Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Online ISSN : 1347-6947
Print ISSN : 0916-8451
Volume 76 , Issue 5
Showing 1-39 articles out of 39 articles from the selected issue
Analytical Chemistry Regular Papers
  • M. Nurul ISLAM, Unyong KIM, Dong-Hyun KIM, Mi-Sook DONG, Hye Hyun YOO
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages 923-927
    Published: May 23, 2012
    Released: May 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study characterizes the correlation between the chemical fingerprint and estrogenic activity of an Epimedium koreanum extract. The estrogenic activity of 31 E. koreanum extract samples was evaluated by a luciferase reporter gene assay, and the samples were classified into 3 groups based on their bioactivity. A chemical fingerprint analysis was performed on each sample by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and 44 common peaks were selected from the chromatogram and used as a dataset for a pattern recognition analysis. A canonical discriminant analysis performed on this dataset determined a distinct distribution of the samples according to their estrogenic activity on the scoring plot. The classification results showed that 90.3% of the original grouped cases had been correctly classified. The total content of the 4 major extract compounds, epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, and icariin, exhibited good correlation (r=0.784) with the estrogenic activities of the respective extracts. This chromatographic fingerprint-chemometric analysis system could be useful for predicting the E. koreanum pharmacological activity and consequent biological activity-relevant quality control assessment.
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  • Yasuhiro KAKIGI, Takashi HAKAMATSUKA, Takeshi ICHO, Yukihiro GODA, Nao ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages 1003-1007
    Published: May 23, 2012
    Released: May 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2012
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    The aim of this study was to survey the flavonol compositions of Ginkgo biloba products, especially those on the Japanese market. Sixteen food products, six medicinal products, and raw Ginkgo biloba leaves were examined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultra-violet detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Eleven flavonol glycosides, three biflavones, and a flavonol aglycone were qualified by analysis of accurate mass spectra. The quantitative data obtained were then applied to multivariate data analysis, and the flavonol compositions of the food and medicinal products were classified into four groups. Most of the food products were classified into the same group as the medicinal products, which contained high percentages of flavonol glycosides. On the other hand, some food products contained high percentages of biflavones or an aglycone.
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Organic Chemistry Regular Paper
  • Sudhakar V. S. GOVINDAM, Bong-Keun CHOI, Yukio YOSHIOKA, Akihiko KANAM ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages 999-1002
    Published: May 23, 2012
    Released: May 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2012
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    A library of extracts established from hundreds of marine organisms was screened by a cytotoxicity test. The active organic extract of an Okinawan marine sponge of the genus Dysidea was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation to give three new polyoxygenated steroids dysideasterols F-H (13), together with two known related compounds (4 and 5). Their structures were confirmed by NMR and mass spectroscopic analyses. A characteristic structural feature of 2, 4 and 5 is an allylic epoxide, whereas this epoxide undergoes ring-opening by a neighbouring hydroxyl group to give a tetrahydrofuran ring in 1 and 3. All compounds 15 exhibited a similar cytotoxic effect with IC50 values of 0.15–0.3 µM against human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells, demonstrating that the allylic epoxide moiety was not responsible for this cytotoxic effect.
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Organic Chemistry Notes
  • Liangbin ZHOU, Tian TIAN, Bailin XUE, Liyan SONG, Ling LIU, Rongmin YU
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages 1008-1010
    Published: May 23, 2012
    Released: May 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2012
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    To investigate the substrate specificity and regio-selectivity of coumarin glycosyltransferases in transgenic hairy roots of Polygonum multiflorum, esculetin (1) and eight hydroxycoumarins (29) were employed as substrates. Nine corresponding glycosides (1018) involving four new compounds, 6-chloro-4-methylcoumarin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (15), 6-chloro-4-phenylcoumarin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (16), 8-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (17), and 8-allyl-4-methylcoumarin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (18), were biosynthesized by the hairy roots.
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  • Saori INUI, Yuko SHIMAMURA, Shuichi MASUDA, Kenichi SHIRAFUJI, Reuben ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages 1038-1040
    Published: May 23, 2012
    Released: May 23, 2012
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    The new prenylflavonoid, solophenol A (1), together with three known compounds, bonannione A (2), sophoraflavanone A (3) and (2S)-5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-prenylflavanone (4), were isolated from propolis collected from Malaita Island in The Solomon Islands. The structure of each compound was determined by spectroscopic methods, including mass spectrometry and 2D NMR. Compound 1 exhibited potent 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity.
