The turbulent recirculating flows in a room model are measured in detail, where not only mean velocity vector components but also the turbulent energy κ, the Reynolds stress <u_iu_j>^^^-, the eddy viscosity ν_t, and the turbulent energy dissipation rate ε, are precisely measured with a 2-colors 3-beams backscattering type Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV). The eddy viscosity ν_t are calculated from the Reynolds stress and mean shear distribution through its original definition of eddy viscosity modelling. The turbulent energy dissipation rate are estimated through the relation of ν_t, κ, and ε;ν_t=C_μ・κ^2/ε. Here, C_μ is estimated as at 0.09. These detailed analyses of turbulent air flow in rooms make it possible to verify the validity of numerical simulations by comparing these results with results of simulations. As present only a LDV system makes it possible to measure such fine structures of complicated 3-D turbulent recirculating flow in rooms.
There are many algorithms for architectural perspective drawings. Especially, ray tracing algorithm works well for perspectives as architectural design simulations. This paper presents some techniques of applied mapping for ray tracing. These are fllowings. (1) simple fuzzy object A particle creation on the surface of a primitive is displayed on a CRT by using random number. It is available for producing tree images using personal computer. (2) texture mapping with special effective data Most useful special effect is transparent function. This function can be used many occasions for thin solid. Example, they are lettering, net, lacework and etc. What's more, if we used this mapping twice, the tree image that contents leaves shape will be available very easily. The first mapping defines leaf location on primitive and the second defines each leaf shape. (3) architectural detail modelings by 3D mapping technique We usueally get the perspective images for a simple architectural model. Meanwhile, in general practically, an architecuture consists of great many parts. We hope those whole parts should be used in the simulation modeling. Luckily many same parts of architecture keep regular positions. Using 3D mapping techniqus, such parts will be distributed regularly. Consequentially the architectural model as same as practical one can be described by fewer primiteves. And we can get more realistic images of architecture easily.
This paper aims to introduce the indices on the effect of asymmetric and uneven thermal radiation upon the human body. Partial mean radiant temperature and partial operative temperature were defined on each plane of the rectangular solid as a model of the human body. Standard deviation of the partial mean rediant temperatures was applied to the indication of asymmetry and unevenness of the radiation field. This quantity was named thermal radiation unevenness. Experiments were carried out to verify these indices. Local skin temperature and local thermal sensation vote corresponded to the partial mean radiant temperature and partial operative temperature. The thermal radiation asymmetry and unevenness can express the unevenness of the partial mean radiant temperature on each plane of the rectangular-solid.
The purpose of this study is reported in the Part I of the series of this study. This paper reports the characteristics of human traffic flow using the Elastic Block Model. Study of characteristics of human traffic flow was made mainly in terms of ; (1) Spreading of human mass in process. (2) Gradual change in density. (3) Growth of crowding mass in front of a neck. Through this study, ways for correcting the conventional methods were found. By making these corrections, the results of these conventional methods were matched, which were not matched, as pointed in the Part I of this study. Further, new knowledge for "flow coefficient" was obtained through this study, which are ; (1) Flow coefficient of human mass in total becomes larger than 1.5 (person/m.s) in spreading, smaller than 1.5 after passing a neck despite it is fixed 1.5 in each part of "Elastic Block". (2) This fluctuation is a characteristics of human flow, which was found only by EB Model, reflecting the spread of human mass.
The aim of this paper is to make the renewal works clear in the facility use conversion. Public buildings can be classified into six types according to the attributes of their users. Through consideration based on the building type with actual plans, it is found that there are characteristic relation between the entrances of the converted plan and the old plan. Comparison analysis of the entrances of the two plans, therefore, is effective for our aim. As a consequence of the comparison of the two plans and the details of renewal works, the following facts are confirmed ; 1) Nothing inconvenient to use the new entrance occurs in spite of lower degree of renewal works in the case that the converted building type is same as before, however, 2) Needs for higher degree of renewal works on the change of the entrance occur in the case that the converted building type is changed because insufficient renewal works often bring inconvenience to use.
