeine, inhibited p53 activation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PHMG-p triggered G1/S arrest and apoptosis through the ROS/ATM/p53 pathway in lung epithelial cells.
Cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) could be activated after myocardial infarction (MI). Thus, it is necessary to explore effective drugs to suppress the activation of CFs following MI. This study was designed to investigate the impacts of ellagic acid on CFs and the underlying mechanisms. The expression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and fibrosis-related genes was detected by qRT-PCR and western blot. The Masson’s Trichrome Staining assay was used to evaluate the area of cardiac fibrosis. The proliferation and migration of CFs were measured by CCK8 Kit and Transwell assay, respectively. Our results showed that ellagic acid significantly reduced protein expression of HDAC1, mRNA expression of collagen I, collagen III, MMP-2 and MMP-9 and the area of cardiac fibrosis in MI rats. In Ang II-stimulated CFs, ellagic acid (60 μmol/L) decreased the protein expression of HDAC1, collagen I, collagen III, MMP-2 and MMP-9, and inhibited cell proliferation and migration. Further, HDAC1 over-expression reversed the inhibitor effects of ellagic acid on proteins expression (collagen I, collagen III, MMP-2 and MMP-9) and proliferation and migration of CFs. The present results suggested that ellagic acid suppressed proliferation and migration of CFs by down-regulating expression of HDAC1.
Fas/CD95 plays a pivotal role in T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Accumulating evidence has suggested that resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis contributes to the escape of cancer cells from immune destruction, and allows to undergo proliferation and outgrowth of cancer cells. In this study, we found that the anti-cancer drug gefitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), has an ability to enhance Fas-mediated cytotoxicity. In the presence of nontoxic concentrations of gefitinib, Fas-induced activation of caspase-8 and subsequent apoptosis was dramatically promoted, suggesting that gefitinib increases the sensitivity to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Interestingly, the effects of gefitinib were observed in EGFR or p53 knockout (KO) cells. These observations indicate that both EGFR and p53 are dispensable for the enhancement. On the other hand, gefitinib clearly downregulated heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) as previously reported. Considering that HSP70 contributes to protection of cells against Fas-mediated apoptosis, gefitinib may increase the sensitivity to Fas-mediated apoptosis by downregulating HSP70. Thus, our findings reveal novel properties of gefitinib, which may provide insight into the alternative therapeutic approaches of gefitinib for Fas-resistant tumors.