Stable isotope dilution-based comparative quantification of nitrogen-containing metabolites for highly sensitive and selective metabolomics was developed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and 15N-isotope enrichment. We produced metabolically stable isotope-labeled Arabidopsis T87 cells by culturing with 15N-labeled medium. We found that the growth of cells maintained in 15N-labeled medium is very similar to the growth in normal medium, as evidenced by cell morphology, doubling time, and measurement of chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Complete incorporation of 15N in folate, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) in T87 cells was accomplished after culturing for 21 d. Accurate comparative quantification of folate, SAM, and SAH was established by means of LC/MS using the isotopomers of the target metabolites as internal standards. The within- and between-run assay coefficients of variation for the folate, SAM, and SAH levels were all less than 8.5%. Stable isotope labeling by nitrogen source in Arabidopsis T87 cell culture provided simple, inexpensive, and accurate amino acid profiling. This interesting new protocol is valuable for the study of dynamic changes in N-compound pools in cultured cells.
Koshikamide A2 (2) was isolated as a cytotoxic metabolite from a marine sponge of Theonella sp. Its structure was elucidated to be a linear undecapeptide by spectroscopic and chemical methods, together with enzymatic conversion to known koshikamide A1 (1). The new peptide moderately inhibited the growth of P388 murine leukemia cells.
The long-chain aldehydes, (8Z,11Z,14Z)-8,11,14-heptadecatrienal, (7Z,10Z,13Z)-7,10,13-hexadecatrienal, and (8Z,11Z)-8,11-heptadecadienal, were concisely synthesized by using Grignard coupling, catalytic hydrogenation with the Lindlar catalyst, and oxidation with Dess–Martin periodinane as the key steps. Particularly, (8Z,11Z,14Z)-8,11,14-heptadecatrienal and (7Z,10Z,13Z)-7,10,13-hexadecatrienal both possessed a seaweed-like odor.
Angiotensin III has been reported to exist in various animals and tissues. The physiological role, however, is still unclear except that brain angiotensin III is a central regulator of vasopressin release. In this study, angiotensin III as well as angiotensin II enhanced an increase in body weight of clam worms of Perinereis sp. under a hypo-osmotic condition and suppressed a decrease in body weight under a hyper-osmotic condition. When clam worms were treated with tetrachloroaurate (III) after angiotensin-treatment, these enhancing and suppressive effects of the angiotensins under hypo- and hyper-osmotic conditions were inhibited. In contrast, when clam worms were pretreated with tetrachloroaurate (III) before angiotensin-treatment, these effects of angiotensins were not inhibited. Since tetrachloroaurate (III) is a representative blocker of aquaporins, these results indicate that angiotensin III as well as angiotensin II regulates water flow through aquaporins in clam worms.
Ten kinds of lipases were examined as biocatalysts for the incorporation of short-chain fatty acids (acetic, propionic, and butyric acids) into triolein in order to produce one kind of reduced-calorie structured lipids. Trans-esterification (acidolysis) was successfully done in n-hexane by several microbial lipases. Among them, lipase from Aspergillus oryzae was used to investigate the effects of incubation time, substrate molar ratio, and water content on acidolysis. Finally, more than 80% of triolein was incorporated by butyric acid (molar ratio of triolein to butyric acid, 1:10) in the dried n-hexane at 52 °C for 72 h. More than 90% of the products was monosubstituent, which was esterified with this short chain fatty acid at the 1-position of the glycerol moiety of triolein. These results suggest that A. oryzae lipase would be a powerful biocatalyst for the synthesis of low caloric oil, such as triacylglycerol containing a mixture of long- and short-chain aliphatic acids.
A gene (cen1) coding for an endoglucanase I (En-1) was isolated from white rot fungus Irpex lacteus strain MC-2. The cen1 ORF was comprised of 399 amino acid residues and interrupted by 14 introns. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cen1 ORF revealed a multi-domain structure composed of a cellulose-binding domain, a Ser-/Thr-rich linker, and a catalytic domain from the N-terminus. It showed a significant similarity to those of other endoglucanases that belong to family 5 of glycosyl hydrolases. cen1 cDNA was inserted into a yeast expression vector, YEpFLAG-1, and introduced into Saccharomyces cerevesiae. The resulting S. cerevisiae transformant secreted a recombinant En-1 that had enzymatic properties similar to the original En-1. A strong synergistic effect for a degradation of Avicel and phosphoric acid swollen cellulose was observed when recombinant En-1 was used together with a major exo-type cellobiohydrolase I of I. lacteus MC-2.