Continued from the last thesis, this paper analyzes the evolution processes of the town housing types in the built-up area where lower Samurai classes had ever inhabited in Edo era. Conclusions are as follows, The housing type in the built-up area had been converted from the single-story houses into the two-story houses since the latter period of Meiji era. Then, the entrance parts of the houses had been receded into the its main structure for space saving. Thus, new town housing types, Genkan-Kotai types had appeared. Since then, as the housing frontage had been restricted narrower and narrower, the housing types with the receding entrance had been reasonably producing its own new types, corresponding to its narrower frontages. On the other hand, these housing types had been able to gain the number of necesary rooms and larger housing spaces than the old traditional housing types, by the conversion of the one-story houses into the two-story houses.
The aim of this research is to find out a new system of estimating the volume of storage space in a home by using a computer. In Part 1, we reported the rules for totaling up the volume of household items in each home. Based on the result of Part 1, in this paper, we describe the rules for estimating the volume of storage space. There are differences between the volume of household items themselves and the space needed for their storage. The volume of storage space needed is for example in cabinets, on shelves, in closets etc. We need to consider not only the space occupied by the objects themselves, but also the surrounding space required for their maneuvering and the thickness of the material used to construct the storage unit. We have divided household items into 4 categories, based on the way in which they take up storage space : shoes, books & tapes, items stored on shelves, and items stored in drawers. Then we formulated 4 rules for estimating the storage space needed by these 4 groups of household items based on their dimensions. Finally we present graphed examples of every room of a house with a clear view of the amount of storage space needed, according to the various situations. It is hoped that the results of this study will be made available to all future homeowners to help them to design a house according to their needs, or to determine whether a particular house will be suitable for them and their belongings.
The local building codes were enacted in these three prefectures in 1886. In this treatise, I investigated the following three points about the early period of their enforcement. 1. The number of permitted buildings. 2. The system of execution. 3. Features of the enforcement conditions.
In order to obtain a guide to urban landscape planning, this paper examines the characteristic of the elements composing landscape paintings in the 19C Europe, of which a perspective drawing and a good proportion make a quantitative analysis possible. Specifically, each elements of short-distance landscape, medium-distance landscape and long-distance landscape, how are the whole landscape composed of the elements, the viewpoint of a painter and the distance between the point of view and the landscape are discussed mainly by quantification theory. The results are as follows : 1) The greenery and the water surface should be in sight even if the ratio of them to the whole landscape is low. 2) When we take account of urban landscape planning, it should be required that the objects, for instance trees, buildings and streets, are about 200 meters, about from 300 meters to 600 meters, and more than 1000 meters of the viewpoint. 3) The urban landscape consists of two essential factors as follows : the one is streets and rivers which represents urban linear structure, the other is greenery and a cluster of buildings which represents urban plane structure. 4) The urban landscape is classified by these factors into 6 groups : (1) The landscape containing the whole view of a city. (2) The landscape of a symbolic architecture. (3) The perspective view consisting of streets and buildings. (4) The landscape including streets and rivers. (5) The landscape of stores and houses on a street with a river. (6) The landscape of a harbor.
Today, in Tokyo-ku-area, there is a lots of districts that small site detached and row houses congested allocate. These districts are generally called "small site detached and row houses congested area" that one of typical type of bligted area. The purpose of this paper is to study the conceptual framework of improvement policy by presenting the findings of a case-study in this area. So, through survey "Y" district, typical small site detached and row hoses congested area, and get some facts. According to these results, it is able to be difined "self-help housing improvement action by owner-occupant" as follow as ; (1) The hypothetical conception is consisits of three primary element, "the chance", "the ability", and "the limitation". (2) Owner-occupants are required improvement by family life stage, is called "the chance". (3) The degree of feasibility of housing improvement is concerned with domestic economics, it is able to be given a general name "the ability". (4) "The limitation" means that housing improvement as possible as they wish restricted by housing tennure, lot area etc. And a framework of policy is arranged from view point of this conception.
