Metal and membranous materials are often used for roofing of such large buildings as sport stadiums and exhibition halls. In such cases, noise radiated from roofs excited by rainfall often causes serious acoustic problems. In order to investigate the sound radiation characteristics of such kinds of roof construction, an artificial rainfall equipment was firstly constructed to simulate natural rainfall condition, and the sound radiation characteristics of various kinds of lightweight roof have been investigated by sound power measurement. In this paper (part 1), the way of simulating natural rainfall and the charcteristics of the artificial rainfall equipment are described.
In this paper we describe an experimental study of a method to determine force transmission characteristics on railroads and vibration response for exciting force by train running, thus establishing a method to predict the influence of solid-borne sound produced from train tracks over buildings built on the track bed. Consequently, the force transmission characteristics on a directly connected track bed, ballast bed, and vibration isolating bed have been definitely shown. Further, it is known that the vibration response of the track bed by train running can be precisely determined by computing the vibration acceleration energy due to exciting force of a single wheel of the car multiplied by the number of one side wheels of all the cars.
In this study we examined how to improve performance in insulation of floor impact sound of directly glued wood flooring while taking walking feeling into consideration, and carried out sensation experiments oh walking feeling. The following are the main conclusions of the study. (1) We succeeded in development of wood flooring materials of a double-layer construction in section, that is, the upper construction (finishing material + cushion material) to reduce exciting force and the lower construction (plywood + cushion material) consisting of a rather thick plywood layer to improve the performance in insulation of lightweight floor impact sound, thus maintaining the floor hardness for walking. (2) It has been proved that for the floor elasticity for a man to walk dynamic values much correspond with sensation quantity than static ones do. The walking feeling given the highest evaluation was a flooring having a dynamic displacement of 0.6 〜 1.0mm to the local excitation by the heavyweight impact source having a peak impact force 1000N with duration of 22ms.
A novel OPTIMAL scheme based on the second-order interpolation tecnique is proposed for highly accurate and non-oscillatory simulation of convection. The effectiveness of this scheme is demonstrated through applications of several scalar transport problems in two-dimensional laminar and turbulent recirculating flow. The results are compared to currently avaiable schemes such as PLDS, QUICK, LODA, ULTRA- SHARP etc., and these results demonstrate that the bounded OPTIMAL and the bounded LODA with local full upwinding can give accurate and wiggle free solutions with properly designed coarse mesh layout. However, the OPTIMAL evidently appears advantageous for practical applications because of its computational simplicity and stable convergent process.
By measuring soil temperature in summer and in winter at the depth of 50 cm and of 100 cm in the 28-by-8 area that covers both the urban area and the suburban area (95 measuring spots in the whole area), the study makes it clear that the soil temperature difference between the urban area and the suburban area is considerable in summer rather than in winter whereas the Heat Island Phenomenon is more noticeable in winter than in summer. Also, we have observed that the thermal diffusivity of soil is higher in the urban area than in the suburban area.
Recently, many people have been resettling from traditional cave dwellings (Yao-Dong) to dwellings above ground (Fang-Wu) in Yao-Dong settlements of Chinese Loess Land. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the difference between Yao-Dong and Fang-Wu with respect to spatial organization and hierarchical order of place. In conclusion, no difference in functional planning or usage was found between Yao-Dong and Fang-Wu. However, the hierarchical order of the two types of .dwelling was found to be dissimilar in that the structure of a Yao-Dong is strongly influenced by its orientation, whereas a Fang-wu's order is mainly determined by the position of its gate.
The first object of this study is to clarify the newly demanded service to the visitor in the local museum. And the second is to consider the architectual planning on the layout of exhibition and the shape of exhibition room from the view points of behavior of appreciation and other methodology. Results : 1) Museums are required to offer sufficient service to the visitor for purposes of interest, learning and sight-seeing 2) "Tree" layout is required for the intelligible route of appreciation. 3) A strategic space where we can penetrate the whole room is required at the entrance of the room for the easy choice of exhibits. 4) The entrance of the room is expected to be the most integrated space.
