The purpose of this report is to present features of fire protection cost data during fire safety planning using statistical analysis. The 1592 data was extracted from a data-base for design estimation being recorded from 1977 to 1984 for single variate, correlation, Principle Component and cluster analysis. The report considers the main criteria for an effective fire safety plan to be 1) Limitations on investment in fire protection, 2) Building type eg. tall and slender or with interior subdivisions, 3) Operating characteristics of early fire detection and evacuation systems, 4) Requirement for installation of custom extinguishing systems and 5) Overall performance of conventional extinguishing methods.
In this paper, we deal with a newly developed spherical array microphone system in which approximately equal directional characteristics for octave band frequency ranges from 250 Hz to 2000 Hz can be realized in every direction and a response in arbitrary direction in the whole space can be computed out by one measurement by placing microphones on concentric spherical surfaces at random whose radii are in geometric progression. In this system : (1) Since average response method is exercised in consideration of time lag for the incidence of sound wave in arbitrary direction, the holding of directivity and improvemet of S/N ratio can be expected at the same time from the time average and space average. (2) Since sounds are kept successively at their measuring time at each sound receiving point as completely synchronized impulse response, if once measured, an impulse response in arbitrary direction in the whole space can be composed by post-treatment. (3) Since microphones are placed on spherical surfaces by regarding the whole space as equal value, more equalized space information for the whole space can be obtained.
In the present paper we examine a method of presuming the impulsive impedance of wooden floor construction against heavy weight impact sounds. With wooden floor construction, vibration at the time of floor impact is often partial because of dimensional and construction problems, particularly the initial response at the time of floor impact is noticeable. Since the heavy weight floor impact sound is directly influenced by the initial response characteristics, it is necessary to presume the initial response more accurately for estimation. In this paper, an impulsive impedance is introduced as a means of grasping the initial vibration characteristics of a floor, presenting a calculation method in which a floor construction is presumed as a single vibration system composed of a beam bending spring and effective mass of the floor construction, being compared with the actually measured values obtained from the actual floor construction, thus showing the effectiveness of this method.
In order to clarify the psychological effects of luminance distribution, the authors of this study built a model office which could be subjected to many kinds of variation in average luminance and in the luminance ratios of ceiling, walls, and floor : and we evaluated subjects impressions of this model. As a result, we found that the psychological effects of these experimental variables differed according to which of the lighting installations (general or task-ambient) was adopted. At the same time, when we observed the amounts of luminance variation produced by individual stimuli, we found that correlation exists between the average level of luminance and the amounts of luminance variation. Consequent examination of amounts of luminance variation suggested that the psychological effect of luminance distribution is closely related with the balance of luminance variations detectable at varying degrees of fineness.
Two types of forced air supply in the kitchen are taken up. One method is to supply air upwards from the vicinity of gas burner, and the other is to supply air downwards from the area around the cooking food. The capture efficiency of exhaust gas and short-circuit ratio of supply air are investigated through experiment. It is turned out that the proportion of air flow rate induced by forced supply to exhaust flow rate in the case of upward air supply and the semidiameter of curved flow line of supply air in the case of downward air supply are the decisive factors of the capture efficency and the short-circuit ratio.
This study deals with methods for quantification of automobile traffic information from thermal images remotely sensed by means of a infrared thermal camera. The images of a crossing of principal roads were acquired at one-hour intervals on clear summer and winter days. Upon digital image processing, it was clear that surface temperature of roads varies with the length of time traffic is stationary. The surface temperature of roads was calculated in various values of ratio of the stationary time, and the ratio was estimated by superimposing the calculated values on the measured one. As a result, the estimated value was in good agreement with the one obtained .from videotape which had recorded automobile traffic conditions. In addition, a supervised method for extracting automobiles on a road from thermal images was presented.
The research was carried on the relation between the housing attribute and the annual energeuse pattern of some apartment houses located in the central area and the suburb of Tokyo. The energy consumption throughout the year is analysized by the statistical method based on the housing attribute as variables. Among the 18 factors studied, the floor space, the number of family, an annual income, the cooling and heating system, a washing drier, and household by oneself, and so forth are found to be main factors to affect the annual energy consumption. Also the houses can be classified into four groups according to those main factors. Furthermore qualification based on housing attribute was done to grasp the characteristics of the annual energy consumption on the classified groups. The results presented in this research can be used as a basic data to predict the energy consumption in the apartment houses just by the housing attribute and also can be available for the urban environmental plan.
Diversity and favorability of townscapes in station plazas were analysed on following 3 aspects. 1. Relations between evaluation and physical elements composed by means of repertory grid method were analyzed, and physical elements were classified into; favorable elements, unfavorable elements, fuzzy elements. 2. By.using SD method with 40 couples of adjectives and factor analysis, 2 independent axes of "favorability" and "diversity" were shown. Upon 2 dimensional plane, 4 areas were translated as meanings of ; "fascinatingness", "orderlyness", "disorderlyness", "boringness". 3. Indivisual pictures by single-view-point, composed pictures by 4-view-points, and their relations were located upon 2 dimensional plane of ; "favorable-unfavorable", "diverse-monotonus".
