Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Online ISSN : 1347-6947
Print ISSN : 0916-8451
Volume 74 , Issue 8
Showing 1-45 articles out of 45 articles from the selected issue
Analytical Chemistry Regular Paper
  • Takashi IDE
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1578-1582
    Published: August 23, 2010
    Released: August 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: August 07, 2010
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    An enzymatic-HPLC method to analyze the serum concentration of D-3-hydroxybutyric acid was developed. A deproteinized sample of rat serum was treated with 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase in the presence of NAD, and was analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC to separate and quantify NADH formed by the enzyme reaction, monitoring OD at 340 nm. Standard samples containing varying amounts of D-3-hydroxybutyric acid (0–10 nmol in 50 μl) were treated with 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase and analyzed by HPLC (the injected amount was 0–2.7 nmol of D-3-hydroxybutuyric acid), resulting in the peak area increasing proportionally with the injected amount. The method proved sensitive enough for as little as 0.2–2 nmol D-3-hydroxybutyric acid in 50 μl to be accurately analyzed. Only 10–20 μl of the rat serum protein-free extract is therefore required to obtain a reliable value. The values obtained with this method are identical to those observed by the conventional enzyme-spectrophotometric method. This method can be easily conducted in many laboratories because it is highly sensitive and only requires HPLC apparatus equipped with a UV meter.
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Organic Chemistry Regular Papers
  • Kouji KURAMOCHI, Fumiyo SAITO, Atsuo NAKAZAKI, Toshifumi TAKEUCHI, Kaz ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1635-1640
    Published: August 23, 2010
    Released: August 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: August 07, 2010
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    The syntheses of racemic and optically active pseudodeflectusin and ustusorane C are described. The 1H- and 13C-NMR data for our synthetic pseudodeflectusin and ustusorane C were identical to those of the corresponding natural products. We also synthesized the proposed structure of aspergione A and B whose 1H- and 13C-NMR data were identical to those of ustusorane C and pseudodeflectusin. The 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra of our synthetic aspergione A and B were different from those of the natural compounds. Our results confirm that aspergione A and B are in fact ustusorane C and pseudodeflectusin, respectively.
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  • Koji OGURA, Takuya SUGAHARA, Masafumi MARUYAMA, Koichi AKIYAMA, Satosh ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1641-1644
    Published: August 23, 2010
    Released: August 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: August 07, 2010
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    Improved syntheses of optically pure (−)- and (+)-morinol C, and (−)- and (+)-morinol D were achieved by employing the Mizoroki-Heck reaction to construct the cinnamyl moiety. The protective group of the alkene substrate affected the yield of this key reaction. The reaction with a combination of the acetate-protected olefin and 4-methoxyphenylboronic acid gave the best result producing morinol C and D. All stereoisomers of morinol C and D showed cytotoxic activity, with (R,R)-morinol C showing the highest antibacterial activity.
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  • Hiroaki UEDA, Yukihiro SUGIMOTO
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1662-1667
    Published: August 23, 2010
    Released: August 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: August 07, 2010
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    The root parasitic plant, Striga hermonthica, constrains the production of several agronomically important poaceous crops in the arid and semiarid tropical regions of Sub-Saharan Africa. The parasite is incompatible with the model legume, Lotus japonicus. Studies at the molecular and metabolic levels have revealed that expression of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of vestitol, a legume-specific phytoalexin, was highly up-regulated in L. japonicus roots challenged with S. hermonthica. High-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy confirmed the presence of vestitol in the exudate released from L. japonicus roots inoculated with S. hermonthica seedlings. Fluorescence, similar to that emitted by authentic vestitol, was displayed on the surface of L. japonicus roots to which successful attachment of S. hermonthica had been achieved. Vestitol exerted a limited inhibitory effect on S. hermonthica germination, but it significantly inhibited seedling growth. These results indicate that vestitol biosynthesis in L. japonicus was induced by S. hermonthica attachment and that vestitol contributed, at least in part, to the host’s defence mechanism and acted as a chemical barrier against the intrusion of the parasite.