The first object of this study is to make clear the present condition of palliative care units in Japan.The second object of this study is to set up the guideline of architectural planning of palliative care facility. We selected three hospitals for a case study .The surveyed items were name of disease.address of the patients, and duration of stay. Futher we observed the palliative care unit in Japan, working as a volunteer. The results of this study are presented as follows; 1.Many of .the inpatients live in and around the area where the hospital situated. 2.The duration of stay of 75% inpatients are whithin 3 months. 3. The frequency distribution of the inpatients approximates to the normal distribution. 4. In case of practicing the hospice care, it is important to set up private rooms, and to keep some rooms ready for use as living rooms for patients and their families. 5. It is necessary for comedical staffs such as socialworkers,volunteers,counselors to keep their rooms in the facility.
This particular thesis is all about what Japanese architects have done in their own activities with words. The study forthe thesis is based on following points; the activhy of architect is not only material practice, but language practice as well. With this notion, we have already presented papers on THESIS OFDOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE OF ARCHITECTS and THOUGHTS ON CITY OF ARCHITECTS. This time we report DESIGN THEME OF ARCHITECTS. The process of study is consisted of two parts; INITIALLY, we studied what kind of issue architects have been concerned with, through their own theories. SECONDLY, we forcused on words which express design theme in each theory, and clarified sphere of architects design theme and succession of each other. On this particular study, we made clear what Japanese architects have thought in their design activity after World War n. At the same time, this study is also for the trial of searching for the academic method of study on architects language practice.
The first object of this study is to find but the description of design of joint layout in the manuals for design and construction of the exterior siding walls, and its theories. The second object is to grasp the actural joint layout. The final object is to study on relations between the description and the actual condition of design of joint layout of the exterior siding wall in a detached house, then refine available theories that can explain the contents of layout design ofjoint. The considerations and the conclusions ; 1. The description of design ofjoint layout in the manuals for design and construction can be classified into three categories. 2. The actural conditions of design ofjoint layout are in accordance with different positions of exterior walls. 3. Comparing with the real condition, the effective theories of design ofjoint layout can be represented as "Generally joints of exterior wall are set up on pillars" and "The basic module of interval of 2 joints is 9 syaku, and elaborative descriptions are needed different conditions of the exterior wall.
The purpose of this article is to analyze the coincidence of way-finding method and spatial information from the protocol data concerned with sighting and thinking of subjects who make way-finding as a first-time visit from an entrance to a room (goal) in two architectural facilities. It became clear that subjects change their way-finding method, which is consisted of several units of "way-finding", to coincide with spatial information. If the coincidence of way-finding method and spatial information is not good, way-finding fails, and in some cases, "missing information", "mis-recognition" or "back-track" occurs.
The purpose of this study is to extract physical attributes from the percepted similarities and typicality among the places. The experiments were to sort the color photographs into categories on the basis of some aspects of physical attributes and to rate the typicality as the tower and as towers on university campuses. The photographs used in the experiments were towers on university campuses. Through the multidimensional scaling SINDSCAL analysis of perceived similarities, it is extracted that percepted physical attributes of the tower and those of university campuses are different.
The purpose of this study is to present some information about the design and planning of office buildings from the viewpoint of proper refuse treatment, through the questionnaire investigation .to building maintenance workers. In this paper, 158 questionnaires were collected from building maintenance companies and were analysed in each aspect of refuse collection, classification, carriage and storage. Consequently, following points with respect to the building design process were clarified mainly based on a sense of building maintenance workerr: 1) floor space for refuse storage, 2) the. number of elevators required" for refuse carriage, 3) treatment equipments installed in buildings, 4) floor space for a room of maintenance workers.