The objective of this paper is to survey visitors' viewing behaviours caused by the exhibition and the curator's explanation in museum. The survey is based on observation of their viewing behaviours in the several exhibition spaces. The contents of this paper are as follows. 1. Introduction. 2. Outline of the investigated museums and visitors. 3. The viewing time of visitors. 4. The visitors' viewing behaviours in several museums. 5. The viewing time and behaviours at different corners. 6. The circulations of visitors' activities. 7. Case study on the effects of visitors' viewing activities caused by the curator's explanation. 8. Conclusion.
In this research, it found the difficulty of the activities of daily living and the relations between ADL of spinal cord injurd people and 4 factors (sex, age, passage years from injurd, rehabilitation terms) by multivariate analysis. The results showed that the level of injury of the people affected the most and the aging affected the next most in all ADL. Thus, from this results, it became easy to anticipate about the degree of independence in ADL, if he has the only information on the level of injury of the person and the person's age.
In industrialization of reinforced concrete construction, precast concrete components has contributed to up-grade constructibility among other methods like pre-assembly of steel reinforcement and systematization of forms. This paper deals with the typical floor of reinforced concrete high-rise housing in 9 precast components such as internal, external, and corner columns ; internal, external, and auxilliary beams ; floor slab ; balcony ; and external wall. It considered the influence of the use of industrialised building components in the ratio of steel bars, forms, and concrete used, and the aspect of constructibility. It clarifies the advanced use of non-structural components more than structural members and the reduction of form works over reduction in concrete works.
This report, based on the survey, concerns with the structural and constructional characters of the Ohsaka-Marine-Shipping Moji-Branch which was built in 1917. The result of survey is as follows : 1. The structure is a composite system of brick shuttering concrete and timber and the former was very rare system in Japan. 2. The construction methord of exterior is characterized by use of artificial stone finish, including ornaments, because of cost effect. The interior and it's ornaments were finished by plaster, mainly. The other feature of interior is large rooms for shipping waiting rooms and offices.
In 1980 s in quite a few districts in central Kyoto residents tried to regulate plans of high rise buildings because of the expected environmental impact to the neighborhood. This article try to describe and evaluate those cases in the point of view of regarding them as trials of voluntary land use control by residents. Until 1987 some cases are found in which they tried continuous land use control, but most of them are unsuccessful. After 1988 20 communities in Kyoto inluding 5 in Nakagyo-ku 'Community Charter's were made and continuous land use control by residents is partly realized.
This paper describes a method for quick producing of a master schedule that complies with a specified term of work, using a mathematical method, (1) by introducing a critical term of work of which process can not be shortened any more, in addition to an appropriate term of work which will be the basis for planning of work progress, (2) by adjusting the schedule for each work using an adjusting factor (a) that is determined from both the above terms of work and from the specified term of work, and (3) by summing up the number of days for each work's process while taking external factors such as rain and holidays into consideration.
This paper researches about development of dervish lodge that relates with popularization of Sufism. Various bektash dervish lodges in Turkiye were analysed in this research. Popularization of Sufism had two steps. First, Sufism joined men came to the stage, constructing tombs, meeting and pilgrimage rooms which had axis and Islamic proportion were built. Second step was patterned training (style of whirling dance). Beside to whirling dance room, library, Turkish bath and madrasa were constructed. In these buildings Islamic proportion and axis couldn't seem except the axis through Mecca.
Lorenz Lechler, "Baumeister" in Heidelberg in the later Middle Ages, writes "Unterweisung" for his son. This paper analyzed the design method of the templates of the architectural elements in this book. He instructs to design the templates of two sizes-"alt" (old, large) and "jung" (young, small)-as in the ratio 7 : 5 by the following means : (1) The scheme consisted three inscribed squares that has the sides as in the ratio 10 : 7 : 5. (2) Two scales that is in the ratio 7 : 5.
In the fifteenth century ordinances of stonemasons and their neighboring crafts in German language area began to prescribe the technical requirements for the title of master. I classified the types of these regulations from the fifteenth to the first half of the seventeenth century, and showed their divesity and transition. Relation between each types, their character, initiative of municipalities for the regulations are also indicated.
This paper is am attempt to clarify the development of the International Style in the field of domestic architecture before 1932. There seems to be three phases of the development. In the first phase, from 1907, four visible characteristics of the style apper. In the second phase, from 1926, some typical vocabularies are established. In the third phase, from 1930, popularizing of the style arise, but .negative attitude in employing the typical vocabulary is noticeable.
'Les Traces Regulateurs' is published in "L'Esprit Nouveau", 1921. There are some descriptions about <traces regulateurs> in "Almanach d'Architecture Moderne", 1926. 'Traces Regulateurs' is published in "Architecture Viante", 1929. The contents of these three articles had been changed little by little. We can see that this change is paralleled by the establishment of Le Corbusier's architectural design method. This paper clears the contents of <traces regulateurs> by comparing and investigating these three articles about 1) used geometrical shapes, 2) proportions, 3) dimensions, and settles this change.