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Organic Chemistry Note
Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Regular Papers
  • Jong Yul ROH, Jae Young CHOI, Joong Nam KANG, Yong WANG, Hee Jin SHIM, ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1522-1526
    Published: August 23, 2010
    Released: August 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: August 07, 2010
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    Previously, we found that expression by translational fusion of the polyhedrin (Polh)-green fluorescence protein (GFP) led to the formation of granular structures, and that these fluorescent granules were easily precipitated by high-speed centrifugation. Here, we developed an easy, fast, mass purification system using this baculovirus expression system (BES). An enhanced GFP (EGFP) fused with the Polh gene at the N-terminus, including a linker and enterokinase (EK) site between Polh and EGFP, was expressed in Sf9 cells. The cells infected by AcPolhEKA-EGFP produced fluorescent granules. The EGFP fusion protein was purified from granule-containing cells in three steps: cell harvest, sonication, and EK digestion. Through final enterokinase digestion, EGFP presented mainly in the supernatant, and this supernatant fraction also showed a pure EGFP band. These results suggest that a combined procedure of Polh fusion expression and enterokinase digestion can be used for rapid and easy purification of other proteins.
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  • MD. Tofazzal HOSSAIN, Satoshi TESHIBA, Yuichi SHIGEOKA, Tetsuro FUJISA ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1556-1563
    Published: August 23, 2010
    Released: August 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: August 07, 2010
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    sHSP20.8 and sHSP19.9 are silkworm small-heat shock proteins (sHSPs) comprising a number of polypeptides of molecular sizes of several tens of kilodaltons as subunits. The structural properties of sHSPs were investigated. sHSP19.9 was found to be aggregated by itself during incubation at 60 °C. Aggregation was suppressed in the presence of dithiothreitol and at high ionic strength. In contrast, sHSP20.8 was not aggregated. Aggregation of sHSP19.9 was partially suppressed by sHSP20.8 and in the presence of catalase as a target protein. Based on changes in small-angle X-ray scattering, it is possible that the molecular size of sHSP19.9 is larger than that of sHSP20.8, and that their molecular sizes increase with increasing temperature in a reversible, biphasic manner. sHSPs did not protect catalase from thermal inactivation, but protected it from precipitation by forming a soluble complex. sHSP20.8 and sHSP19.9 with dithiothreitol were stable against lyophilization, autoclaving at 120 °C, and boiling.
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  • Toshinobu ARAI, Kuniki KINO
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1572-1577
    Published: August 23, 2010
    Released: August 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: August 07, 2010
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    Supplementary material
    L-Amino acid ligase synthesizes various peptides from unprotected L-amino acids in an ATP-dependent manner. Known L-amino acid ligases catalyze only dipeptide synthesis, but recently we found that RizB of Bacillus subtilis NBRC 3134 catalyzes oligopeptide synthesis. In the present study, we searched for new members of the L-amino acid ligase group that catalyze oligopeptide synthesis. Several hypothetical proteins possessing the ATP-grasp motif were selected by in silico analysis. These recombinant proteins were assayed for L-amino acid ligase activity. We obtained five L-amino acid ligases showing oligopeptide synthesis activities. These proteins showed low similarity in amino acid sequence, but commonly used branched-chain amino acids, such as RizB, as substrates. Furthermore, the spr0969 protein of Streptococcus pneumoniae synthesized longer peptides than those synthesized by RizB, and the BAD_1200 protein of Bifidobacterium adolescentis showed higher activity toward aromatic amino acids than toward branched-chain ones. We also examined some of their characteristics.