The purpose of this study is to reconsider the development of housing plans in agricultural settlements in the modern age, from the late Edo period up to the present, from the view point of their social meanings within the local community, and clarify the structure of the prototype of dwellings in the settlements. Two settlements, Kariyano and Hohzuki, in Okutama Village, Higashiiwai-Gun, Iwate Prefecture, are investigated here. As the result of investigations, it has been clarified that dwelling forms in these settlements matured into one type in late Edo period. The analysis on how they used spatial forms of dwellings in ceremonial occasions shows that this prototype strongly reflects the social structure. The local community in this area used to consist, and partially still consists, of two different social organizations : the one based on neighborhood relationships and that of kinship. Each house has spaces for each organization to use in its own ceremonial occasions. It is emphasized in conclusion that the social structure of the local community becomes a key factor of the development of dwelling forms in the settlements.
In the period of Meiji through Present, the type of farmhouse has changed drastically during the decade of 1965 (40's of Showa period) from old type with unfloored part towards central corridor type with a corridor in the center of house. There was no regional difference in this change and was seen in all region. Even in the process of this drastic change, the Zashiki-plan has formated in late period of Edo strongly succeeds the farmhouse of Meiji period through present.
This paper analyzes how the wooden apartment inhabitants feel their old low-quality dwellings and their high-density neighborhood and how they think and plan about moving out of the wooden apartments. The study was undertaken by case analyses in the periphery of the Osaka City. The conclusions of the study is summerized as follows. 1) More than half of the wooden apartment inhabitants feel dissatisfaction with the size of their dwellings though, they approve the cheep rent. Owing to their low-income, the number of the inhabitants who wish to move immediately out of wooden apartments is not so many. 2) In the wooden apartment areas the apartment renewal have been spontaneously occured, therefore the inhabitants might be threaten with evacuation. However, even, in the case of evacuation, the number of ones who hope to move into the own houses or the fireproof apartments which might be provided through the apartment renewal is very small. Most of inhabitants of the wooden apartments want low-rent houses such as public houses. Unless appropriate houses for low-income people are supply, the inhabitants have to be left in the substandard living conditions or fall into insecurity of livelihood. 3) Most of the wooden apartment inhabitants have been living for a long time in the neighborhood where they live now and wish to continue to live. This is related to the convenience for transportation, their job and shopping. In the case of improvement of the apartments and neighborhood, their wish must be respect.
Results of field survey on real life span of non-wooden structural building in central (Chuuou) ward of Tokyo city are reported here. Field data are collected from property tax ledger. Remainder rate R(t) is defined and applied here based on actual number of existing & demolished building by age. T_<0.5> is the year when R(t)=0.5 and is called "representative life" of the category. Through fitting to statistical distribution models, T_<0.5> of office building by steel structure is supposed to be between 23 and 29 years, while corresponding value of reinforced concrete structure seems to be between 32 and 45 years.
During the early Meiji Period, Kigo Kiyoyoshi was a central figure in the architectural world, noted for his comprehensive expertise on traditional Japanese architecture ; he was active not only in the field of professional design but also in the academic community and in government-supported historical preservation projects. Kigo was unique in having come from a background in the Master Carpenter tradition to achieve a leading role in the architectural mainstream as a specialist in traditional architecture. The study of Kigo's works and teachings can provide meaningful information on the transition from traditional to modern Japanese architecture. This paper deals with Kigo's investigations of thirty-eight traditional temples and shrines, an intensive effort carried out between the 22nd and 24th year of the Meiji Period (1889-91). The focus here is on the purpose, process, and results of these investigations.
The Chinese settlement in Singapore's town plan in 1822 was specifically created to supply various services to the European colonizers. A building style was created, first to bring about uniformity in the townscape, and second, to provide as much dwelling space as required. This was the concept in the creation of the shophouse : a 2-storey row house with a colonnaded verandah lining the street.
The object of this paper is to consider the scale and the planning form of farm houses in the Edo period based on nineteen volumes of historical materials. When Tokugawa Shogun visited Nikkou with lots of Samurai, they stayed at the farm houses, befor he went there, each village along the Nikkou Kaidou was investigated about the house planning. From eighteenth century to nineteenth century the scale of general farm houses had tended to increase from 20tsubo (64.8m^2) to 30tsubo (97.2m^2) little by little, and after middle of eighteenth century the scale of each houses had been getting to change to big scale. Nikkou, Utsunomiya and Iwatsuki district has each different features of planning form.