We identified a new mutation, Asp578Tyr, in α-isopropylmalate synthase (a LEU4 gene product) that releases leucine feedback inhibition and causes hyperproduction of isoamyl alcohol (i-AmOH) in sake yeast. Spontaneous sake yeast mutants that express resistance to 5,5,5-trifluoro-DL-leucine (TFL) were isolated, and a mutant strain, TFL20, was characterized at the genetic and biochemical levels. An enzyme assay for α-isopropylmalate synthase showed that strain TFL20 was released from feedback inhibition by L-leucine. Furthermore, DNA sequencing of the LEU4 gene for a haploid of the mutant TFL20 revealed that aspartic acid in position 578 changes to tyrosine. A comparison of the three-dimensional structures of wild-type LEU4p and mutant LEU4D578Yp by the homology modeling method showed that Asp578 is important for leucine feedback inhibition. We conclude that the mutation from Asp to Tyr in 578 is a novel change causing release from leucine feedback inhibition.
A Mg2+ sensor mutant (PhoQD179L(A)) in which D179 of PhoQ was changed into L or A was isolated and characterized in Escherichia coli. PhoQ–PhoP regulon genes, phoPQ, mgtA and mgrB transcriptions were repressed at a high Mg2+ concentration in WQ3007 (phoQ-defective strain)/pHO119, but not in WQ3007/pHO179L(A). The in vitro autophosphorylation activity of membrane-bound PhoQ was repressed by Mg2+ (10 mM), but that of membrane-bound PhoQD179L(A) was not. Furthermore, the phosphotransfer from membrane-bound PhoQ to PhoP was also repressed by Mg2+, but was not observed in membrane-bound PhoQD179L(A). These results suggest that PhoQD179L(A) is a locked-on mutant that is defective in extracellular Mg2+-sensing and that the D179 amino acid residue of PhoQ plays an essential role in signal transfer between the Mg2+-sensory and histidine kinase domain of PhoQ.
The regioselective deacetylation of purified cellulose acetate esterase from Neisseria sicca SB was investigated on methyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranoside and 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-galactopyranoside. The substrates were used as model compounds of cellulose acetate in order to estimate the mechanism for deacetylation of cellulose acetate by the enzyme. The enzyme rapidly deacetylated at position C-3 of methyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranoside to accumulate 2,4,6-triacetate as the main initial reaction product in about 70% yield. Deacetylation was followed at position C-2, and generated 4,6-diacetate in 50% yield. The enzyme deacetylated the product at positions C-4 and C-6 at slower rates, and generated 4- and 6-monoacetates at a later reaction stage. Finally, it gave a completely deacetylated product. For 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-galactopyranoside, CA esterase deacetylated at positions C-3 and C-6 to give 2,4,6- and 2,3,4-triacetate. Deacetylation proceeded sequentially at positions C-3 and C-6 to accumulate 2,4-diacetate in 55% yield. The enzyme exhibited regioselectivity for the deacetylation of the acetylglycoside.
Nukacin ISK-1 is a type-A(II) lantibiotic produced by Staphylococcus warneri ISK-1. In this study, we characterized NukM and NukT, which are predicted to be involved in modification of prepeptide (NukA) and cleavage of leader peptide and subsequent secretion respectively. Localization analysis of NukM and NukT in the wild-type strain indicated that both proteins were located at the cytoplasm membrane. Interestingly, NukM expressed heterologously in St. carnosus TM300 was also located at the cytoplasm membrane even in the absence of NukT. Yeast two-hybrid assay showed that a complex of at least two each of NukM and NukT was associated with NukA. In vitro interaction analysis by surface plasmon resonance biosensor further suggested that membrane-located NukM interacted with NukA. These results indicate that NukM and NukT form a membrane-located multimeric protein complex and that post-translational modification of nukacin ISK-1 would occur at the cytoplasm membrane.
Recently I found that glycosidase inhibitors such as castanospermine, deoxynojirimycin, swainsonine, 2-acetamindo 2,3-dideoxynojirimycin, and deoxymannojirimycin change the N-glycan structure of root glycoproteins, and that the glucosidase inhibitors castanospermine and deoxynojirimycin suppress the growth of Raphanus sativus seedlings (Mega, T., J. Biochem., 2004). The present study undertook to see whether the growth suppression is due to the inhibition of glucose trimming in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The study, using three glucosidase inhibitors, castanospermine, N-methyl deoxynojirimycin, and deoxynojirimycin, upon the growth of R. sativus foliage leaf, made clear that glucose trimming is indispensable for plant growth, because the inhibition of glucose trimming correlated with leaf growth. On the other hand, processing inhibition in the Golgi apparatus by other glycosidase inhibitors had little effect on plant growth, although N-glycan processing was disrupted depending on inhibitor specificity. These results suggest that N-glycan processing after glucosidase processing is dispensable for plant growth and cell differentiation.