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  • Sayo UENO, Ryo C. YANAGITA, Kazuma MURAKAMI, Akira MURAKAMI, Harukuni ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages 1041-1043
    Published: May 23, 2012
    Released: May 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2012
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    Six bryostatins were isolated from Japanese bryozoan by evaluating their binding to the C1B domain of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ). Structure-activity studies of bryostatins 4, 10, and 14 suggested that the ester group at C20 was not necessary for binding to and activating PKCδ. These bryostatins showed significant anti-tumor-promoting activity in induction tests with the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen.
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Organic Chemistry Communication
  • Eisuke KATO, Kenichi OIKAWA, Keisuke TAKAHASHI, Jun KAWABATA
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages 1044-1046
    Published: May 23, 2012
    Released: May 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2012
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    Supplementary material
    2-Aminoresorcinol is a potent and selective intestinal glucosidase inhibitor. Unlike the majority of glucosidase inhibitors, it shows an uncompetitive mode of inhibition. In this study, we tested the intestinal glucosidase inhibitory activity of various 2-aminoresorcinol derivatives. We found that structural changes, in amino and two phenolic hydroxyl groups had a negative impact on inhibitory activity, but methylation of the phenolic hydroxyl group was found to maintain its activity and replacement of the aromatic ring with an acyl or alkoxy carbonyl group at the 4th position also retained its activity. This enable us to design a molecular probe for further study of the inhibition mechanism of 2-aminoresorcinol.
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Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Regular Papers
  • Rumi TOMINAGA-WADA, Yuka NUKUMIZU, Shusei SATO, Tomohiko KATO, Satoshi ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages 883-887
    Published: May 23, 2012
    Released: May 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2012
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    Epidermal cell differentiation in Arabidopsis is studied as a model system to understand the mechanisms that determine the developmental end state of plant cells. MYB-related transcription factors are involved in cell fate determination. To examine the molecular basis of this process, we analyzed the functional relationship of two R2R3-type MYB genes, AtMYB23 (MYB23) and WEREWOLF (WER). MYB23 is involved in leaf trichome formation. WER represses root-hair formation. Swapping domains between MYB23 and WER, we found that a low homology region of MYB23 might be involved in ectopic trichome initiation on hypocotyls. MYB23 and all MYB23-WER (MW) chimeric transgenes rescued the increased root-hair phenotype of the wer-1 mutant. Although WER did not rescue the gl1-1 no-trichome phenotype, MYB23 and all MW chimeric transgenes rescued gl1-1. These results suggest that MYB23 acquired a specific function for trichome differentiation during evolution.
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  • Yasuaki MOHRI, Kazunori OYAMA, Mizuki SONE, Atsushi AKAMATSU, Katsuhik ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages 888-891
    Published: May 23, 2012
    Released: May 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2012
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    In mice, homozygous Lgr4 inactivation results in hypoplastic kidneys. To understand better the role of LGR4 in kidney development, we performed an analysis of kidneys in Lgr4-/- embryos. We stained Lgr4-/- kidneys with anti-WT1 and anti-Cleaved Caspase3 antibodies at E16.5, and observed that the structures of the cap mesenchyme were disrupted and that apoptosis increased. In addition, the expression of PAX2, an anti-apoptotic factor in kidney development, was also significantly decreased at E16.5. We found that the LGR4 defect caused an increase in apoptosis in the peripheral mesenchyme during kidney development.
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  • Takashi HATTA, Eiji FUJII, Noboru TAKIZAWA
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages 892-899
    Published: May 23, 2012
    Released: May 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2012
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    Ralstonia pickettii DTP0602 utilizes 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) as sole source of carbon and energy. We have characterized hadABC which is involved in the degradation of 2,4,6-TCP. To identify the other genes involved in 2,4,6-TCP degradation, the DNA sequence around hadABC was determined. A regulatory gene, hadR, homologous to the LysR-type transcriptional regulator was located upstream of hadA, but no maleylacetate (MA) reductase gene was located near hadABC. An 8.4-kb DNA fragment containing a MA reductase gene, hadD, was cloned using a DNA probe designed from the N-terminal sequence of purified MA reductase. hadD was located upstream of an open reading frame, hadS, which codes for a homolog of the LysR-type transcriptional regulator. A hadS insertion mutant, DTP62S, constitutively expressed MA reductase when grown on aspartate in the absence of 2,4,6-TCP. MA reductase was repressed in DTP62S supplemented with hadS. HadR and HadS are proposed to be a positive and a negative regulator, respectively. A draft genome sequence analysis revealed that the hadRXABC and hadSYD clusters were separated by 146-kb on the 8.1-Mb chromosome.