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  • Junfeng WANG, Yanling LIU, Yunfei CAI, Fangfang ZHANG, Guangmin XIA, F ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1583-1590
    Published: August 23, 2010
    Released: August 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: August 07, 2010
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    Supplementary material
    Swertia mussotii Franch has anti-hepatitis activity and contains a high level of iridoid monoterpenoids. The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP) geraniol 10-hydroxylase (G10H) is thought to play an important role in iridoid monoterpenoid and indole alkaloid biosynthesis. Here we report the isolation of a full-length cDNA clone of S. mussotii G10H (SmG10H). The predicted gene product was a 496 residue protein designated CYP76B10, the sequence of which was highly similar to that of the CYP76 family, particularly to Catharanthus roseus G10H (80.2% homology). SmG10H transcripts were much more abundant in the leaves than in either the root or the stem, and were derived from a single copy gene. SmG10H expression was upregulated by treatment with methyljasmonate (MeJA) over a period from 6 h to 36 h after treatment. Accumulation of swertiamarin increased after elicitation by MeJA. SmG10H was heterologously expressed in both Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris (yeast), forming a 55.5-kDa protein. Based on analysis in vitro, SmG10H was found to have catalytic activity hydroxylating geraniol. In the SmG10H overexpression plants, the level of SmG10H transcript and the contents of 10-hydroxygeraniol and swertiamarin increased simultaneously.
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  • Zedong JIANG, Daekyung KIM, Yasuhiro YAMASAKI, Tomohiro YAMANISHI, Tom ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1613-1616
    Published: August 23, 2010
    Released: August 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: August 07, 2010
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    An N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-specific Ca2+-dependent lectin (C-type lectin), isolated from the marine invertebrate Holothuroidea (Cucumaria echinata), CEL-I, showed potent mitogenic activity toward normal mouse spleen cells. The mitogenic activity of CEL-I, which reached a maximum at 100 μg/ml, was inhibited by GalNAc in a concentration-dependent manner. The mitogenic effect of CEL-I at 10 μg/ml on T cell- enriched splenocytes was at a similar level due to a well-known T cell mitogen, concanavalin A (Con A), at 10 μg/ml. Furthermore, CEL-I evoked a mitogenic response from nude mouse spleen cells, while no significant effects of Con A on this cell population were observed over a wide range of concentrations. These results suggest that CEL-I is a potent mitogenic lectin with the ability to stimulate both T and B cells.
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  • Ryo TAKESHITA, Hisao ITO, Masaaki WACHI
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1617-1623
    Published: August 23, 2010
    Released: August 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: August 07, 2010
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    Corynebacterium glutamicum is widely used in the industrial production of amino acids. Producer strains are generated by classical random mutagenesis, and therefore have detrimental characteristics caused by unnecessary mutations. Increased alkali sensitivity is one of those undesired characteristics. We found that one of the laboratory strains, AJ12036ΔcspAΔcspB, showed decreased growth under alkaline conditions. To clarify which mutation is responsible for alkali sensitivity, we constructed mutant strains carrying the ΔcspA and/or ΔcspB mutations from wild-type strain ATCC13869. We found that disruption of cspA encoding a mycolyltransferase alone caused increased alkali sensitivity. The ΔcspA mutant also showed increased susceptibility to ethambutol, penicillin, and rifampicin. Disruption of cspB had no effect on alkali sensitivity or drug sensitivity. These results indicate that the mycolate layer is important for alkali sensitivity as well as drug susceptibility in this bacterium.
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  • Hiroshi NISHIMURA, Yuki KITANO, Takahiro INOUE, Keigo NOMURA, Yoshihik ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1624-1630
    Published: August 23, 2010
    Released: August 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: August 07, 2010
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    Membrane-associated hydrogenase was purified from the chemolithoautotrophic epsilonproteobacterium Hydrogenimonas thermophila at 152-fold purity. The hydrogenase was found to be localized in the periplasmic space, and was easily solubilized with 0.1% Triton X-100 treatment. Hydrogen oxidation activity was 1,365 μmol H2/min/mg of protein at 80 °C at pH 9.0, with phenazine methosulphate as the electron acceptor. Hydrogen production activity was 900 μmol H2/min/mg of protein at 80 °C and pH 6.0, with reduced methyl viologen as the electron donor. The hydrogenase from this organism showed higher oxygen tolerance than those from other microorganisms showing hydrogen oxidation activity. The structural genes of this hydrogenase, which contains N-terminal amino acid sequences from both small and large subunits of purified hydrogenase, were successfully elucidated. The hydrogenase from H. thermophila was found to be phylogenetically related with H2 uptake hydrogenases from pathogenic Epsilonproteobacteria.