A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed to isolate the biosynthetic gene cluster for the polyketide/peptide hybrid-type antibiotic cystothiazole A from the myxobacterium Cystobacter fuscus strain AJ-13278. Sequence analysis of a 63.9 kb contiguous region that encompasses the biosynthetic gene cluster (cta) led to the identification of a polyketide synthase (PKS)/nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) hybrid gene cluster 32.1 kb in size, which consists of six open reading frames (ORFs), ctaB to ctaG, as well as downstream genes ctaJ and ctaK (1.0 and 0.9 kb, respectively) responsible for the final biosynthetic steps. The genes ctaB, ctaE, and ctaF encode PKSs, the genes ctaC and ctaG encode NRPSs, and ctaD encodes an NRPS-PKS hybrid enzyme. Disruption of ctaD impaired cystothiazole A production. Additionally, two downstream genes, ctaJ and ctaK, which encode a nitrilase and an O-methyltransferase, respectively, must be responsible for the final methyl ester formation in the cystothiazole A biosynthesis.
The α-galactosidase that effectively catalyzes a reverse reaction of galactose, Aspergillus niger APC-9319 α-galactosidase, was screened from industrial enzyme preparations for food processing containing α-galactosidase activity. Reverse reaction of A. niger APC-9319 α-galactosidase was performed using a supersaturated solution (90% galactose [w/v]). A. niger APC-9319 α-galactosidase was not inhibited even in high substrate concentration, and effectively catalyzed the reverse reaction. The yield of the reaction product, α-linked galactooligosaccharide (α-GOS), increased greatly as the initial concentration of galactose increased to 90% (w/v), and was more than 50%. Furthermore, the half life of enzyme activity was about three times as long as that using 60% galactose (w/v). α-GOS (1.4 g) was prepared from galactose (3.0 g) by reverse reaction of A. niger APC-9319 α-galactosidase. The α-GOS contained 58% α-galactobiose (α-Gal2), 28% α-galactotriose, and 14% oligosaccharides larger than α-galactotriose. The main component of positional isomers in α-Gal2 was α-1,6Gal2.
Topological analysis with a phoA gene fusion suggested that Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans MerC, a mercury transporter, has two periplasmic loops and four transmembrane domains. Cys-23 and Cys-26 of the protein were involved in Hg2+-recognition/uptake, but Cys-132 and Cys-137 were not. Escherichia coli cells producing the MerC were hypersensitive to CdCl2. In this case, mutation of His72 rendered the host cells less CdCl2 sensitive, whereas none of the Cys residues affected it. E. coli cells expressing the gene encoding a mercuric ion transporter (merC)-deletion mutant, in which the coding-sequence of the carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic region was removed, retained Hg2+ hypersensitivity and showed about 55% HgCl2 uptake ability compared to that of the one expressing the intact merC, indicating that the region is not essential for Hg2+ uptake. Coexpression of A. ferrooxidans the gene encoding mercuric reductase (merA) and the merC deletion mutation conferred HgCl2 tolerance to E. coli host cells. Under this condition, the merC deletion gene product was exclusively present as a monomer.
Staphylococcus warneri ISK-1 produces a lantibiotic, nukacin ISK-1. The nukacin ISK-1 gene cluster consists of at least six genes, nukA, -M, -T, -F, -E, and -G, and two open reading frames, ORF1 and ORF7 (designated nukH). Sequence comparisons suggested that NukF, -E, -G, and -H contribute to immunity to nukacin ISK-1. We investigated the immunity levels of recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing nukFEG and nukH against nukacin ISK-1. The co-expression of nukFEG and nukH resulted in a high degree of immunity. The expression of either nukFEG or nukH conferred partial immunity against nukacin ISK-1. These results suggest that NukH contributes cooperatively to self-protection with NukFEG. The nukacin ISK-1 immunity system might function against another lantibiotic, lacticin 481. Western blot analysis showed that NukH expressed in Staphylococcus carnosus was localized in the membrane. Peptide release/bind assays indicated that the recombinant L. lactis expressing nukH interacted with nukacin ISK-1 and lacticin 481 but not with nisin A. These findings suggest that NukH contributes cooperatively to host immunity as a novel type of lantibiotic-binding immunity protein with NukFEG.