We make clear the actual condition of non-dwelling-type' s condominium buildings locating in Chiyoda and Chuou Wards of Tokyo Metropolis. Results are summarized as follows. 1) They are increasing every year and reached 30% of total floor area of the whole buildings in Chiyoda Ward. 2) They are constituted by a small numbers of ownership units and proprietors. 3) On the other hand large-scale condominium buildings are located in the C.B.D.. 4) They are a mixture having business function and residential function, and play a part as urban residence. 5) They have narrow access spaces for common use in case of vertically divided ownerships.
According to urbanization, a space of city is rapidly homogenized, and a community is rapidly destroyed. We can say that this is an estranged situation from essential qualities of human being. Therefore, it is necessary that we should hold regional relations or support re-union of regional relations. In this report the regional character is considered, forcusing upon a park as outdoor space to accomplish the purpose above. In conclusion, the park which is useful for holding regional character is a small-scale one (of a closely regional type) or a medium-scale one (of a regional type).
This paper alms to clear the present situation and problem of the signboards set up along Tokaido-Shinkansen between Tokyo and Shin-Osaka. The conclusions in this paper are as follows ; 1) A large number of signboards set up along the Shinkansen on the outskirts of the big city. And they are not in good condition on the landscape. 2) The social consensus has to be against setting up them. 3) The local governments have to pull down illegal signboards positively. 4) The sponsors have to take moral principles responsibility for their own signboards. 5) The advertising agency union has to keep under selfcontrol of setting up them.
The quantity of structural materials varies with structural conditions such as span length, number of stories, floor load and height of story etc.. The purpose of this study is to clarify the relation between structural design conditions and structural cost by performing both the structural calculations and construction cost estimations by computer automatically. The building plan used in this study is square plan ( l_X.=l_Y=36 m). By using these data, it is possible to make an estimate of structural cost and to select a structural system. So this study will help architects and structural engineers to make selections of structural system and to estimate the structural cost at the early stage of structural design.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the formative period and the process of Osaka Castle town, through the analysis of the "Mizucho Ezu" (land register map) in the Edo era. This article concentrates on the Simanouchi area. The Nagahori Canal was divided the Simanouchi area from the Senba area. The north Simanouchi area was likened to the Senba, on the town planning and subdivision. Before the excavation of the Nagahori Canal, the Unagidani and the Kunosuke-cho street were the limits of the old,Senba area.
Hon-jin was a lodging used by feudal lords in Edo era. Miyaichi was a stage of both Sanyou Road and Hagi Road in Mouri-han and Koube managed the hon-jin. While a lord was staying at hon-jin, the main part of hon-jin building was occupied as a dwelling of a lord and followers and cookroom. The spare house that Koube family could use while a lord was staying was not prepared. Lords entered this hon-jin by way of the garden in front of the main room, Gozama. So, Genkan was not used as an entrance of lords.
The cathedral of Milan was begun in 1386. Stornaloco proposed that the section (96 braccia wide) be designed within an equilateral triangle, and the height of the equilateral triangle be 84 braccia. This projected triangle is "ideal equilateral". It shows the integration of the irrational proportion (4 : 2<√3 : 3) and rational proportion (8 : 7 : 6), and also the "Roriczerian method of equilateral triangle".
The object of this study is to clarify one of the morphological character of Mckim, Mead & White's works through the analysis of Mckim's major work, Low Library at Columbia University. This work has great significance in order to know their design method based on classicism. Through this study, the following results are made clear. Plan : Three kinds of square can be found as datum line in plan. The whole plan is designed by overlapping of two kinds of grids which are made up of preceding three squares. Elevation I It is composed of the new grid which is developed from the grid used in plan.
The objective of this study is to understand the characteristics and structure of visitors' evaluation on waterfront area and its environment. A questionnaire survey was conducted at two waterside parks in Tokyo on the perception of visitors, and analyzed by factor analysis and CATDAP method. As a result, it is clarified that the first step evaluations such as the satisfaction to 'accessibility to waterfront' and 'bird and fish' contribute to human relaxation and recreation. Furthermore, it is revealed that the items which contribute most to overall evaluation are the sense of 'refreshed' and 'familiar' at the waterfront.