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  • Andrei D. SHUTOV, Krisna PRAK, Takako FUKUDA, Sergei V. RUDAKOV, Angel ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1631-1634
    Published: August 23, 2010
    Released: August 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: August 07, 2010
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    Basic 7S globulin, a cysteine-rich protein from soybean seeds, consists of subunits containing 27 kD and 16 kD chains linked by disulfide bonding. Three differently sized subunits of the basic 7S globulin were detected and partially separated by SP Sepharose chromatography. The basic 7S globulin was characterized as a member of a superfamily of structurally related but functionally distinct proteins descended from a specific group of plant aspartic proteinases.
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  • Masahiro NAKAJIMA, Mamoru NISHIMOTO, Motomitsu KITAOKA
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1652-1655
    Published: August 23, 2010
    Released: August 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: August 07, 2010
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    D-Galactosyl-β1→4-L-rhamnose (GalRha) was produced enzymatically from 1.1 M sucrose and 1.0 M L-rhamnose by the concomitant actions of four enzymes (sucrose phosphorylase, UDP-glucose-hexose 1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, UDP-glucose 4-epimerase, and D-galactosyl-β1→4-L-rhamnose phosphorylase) in the presence of 1.0 mM UDP-glucose and 30 mM inorganic phosphate. The accumulation of GalRha in 1 liter of the reaction mixture reached 230 g (the reaction yield was 71% from L-rhamnose). Sucrose and fructose in the reaction mixture were removed by yeast treatment, but isolation of GalRha by crystallization after yeast treatment was unsuccessful. Finally, 49 g of GalRha was isolated from part of the reaction mixture with yeast treatment by gel-filtration chromatography.
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  • Kihong LIM, Hyo-Ihl CHANG
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1668-1672
    Published: August 23, 2010
    Released: August 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: August 07, 2010
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    O-Linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), a single GlcNAc modification of proteins, is abundant in nucleocytoplasmic proteins of eukaryotes. Most nuclear transcriptional regulator proteins carry O-GlcNAc, implicating O-GlcNAc in gene regulation. This study suggested the possibility that O-GlcNAc regulates cooperative binding of Sp1 and its collaborating transcription factors, Oct1 and Elf-1, onto DNA templates in vivo. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays on cells in which O-GlcNAc was modulated pharmacologically revealed that Sp1-Oct1- and Sp1-Elf-1-paired occupancies of previously known target promoter regions were suppressed by elevated O-GlcNAc modification. Since these pairs of transcription factors bind the target promoters cooperatively and DNA binding of Sp1 alone is not affected by O-GlcNAc, our results imply that O-GlcNAc weakens the DNA binding of Sp1 and its cooperative binding partners by inhibiting stable interaction on DNA templates.
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  • Yoshihiro OCHIAI, Yoshiaki WATANABE, Hideo OZAWA, Shigeru IKEGAMI, Nao ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1673-1679
    Published: August 23, 2010
    Released: August 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: August 07, 2010
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    Myoglobin (Mb) purified from fast skeletal muscle of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus orientalis was subjected to thermal treatment, and the denaturation profiles were examined by thermodynamic analysis. Based on the ellipticity or helical content obtained by circular dichroism (CD) spectrometry, it was found that denaturation of tuna Mb consisted of three steps, and that slight structural changes of Mb started below 20 °C. However, major structural changes were observed at around 58 and 72 °C. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed a similar but somewhat different thermal denaturation profile of Mb. In comparison with the denaturing profiles of whale Mb under the same conditions, the thermal stability of tuna Mb was found to be much lower. In the modeled tertiary structures of these Mbs, they were roughly similar to each other, though minor conformational differences were recognized and the total energy was found to be lower for tuna Mb.