Hepcidin is a cysteine-rich cationic antimicrobial peptide central to iron metabolism. We report a comparative analysis of the sequences, gene organization and expression of two hepcidin genes from olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Both consist of two introns and three exons that encode a prepropeptide (81 amino acids for hepcidin I and 89 amino acids for hepcidin II). A TATA box and several consensus-binding motifs for transcription factors were found upstream of the transcriptional starting site. Hepcidin II was predominantly expressed in the liver and highly inducible under the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), while a large amount of hepcidin I transcripts was detected in various tissues but did not appear to have a significant effect during LPS-stimulation.
The method of electrophoretic mobility shift assay under high-pressure conditions was improved using a high-pressure electrophoresis apparatus with capillary narrow-tube gel. It was found that the protein–DNA complex in the gel was stained as a high-resolution spot with ethidium bromide. Using this method, it was found that the behavior under high-pressure conditions of the protein–DNA complex composed of NtrC protein and its target promoter DNA is important for the pressure-regulated transcription process, and it was confirmed that the complex was dissociated above a pressure of 70 MPa.
Mutant strains of Escherichia coli lacking DsbA, DsbB, or DsbD (proteins required for disulfide bond formation in the periplasm) did not produce mitochondrial or chloroplast cytochromes c, as previously observed for bacterial ones. Unexpectedly, however, cytochrome c555 (AA c555) from a hyperthermophile, Aquifex aeolicus, was produced in the E. coli periplasm without Dsb proteins, three times more than with them. These results indicate that the Dsb proteins are not necessarily required for AA c555 production in E. coli, possibly because of hyperthermophilic origin compared with the others.
The moc1/sds23 gene was isolated to induce sexual development of a sterile strain due to overexpression of adenylate cyclase in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Here, we studied the functional conservation between moc1/sds23 and its two orthologs SDS23 and SDS24 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We observed that the temperature sensitivity, salt tolerance, cell morphology, and sterility of the Δmoc1 mutant in S. pombe were recovered by expressing either S. cerevisiaeSDS23 or SDS24. We found that deletion of both SDS23 and SDS24 resulted in the production of a large vacuole that was reversed by the expression of S. pombemoc1/sds23. In these ways we found that S. pombe Moc1/Sds23 and S. cerevisiae SDS23p or SDS24p are functional homologs. In addition we found that the Δsds23 Δsds24 diploid strain reduces cell separation in forming pseudohyphal-like growth in S. cerevisiae. Thus S. pombemoc1/sds23 and S. cerevisiaeSDS23 or SDS24 are interchangeable with each other, but their disruptants are phenotypically dissimilar.
Changes in the sugar and amino acid contents of potato tubers during short-term storage and the effect on the acrylamide level in chips after frying were investigated. The acrylamide content in chips began to increase after 3 days of storage at 2 °C in response to the increase of glucose and fructose contents in the tubers. There was strong correlation between the reducing sugar content and acrylamide level, R2=0.873 for fructose and R2=0.836 for glucose. The sucrose content had less correlation with the acrylamide content because of its decrease after 4 weeks of storage at 2 °C, while the reducing sugar in potato tubers and the acrylamide in chips continued to increase. The contents of the four amino acids, i.e., asparatic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid and glutamine, showed no significant correlation with the acrylamide level. These results suggest that the content of reducing sugars in potato tubers determined the degree of acrylamide formation in chips. The chip color, as evaluated by L* (lightness), was correlated well with the acrylamide content.
The effects were assessed of high hydrostatic pressure on the activity and structure of rabbit skeletal muscle proteasome. The pressure effects on the activity were measured by the amount of fluorometric products released from synthetic substrates under pressure and from fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled casein after releasing the pressure. The effects on the structure were measured by fluorescene spectroscopy under pressure, and by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and surface hydrophobicity after releasing the pressure. The optimal pressure for the hydrolyzing activity of synthetic peptides was 50 MPa. The degradation of FITC-labeled casein increased linearly with increasing pressure applied up to 200 MPa, and then markedly decreased up to at 400 MPa. The changes in the tertiary structure detected by fluorometric measurement were irreversible, whereas the changes in the secondary structure were small compared with those by heat treatment. The pressure-induced activation of proteasome therefore seems to have been due to a little unfolding of the active sites of proteasome.