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  • Ding-Ping BAI, Ming-Ming YANG, Yu-Lin CHEN
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages 933-937
    Published: May 23, 2012
    Released: May 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2012
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    PiggyBac (PB) has recently been found to be functional in various organisms. To verify and exploit its application in the cashmere goat, a PB transposon system including donor and helper vector of was developed, in which the EGFP gene in donor of vector was used as reporter. Cashmere goat fetal fibroblasts cells (GFFs) were transfected with the PB transposon system and the efficiency of gene transfer was determined. Compared with random integration, PB-mediated EGFP expression levels increased 7.78-fold in the GFFs, confirming that the PB transposon system constructed successfully mediated efficient foreign gene integration in the GFFs. To further investigate the characteristics of PB-mediated integration instance, PB integration site distribution in the goat genome was examined. The results showed that PB had a preference for AT rich regions of the goat genome. Thus this study confirms the function of PB transposon in GFFs and provides a potential genetic tool for producing transgenic goats.
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  • Koh AMANO, Hiroe KATAYAMA, Akihiro SAITO, Akikazu ANDO, Yoshiho NAGATA
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages 967-970
    Published: May 23, 2012
    Released: May 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2012
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    Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL) is an L-fucose-specific lectin produced in the mycelia and fruit-bodies of the widespread ascomycete fungus Aleuria aurantia. It is extensively used in the detection of fucose, but its physiological role remains unknown. To investigate this, we analyzed the interaction between AAL and, a zygomycete fungus Mucor racemosus, which is assumed to contain fucose in its cell wall. AAL specifically bound to the hyphae of M. racemosus, because binding was inhibited by L-fucose but not by D-fucose. It inhibited the growth of the fungus at 1 µM, and the M. racemosus cells were remarkably disrupted at 7.5 µM. In contrast, two other fucose-specific lectins, Anguilla anguilla agglutinin and Ulex europaeus agglutinin, did not inhibit the growth of M. racemosus. These results suggest that the growth inhibition activity is unique to AAL, and that AAL could act as an antifungal protein in natural ecosystems.
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  • Mana IKEDA, Kouji MIYAUCHI, Masahiro MATSUMIYA
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages 971-979
    Published: May 23, 2012
    Released: May 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2012
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    A 56 kDa chitinase isozyme (PaChiB) was purified from the stomach of the silver croaker Pennahia argentatus. The optimum pH and pH stability of PaChiB were observed in an acidic pH range. When N-acetylchitooligosaccharides ((GlcNAc)n, n=2 –6) were used as substrates, PaChiB degraded (GlcNAc)4 –6 and produced (GlcNAc)2,3. It degraded (GlcNAc)5 to produce (GlcNAc)2 (23.2%) and (GlcNAc)3 (76.8%). The ability to degrade p-nitrophenyl N-acetylchitooligosaccharides (pNp-(GlcNAc)n, n=2 –4) fell in the following order: pNp-(GlcNAc)3 ≫ pNp-(GlcNAc)2 > pNp-(GlcNAc)4. Based on these results, we concluded that PaChiB is an endo-type chitinolytic enzyme, and that it preferentially hydrolyzes the third glycosidic bond from the non-reducing end of (GlcNAc)n. Activity toward crystalline α- and β-chitin was activated at 124%–185% in the presence of 0.5 M NaCl. PaChiB exhibited markedly high substrate specificity toward crab-shell α-chitin.
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  • Junko HARADA, Shusaku TAKAKU, Kunihiko WATANABE
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages 986-992
    Published: May 23, 2012
    Released: May 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2012
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    We reported an on-demand type of metalloprotease from Exiguobacterium undae Su-1. Although this species of bacterium is known to inhabit the permafrost, there are no reports on either strong proteases or peptidases. We found that Su-1 protease is superior to commercially available proteases in proteolytic activity in a lower to normal range of temperature (10–50 °C) as well as in rapid inactivation heat-dependently on the Ca2+ concentration. These characteristics meet well with the demands from food processing and manufacturing. Biochemical investigations of the purified enzyme and protein structural analysis after gene cloning confirmed that Su-1 protease conserved high identity in its primary sequence with thermophilic proteases of the M4 family. On the other hand, its flexibility was enhanced when one Ca2+ binding site was lost and by replacement for proline and isoleucine residues.