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  • Kayoko HIRAYAMA, Hirofumi WATANABE, Gaku TOKUDA, Katsuhiko KITAMOTO, M ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1680-1686
    Published: August 23, 2010
    Released: August 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: August 07, 2010
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    Although termites are known to have a highly efficient lignocellulose-digesting system, mass production of native endogenous cellulases of termites has failed in Escherchia coli, and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and it has not been accomplished. Here we report the successful production, purification, and characterization of two termite endogenous β-1,4-endoglucanases, RsEG and NtEG, from the salivary gland of Reticulitermes speratus and the midgut of Nasutitermes takasagoensis respectively, using Aspergillus oryzae as host. Thin-layer chromatography analysis showed that both enzymes hydrolyzed the β-1,4-cellulosic linkage of cellodextrin into cellobiose and glucose. Kinetic studies indicated that the specific activity and Vmax values of the two enzymes were significantly higher than those of previously reported fungal and bacterial endoglucanases.
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Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Notes
Food & Nutrition Science Regular Papers
  • Kumar SAPKOTA, Se-Eun PARK, Ji-Eun KIM, Seung KIM, Han-Suk CHOI, Hong- ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1527-1533
    Published: August 23, 2010
    Released: August 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: August 07, 2010
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    In this study, we analyzed the antioxidant and antimelanogenic properties of a variety of solvent extracts of pre-bloom and full-bloom chestnut flowers. Among the solvent extracts, a pre-bloom methanol extract (preM) and an ethanol extract (preE) showed the highest amounts of phenolics (467.92±0.45 and 456.24±5.88 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g of extract) and flavonoids (60.96±1.86 and 41.59±8.57 mg of quercetin equivalent/g of extract). These extracts exhibited the highest DPPH radical and reducing activities, as well as the greatest mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity. In addition, preE effectively protected the skin against ultraviolet (UV) rays. Further, extracts were tested for cytotoxicity on human melanoma cells (SK-MEL-2), and we observed that all the extracts were non-cytotoxic for the cells. Their effects on tyrosinase and melanin inhibitory action were further assessed, and we found that all the extracts reduced the tyrosinase activity and melanin formation of SK-MEL-2 cells as effectively as arbutin. Moreover, the protein level expression of tyrosinase decreased dramatically. However, the protein levels of the other melanogenic enzymes, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1) and dopachrome tautomerase (DCT), were not altered significantly. Therefore, the antimelanogenic effects of chestnut flower extracts were attributable to their inhibitory effects on tyrosinase via their anti-oxidative action, making them a strong candidate for use in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical applications.
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  • Yukako OKAZAKI, Shoko KAKEHI, Yonghui XU, Kazuhisa TSUJIMOTO, Masahiro ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1534-1538
    Published: August 23, 2010
    Released: August 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: August 07, 2010
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    The effect was examined of dietary sericin on the lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in rats fed with a high-fat diet. The rats were fed with a 20% beef tallow diet with or without sericin at the level of 4% for 5 weeks. The final body weight and white adipose tissue weight were unaffected by dietary manipulation. The consumption of sericin significantly reduced the serum levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, phospholipids and free fatty acids. Serum very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and LDL-phospholipids were also significantly reduced by the sericin intake. Liver triglyceride and the activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme, the lipogenic enzymes, were also reduced by the sericin intake. Dietary sericin caused a marked elevation in serum adiponectin. The consumption of sericin suppressed the increases in plasma glucose and insulin levels after an intraperitoneal glucose injection. These results imply the usefulness of sericin for improving the lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in rats fed on a high-fat diet.
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  • Mika MOCHIZUKI, Yoshikazu TSUCHIE, Naruomi YAMADA, Yoshiaki MIYAKE, To ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1539-1544
    Published: August 23, 2010
    Released: August 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: August 07, 2010
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    The expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) has been implicated as one of the most important causes of the development of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, and, it is speculated that the prevention of it is an effective approach to the control of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of sesame lignans on the expression of CAMs in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Based on cell-ELISA analysis, we found that sesaminol-6-catechol downregulated the TNF-α-induced expression of CAMs in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, these inhibitory effects were caused to be drastically exerted by downregulating the CAM proteins in TNF-α-activated HUVECs at transcriptional level. This suggests, that sesaminol-6-catehcol suppresses the expression of CAMs, and may be an active component of sesame lignans.