Tea has long been believed to be a healthy beverage, and its beneficial effects are almost all attributed to catechins. The effect of catechins on postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in rats was investigated in this study. A lipid emulsion administered orally to rats with (−)-epigallocatechin gallate at a dose of 100 mg/kg resulted in the increase in plasma triacylglycerol being significantly inhibited after 1 and 2 h compared to the case without (−)-epigallocatechin gallate. The effect of (−)-epigallocatechin was weaker than that of (−)-epigallocatechin gallate. A tea extract (THEA-FLAN 90S), mainly composed of catechins with a galloyl moiety, dose-dependently suppressed postprandial triacylglycerol after the administration of a lipid emulsion at doses of 50–200 mg/kg. The administration of the tea extract alone at a dose of 200 mg/kg had no effect on the plasma triacylglycerol level. These results strongly suggest that catechins with a galloyl moiety would be promising agents for suppressing dietary fat absorption through the small intestine.
Ethanol has been found to induce ulcerative gastric lesion in humans. The present study investigated the in vivo protective effect of astaxanthin isolated from the Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous mutant against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. The rats were treated with 80% ethanol for 3 d after pretreatment with two doses of astaxanthin (5 and 25 mg/kg of body weight respectively) for 3 d, while the control rats received only 80% ethanol for 3 d. The oral administration of astaxanthin (5 and 25 mg/kg of body weight) showed significant protection against ethanol-induced gastric lesion and inhibited elevation of the lipid peroxide level in gastric mucosa. In addition, pretreatment with astaxanthin resulted in a significant increase in the activities of radical scavenging enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. A histologic examination clearly indicated that the acute gastric mucosal lesion induced by ethanol nearly disappeared after pretreatment with astaxanthin.
The reductive effect of pectin on tea catechin astringency was investigated by using a taste sensor system and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The sensor analysis revealed that the astringency of gallate-type catechins (EGCg and ECg) was reduced by the addition of pectin, whereas that of non-gallate-type catechins (EGC and EC) hardly changed. Changes in the 1H-NMR chemical shifts of the catechins and pectin in mixed solutions showed that the gallate-type catechins formed complexes with pectin more closely than the non-gallate-type catechins. These results demonstrate that complexation between the gallate-type catechins and pectin is a factor for reducing catechin astringency.
The effects of Welsh onion on the development of hypertension and autoxidation were studied in 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were fed with a control diet or a high-fat high-sucrose (HFS) diet with or without 5% Welsh onion (green-leafy type or white-sheath type) for 4 weeks. The systolic blood pressure was elevated and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in plasma were increased in the rats fed with the HFS diet without Welsh onion. The rats fed with the HFS diet containing Welsh onion, especially the green-leafy type, had lower blood pressure. They also had a higher level of nitric oxide (NO) metabolites in both the urine and plasma, lower activity of NADH/NADPH oxidase in the aorta, and suppressed angiotensin II production. The effect of white Welsh onion on decreasing the blood pressure was not significant, although the effects on increasing NO metabolites in the urine and decreasing NADH oxidase activity in the aorta were significant. The TBARS value in the plasma was lowered in the rats fed with either green or white Welsh onion, but the in vitro radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidative activities were much higher with green Welsh onion than with the white type. These results suggest that the green-leafy Welsh onion, but not the white type, reduced superoxide generation by suppressing the angiotensine II production and then the NADH/NADPH oxidase activity, increasing the NO availability in the aorta, and consequently lowering the blood pressure in the rats fed with the HFS diet. The radical scavenging and reducing antioxidative activities of green Welsh onion may also be effective in decreasing superoxide.
By application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to an aroma distillate prepared from fresh pineapple using solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), 29 odor-active compounds were detected in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 2 to 4,096. Quantitative measurements performed by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA) and a calculation of odor activity values (OAVs) of 12 selected odorants revealed the following compounds as key odorants in fresh pineapple flavor: 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDF; sweet, pineapple-like, caramel-like), ethyl 2-methylpropanoate (fruity), ethyl 2-methylbutanoate (fruity) followed by methyl 2-methylbutanoate (fruity, apple-like) and 1-(E,Z)-3,5-undecatriene (fresh, pineapple-like). A mixture of these 12 odorants in concentrations equal to those in the fresh pineapple resulted in an odor profile similar to that of the fresh juice. Furthermore, the results of omission tests using the model mixture showed that HDF and ethyl 2-methylbutanoate are character impact odorants in fresh pineapple.