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  • Misao OHNO, Misugi URAJI, Yasuaki SHIMOISHI, Izumi C. MORI, Yoshimasa ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages 993-998
    Published: May 23, 2012
    Released: May 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2012
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    We investigated the mechanism of selenium (Se) tolerance using an Arabidopsis thaliana knockout mutant of a sulfate transporter, sultr1;2. Se stress inhibited plant growth, decreased chlorophyll contents, and increased protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in the wild type, whereas the sultr1;2 mutation mitigated damage of these forms, indicating that sultr1;2 is more tolerant of Se than the wild type is. The accumulation of symplastic Se was suppressed in sultr1;2 as compared to the wild type, and the chemical speciation of Se in the mutant was different from that in the wild type. Regardless of Se stress, the activities of ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, and peroxidase in the mutant were higher than in the wild type, while the activity of superoxide dismutase in the mutant was the same as in the wild type. These results suggest that the sultr1;2 mutation confers Se tolerance on Arabidopsis by decreasing symplastic Se and maintaining antioxidant enzyme activities.
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Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Notes
Food & Nutrition Science Regular Papers
  • Ah Jin KIM, Jung Nam CHOI, Jiyoung KIM, Soo Hwan YEO, Ji Ho CHOI, Choo ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages 863-869
    Published: May 23, 2012
    Released: May 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2012
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    The present study was focused on improving the quality of rice koji by fermentation with a selected Aspergillus oryzae strain and a plant Astragalus radix. A. oryzae KCCM 60345 was used as main inoculant and the Astragalus radix was added as supplement in rice koji preparation. LC-MS based metabolite analysis and tyrosinase inhibitory activities were studied for different time periods. A. oryzae KCCM 60345 fermented rice koji supplemented with Astragalus showed higher tyrosinase inhibition activity at 4 d of fermentation and metabolite analysis with PCA and PLS-DA indicated differences in kojic acid, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, ononin, calycosin, and formononetin as compared with other forms of rice koji fermentation. By correlation analysis between metabolites and tyrosinase inhibitory activity, calycosin and kojic acid were identified as major tyrosinase inhibitors. Based on these results, we concluded that A. oryzae KCCM 60345 supplemented with Astragalus radix is useful for whitening effects, and we identified optimal conditions for rice koji preparation.
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  • Aya TABARA, Chihiro YAMANE, Masaharu SEGUCHI
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages 870-874
    Published: May 23, 2012
    Released: May 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2012
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    The xanthene dyes, erythrosine, phloxine, and rose bengal, were adsorbed to charred cellulose granules. The charred cellulose granules were preliminarily steeped in ionic (NaOH, NaCl, KOH, KCl, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)), nonionic (glucose, sucrose, and ethanol), and amphipathic sucrose fatty acid ester (SFAE) solutions, and adsorption tests on the dye to the steeped and charred cellulose granules were conducted. Almost none of the dye was adsorbed when the solutions of ionic and amphipathic molecules were used, but were adsorbed in the case of steeping in the nonionic molecule solutions. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and the Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) profiles of SFAE which was adsorbed to the charred cellulose granules and extracted by ethyl ether suggested the presence of hydrophobic sites on the surface of the charred cellulose granules. We confirmed that the xanthene dyes could bind to the charred cellulose granules by ionic and hydrophobic bonds.
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  • Eiichi KOTAKE-NARA, Akihiko NAGAO
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages 875-882
    Published: May 23, 2012
    Released: May 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2012
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    We reported previously that lysophosphatidylcholine remarkably enhanced β-carotene uptake from bile acid-mixed micelles by human intestinal Caco-2 cells. In the present study, we evaluated how mixed micelle components other than phospholipids, viz., fatty acids, monoolein, and cholesterol, affect carotenoid uptake by Caco-2 cells. Each component influenced the β-carotene uptake in a different way depending on micellar composition. Oleic acid at 200 µM significantly enhanced uptake in the absence of lysophosphatidylcholine. Cholesterol at 40 µM significantly reduced uptake in the presence of lysophosphatidylcholine, while no reduction was found in the presence of 200 µM oleic acid. Facilitated diffusion was suggested partly to mediate uptake in mixed micelles, except for mixed micelles containing 200 µM oleic acid. Uptake mediated by facilitated diffusion was approximately 20% of total uptake. Mixed micellar lipids have the potential to modify intestinal uptake.