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  • Yukiko OKUMURA, Masataka NARUKAWA, Tatsuo WATANABE
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1545-1549
    Published: August 23, 2010
    Released: August 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: August 07, 2010
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    We investigated energy metabolism enhancement by pepper by examining suppression of body fat accumulation in mice due to piperine (PIP) and black pepper (BP) intake. To induce adiposity, mice were fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFS) diet as a control diet for 4 weeks. Visceral fat weights decreased significantly in the mice fed diets of 0.03% and of 0.05% PIP. Body weight in the 0.05% PIP group also decreased significantly. In the mice fed a diet of 1.0% BP, body weight and visceral fat weights decreased significantly. For all parameters tested, the 1.0% BP group tended to show values slightly lower than those of the 0.03% PIP group. Expression of thermogenic protein uncoupling protein 1 tended to increase in the mice on the 1.0% BP diet. These results indicate that BP suppresses the effect of body fat accumulation mainly through the action of PIP.
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  • Mamoru KAKINO, Hiroshi IZUTA, Tetsuro ITO, Kazuhiro TSURUMA, Yoko ARAK ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1550-1555
    Published: August 23, 2010
    Released: August 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: August 07, 2010
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    Agarwood (Aquilaria sinensis, Aquilaria crasna) is well known as an incense in the oriental region such as Thailand, Taiwan, and Cambodia, and is used as a digestive in traditional medicine. We investigated the laxative effects and mechanism of agarwood leaves extracted with ethanol (EEA-1, Aquilaria sinensis; EEA-2, Aquilaria crasna). EEA-1, EEA-2, the main constituents of EEAs (mangiferin, and genkwanin-5-O-primeveroside), and senna increased the frequency and weight of stools in loperamide-induced constipation model mice. EEA-1 and EEA-2 did not induce diarrhea as a side effect, but senna induced severe diarrhea. EEA-1 and senna increased gastro-intestinal (GI) transit in the model mice. EEA-1, but not senna, also increased the intestinal tension of isolated jejunum and ileum in guinea pigs, and the tension increase was blocked by atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, but not by other inhibitors (granicetron, pyrilamine, or bradykinin-antagonist peptide). Furthermore, the increase in frequency and weight of stools induced by EEA-1 were blocked by pre-administration of atropine in the model mice. These findings indicate that EEAs exerted a laxative effect via acetylcholine receptors in the mouse constipation model.
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  • Akiko TASHIRO, Atsuko HASEGAWA, Kaoru KOHYAMA, Hitomi KUMAGAI, Hitoshi ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1598-1605
    Published: August 23, 2010
    Released: August 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: August 07, 2010
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    The dependence of the dynamic viscoelastic parameters of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), xanthan gum, and guar gum solutions on the angular frequency (ω) was compared with that of their viscosity (μ) on the shear rate (γ). In addition, the effect of these rheological properties on the maximum velocity through the pharynx, Vmax, as measured by the ultrasonic pulse Doppler method, was investigated. The CMC and guar gum solutions examined were taken as a dilute solution and a true polymer solution, respectively. The xanthan gum solution was taken as a weak gel above 0.5% and a true polymer solution below 0.2%. The maximum velocity, Vmax, of the thickener solutions correlated well with μ, the dynamic viscosity η′, and the complex viscosity η*, especially those measured at γ or ω of 20–30 s−1 (or rad/s) and above, suggesting that μ, η′, and η* are suitable indexes for care foods of the liquid type for dysphagic patients.