Topsoil samples were collected from eight golf courses in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan, and enrichment cultures were carried out with a basal-salt medium containing 0.2% 4-tert-octylphenol polyethoxylate (OPPEO) as sole carbon source. OPPEO-degrading activity was detected in one of the samples, from which a strain of OPPEO-degrading bacterium was isolated. The isolated bacterium grew on a nutritionally enriched medium (NE medium) containing 0.2% OPPEO as sole carbon source, and accumulated 4-tert-octylphenol diethoxylate (OP2EO) (63%), 4-tert-octylphenol triethoxylate (OP3EO) (14%), and 4-tert-octylphenol monoethoxylate (OP1EO) (2%) after 7 d cultivation under aerobic conditions. The addition of clay mineral (vermiculite) to the medium accelerated the degradation of OP2EO (40%) and OP3EO (4%) to OP1EO (23%). This is the first report about bacteria that can degrade OPPEO to OP1EO under aerobic conditions. The strain was identified as Sphingomonas macrogoltabidus, based on the homology of a 16S rDNA sequence.
Using an inosine-producing mutant of Escherichia coli, the contributions of the central carbon metabolism for overproducing inosine were investigated. Sodium gluconate instead of glucose was tested as a carbon source to increase the supply of ribose-5-phosphate through the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. The edd (6-phosphogluconate dehydrase gene)-disrupted mutant accumulated 2.5 g/l of inosine from 48 g/l of sodium gluconate, compared with 1.4 g/l of inosine in the edd wild strain. The rpe (ribulose phosphate 3-epimerase gene)-disrupted mutant resulted in low cell growth and low inosine production on glucose and on gluconate. The disruption of pgi (glucose-6-phosphate isomerase gene) was effective for increasing the accumulation of inosine from glucose but resulted in low cell growth. The pgi-disrupted mutant accumulated 3.7 g/l of inosine from 40 g/l of glucose when 8 g/l of yeast extract was added to the medium. Furthermore, to improve effective utilization of adenine, the yicP (adenine deaminase gene)-disrupted mutant was evaluated. It showed higher inosine accumulation, of 3.7 g/l, than that of 2.8 g/l in the yicP wild strain when 4 g/l of yeast extract was added to the medium.
IRE1 and HAC1 are essential for the unfolded protein response in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). IRE1- and HAC1-disruptants require high concentrations of inositol for its normal growth. The ALG6, ALG8, and ALG10 genes encode the glucosyltransferases necessary for the completion of the synthesis of the lipid-linked oligosaccharide used for the asparagine-linked glycosylation of proteins in that order. Here we show that, given a combination of the hac1 defect with a disruption of ALG6, ALG8, and ALG10, no strains grow on inositol-free medium. However, the growth defect of the hac1-alg10 double disrupted was partially, but significantly, suppressed by the addition of inositol to the medium. These results indicate that inositol, according to the numbers of glucose residues in the oligosaccharide, plays an important role in the stress response and quality control of glycoproteins in the ER.
Microcalorimetry is a useful tool for monitoring the growth behavior of microorganisms. In this study, microcalorimetry was used to investigate the effects of nitrogen, air, oxygen, nitrous oxide, argon, and krypton at high pressure on the growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Growth thermograms (metabolic heat vs. incubation time) were generated to estimate metabolic activity under compressed gases and to determine the 50% inhibitory pressure (IP50) and minimum inhibitory pressure (MIP), which are regarded as indices of the toxicity of compressed gases. Based on MIP values, the most toxic to the least toxic gases were found to be: O2 > N2O > air > Kr > N2 > Ar.
Aminoglycoside has been known as a clinically important antibiotic for a long time, but genetic information for the biosynthesis of aminoglycoside is still insufficient. In this study, we tried to clone aminoglycoside-biosynthetic genes from soil DNA for accumulation of genetic information. We chose the genes encoding L-glutamine:(2-deoxy-)scyllo-inosose aminotransferase as the target, because it is specific for all types of aminoglycoside biosynthesis. By degenerate PCR, we obtained 33 individual clones that were homologous with aminotransferase genes in aminoglycoside biosynthesis. Phylogenetic analysis and alignment of these genes showed that horizontal gene transfer has occurred in the soil. Among these, several quite interesting genes were obtained. Some genes probably originated from non-actinomycetes, and some were far from the known homologs. These genes can be useful markers for the isolation of entire gene clusters and originating organisms.