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  • Kazunari TANAKA, Shizuka TAMARU, Shoko NISHIZONO, Yuji MIYATA, Kei TAM ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1606-1612
    Published: August 23, 2010
    Released: August 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: August 07, 2010
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    We manufactured a new fermented tea by tea-rolling processing of third-crop green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves and loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaves. The mixed fermented tea extract inhibited pancreatic lipase activity in vitro, and effectively suppressed postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia in rats. Rats fed a diet containing 1% freeze-dried fermented tea extract for 4 weeks had a significantly lower liver triacylglycerol concentration and white adipose tissue weight than those fed the control diet lacking fermented tea extract. The activity of fatty acid synthase in hepatic cytosol markedly decreased in the fermented tea extract group as compared to the control group. The serum and liver triacylglycerol- and body fat-lowering effects of the mixed fermented tea extract were strong relative to the level of dietary supplementation. These results suggest that the new fermented tea product exhibited hypotriacylglycerolemic and antiobesity properties through suppression of both liver fatty acid synthesis and postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia by inhibition of pancreatic lipase.
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  • Shizuki KONDO, Jin-zhong XIAO, Takumi SATOH, Toshitaka ODAMAKI, Sachik ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1656-1661
    Published: August 23, 2010
    Released: August 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: August 07, 2010
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    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-obesity activity of a probiotic bifidobacterial strain in a mouse model with obesity induced by a high-fat diet. The mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with Bifidobacterium breve B-3 at 108 or 109 CFU/d for 8 weeks. B. breve B-3 supplementation dose-dependently suppressed the accumulation of body weight and epididymal fat, and improved the serum levels of total cholesterol, fasting glucose and insulin. The bifidobacterial counts in the caecal contents and feces were significantly increased with the B. breve B-3 administration. The expression of genes related to fat metabolism and insulin sensitivity in the gut and epididymal fat tissue was up-regulated by this administration. These results suggest that the use of B. breve B-3 would be effective in reducing the risk of obesity.
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  • Fumie OGURA, Kyoko HAYASHI, Jung-Bum LEE, Kenji KANEKIYO, Toshimitsu H ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1687-1690
    Published: August 23, 2010
    Released: August 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: August 07, 2010
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    A hot-water extract of Aphanothece sacrum, an edible aquacultured blue-green alga, was found to show a remarkable inhibitory effect on the replication of enveloped viruses including herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and influenza virus type A (IFV-A, H1N1) in vitro. The main active components were suggested to be sulfated polysaccharides in non-dialyzable portion (ASWPH). ASWPH was found to inhibit the viral adsorption to the receptor of the host cells involved in the replication process of HSV-2 and IFV-A. In addition, while the penetration stage of HSV-2 was also significantly suppressed with ASWPH, no such effect was observed in the replication of IFV-A. These results suggest that ASWPH might be useful in the prevention of infectious diseases caused by HSV-2 as well as IFV-A.
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Food & Nutrition Science Notes
Food & Nutrition Science Communication
  • Satoshi NAGAOKA, Atsushi NAKAMURA, Haruhiko SHIBATA, Yoshihiro KANAMAR ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1738-1741
    Published: August 23, 2010
    Released: August 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: August 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study was designed to identify a novel peptide derived from soybean protein that induces inhibition of cholesterol absorption in vivo. VAWWMY (Val-Ala-Trp-Trp-Met-Tyr, designated soystatin) had a significantly greater ability to bind bile acid than soybean protein peptic hydrolysate (SPH) or casein tryptic hydrolysate (CTH). Surprisingly, the bile-acid binding ability of VAWWMY was almost as strong as that of the hypocholesterolemic medicine cholestyramine. The micellar solubility of cholesterol was significantly lower in the presence of VAWWMY than in that of SPH or CTH. We found that soystatin derived from soybean glycinin acted as an inhibitor of cholesterol absorption in vivo.
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Microbiology & Fermentation Technology Regular Papers
  • Young Han LEE, Shah Md. Asraful ISLAM, Sun Joo HONG, Kye Man CHO, Renu ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1517-1521
    Published: August 23, 2010
    Released: August 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: August 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Physio-chemical changes in oyster shell were examined, and fresh and composted oyster shell meals were compared as lime fertilizers in soybean cultivation. Structural changes in oyster shell were observed by AFM and FE-SEM. We found that grains of the oyster shell surface became smoother and smaller over time. FT-IR analysis indicated the degradation of a chitin-like compound of oyster shell. In chemical analysis, pH (12.3±0.24), electrical conductivity (4.1±0.24 dS m−1), and alkaline powder (53.3±1.12%) were highest in commercial lime. Besides, pH was higher in composted oyster shell meal (9.9±0.53) than in fresh oyster shell meal (8.4±0.32). The highest organic matter (1.1±0.08%), NaCl (0.54±0.03%), and moisture (15.1±1.95%) contents were found in fresh oyster shell meal. A significant higher yield of soybean (1.33 t ha−1) was obtained by applying composted oyster shell meal (a 21% higher yield than with fresh oyster shell meal). Thus composting of oyster shell increases the utility of oyster shell as a liming material for crop cultivation.
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  • Kimihiro ABE, Nozomu OBANA, Kouji NAKAMURA
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1564-1571
    Published: August 23, 2010
    Released: August 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: August 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Tex was originally identified in Bordetella pertussis, where it serves as a transcriptional regulator of toxin genes. However, the Tex of Streptococcus pneumoniae has no regulatory function in the expression of the pneumococcal major toxin pneumolysin. Here, we identified the CPE2168 gene as Tex in Clostridium perfringens, and examined the roles of Tex in toxin gene expression. We found that the deletion mutant for Tex does not affect growth, but the mRNA levels of three hyaluronidase genes (nagH, nagJ, and nagL) and an exo-sialidase (nanJ) were reduced to less than 50% as compared to the parent strain, C. perfringens strain 13. On the other hand, Tex did not affect the expression of proteases, enterotoxins, hemolysins, either of two hyaluronidase genes (nagI and nagK), an exo-sialidase (nanI), or adhesins. Moreover, purified Tex bound to the 5′-portion of target gene mRNAs. Based on these results, we propose that Tex positively regulates the gene expression of a set of toxin genes in C. perfringens.
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  • Watchara KANCHANARACH, Gunjana THEERAGOOL, Taketo INOUE, Toshiharu YAK ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1591-1597
    Published: August 23, 2010
    Released: August 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: August 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Acetobacter pasteurianus strains IFO3283, SKU1108, and MSU10 were grown under acetic acid fermentation conditions, and their growth behavior was examined together with their capacity for acetic acid resistance and pellicle formation. In the fermentation process, the cells became aggregated and covered by amorphous materials in the late-log and stationary phases, but dispersed again in the second growth phase (due to overoxidation). The morphological change in the cells was accompanied by changes in sugar contents, which might be related to pellicle polysaccharide formation. To determine the relationship between pellicle formation and acetic acid resistance, a pellicle-forming R strain and a non-forming S strain were isolated, and their fermentation ability and acetic acid diffusion activity were compared. The results suggest that pellicle formation is directly related to acetic acid resistance ability, and thus is important to acetic acid fermentation in these A. pasteurianus strains.
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Microbiology & Fermentation Technology Notes
Environmental Science Regular Paper
  • Junko MATSUKI, Jeung-yil PARK, Riki SHIROMA, Yumiko ARAI-SANOH, Masash ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1645-1651
    Published: August 23, 2010
    Released: August 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: August 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Rice plants are known to accumulate starch in leaf sheaths and culms, and in some cultivars significant amounts of starch are present at the mature stage. This can be considered as potential feedstock for the recovery of fermentable sugars. We isolated starches from the culms of cultivars Yumeaoba, Koshihikari, and Leafstar to investigate their structural and physical features. Yumeaoba culm starch contained 20.2% amylose, whereas Koshihikari and Leafstar contained 25.8% and 25.2%. Yumeaoba culm starch was found by chain-length distribution analysis to contain higher amounts of short chains, resulting in lower gelatinization temperature by 7 °C, as compared to Koshihikari and Leafstar. Consequently, the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of Yumeaoba culm starches reached maximum at a lower temperature than Leafstar. Rice culm starch, with a lower gelatinization temperature, can provide an advantageous material for feedstock for bioethanol production in terms of energy conservation.
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