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  • Ikuko MINAMI, Yoshimasa NAKAMURA, Setsuko TODORIKI, Yoshiyuki MURATA
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages 900-905
    Published: May 23, 2012
    Released: May 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2012
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    Food irradiation is a form of food processing to extend the shelf life and reduce spoilage of food. We examined the effects of γ radiation on the fatty acid composition, lipid peroxidation level, and antioxidative activity of soybean and soybean oil which both contain a large amount of unsaturated fatty acids. Irradiation at 10 to 80 kGy under aerobic conditions did not markedly change the fatty acid composition of soybean. While 10-kGy irradiation did not markedly affect the fatty acid composition of soybean oil under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions, 40-kGy irradiation considerably altered the fatty acid composition of soybean oil under aerobic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, 40-kGy irradiation produced a significant amount of trans fatty acids under aerobic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions. Irradiating soybean oil induced lipid peroxidation and reduced the radical scavenging activity under aerobic conditions, but had no effect under anaerobic conditions. These results indicate that the fatty acid composition of soybean was not markedly affected by radiation at 10 kGy, and that anaerobic conditions reduced the degradation of soybean oil that occurred with high doses of γ radiation.
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  • Takashi FUJIKI, Yoshitaka HIROSE, Yoshihiro YAMAMOTO, Shinji MUROSAKI
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages 918-922
    Published: May 23, 2012
    Released: May 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2012
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    This study reports the effect of heat treating Lactobacillus plantarum L-137 on its in vitro cytokine-inducing activity, on the stability of this activity in simulated digestive juices, and on its in vivo immunomodulatory properties. L-137 cells were harvested at the stationary phase with or without the subsequent heat treatment and then lyophilized. Heat-killed L-137 cells stimulated mouse spleen cells to produce more interleukin-12p40 than unheated L-137. The interleukin-12p40-inducing activity of unheated L-137 was significantly lower when incubated with simulated intestinal juice, but the activity of heat-killed L-137 cells was maintained. Furthermore, heat-killed L-137 was more protective than unheated L-137 in a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. A heat treatment may therefore be effective for enhancing the immunomodulatory activity of L-137 cells.
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  • Hiromu OHNOGI, Shoko HAYAMI, Yoko KUDO, Suzu DEGUCHI, Shigetoshi MIZUT ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages 928-932
    Published: May 23, 2012
    Released: May 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2012
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    Angelica keiskei is a traditional herb peculiar to Japan and abundantly contains vitamins, dietary fiber and such polyphenols as chalcone. We investigated in the present study the effect of A. keiskei on insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia in fructose-drinking rats as a model for the metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats were given a 15% fructose solution as drinking water for 11 weeks. Fructose significantly increased the levels of serum insulin and triglyceride (TG) compared with the control level. Treatment with an ethanol extract of A. keiskei (AE) significantly reduced the levels of blood glucose (−16.5%), serum insulin (−47.3%), HOMA-R (−56.4%) and TG (−24.2%). A hepatic gene analysis showed that fructose reduced the expression of the genes related to fatty acid β-oxidation and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) production. Treatment with AE enhanced the expression of the acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACO1), medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD), ATP-binding membrane cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and apolipoprotein A1 (Apo-A1) genes. These results suggest that AE improved the insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia of the fructose-drinking rats.
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  • Shuichi MASUDA, Yuko SHIMAMURA, Tatsuya KATO, Tan YU-FENG, Ken-ichi IW ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages 938-941
    Published: May 23, 2012
    Released: May 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2012
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    This study examined the mutagenic activity of genistein after a nitrite treatment under acidic conditions. Nitrite-treated genistein exhibited mutagenic activity toward Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 100 and TA 98 with or without S9 mix. Nitrite-treated genistein was demonstrated by electron spin resonance to generate radicals. An instrumental analysis showed 3'-nitro-genistein to have been formed in the reaction mixture. However, 3'-nitro-genistein did not exhibit mutagenic activity toward the S. typhimurium strains, suggesting that other mutagens might also have been formed in the reaction mixture. The clastogenic properties of nitrite-treated genistein and 3'-nitro-genistein were examined by a micronucleus test with male ICR mice. Nitrite-treated genistein and 3'-nitro-genistein showed a significantly higher frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes in mice than in the control group. These results suggest that a daily oral intake of genistein and nitrite through foodstuffs might induce the formation of various mutagenic compounds in the body.
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  • Surina ZHENG, Hiroo SANADA, Hirofumi DOHI, Shizuka HIRAI, Yukari EGASH ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages 942-946
    Published: May 23, 2012
    Released: May 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2012
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    We investigated in this study the effect of modified arabinoxylan from rice bran (MGN-3) and its fractions on D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced IL-18 expression and hepatitis in rats. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with MGN-3 or fractions of the MGN-3 hydrolysate, or with saline 1 h before administering D-GalN (400 mg/kg B.W.). The serum transaminase activities, IL-18 mRNA expression level in the liver and IL-18 concentration in the serum were determined 24 h after injecting D-GalN. Both the oral and intraperitoneal administration of MGN-3 (20 mg/kg B.W.) alleviated D-GalN-induced hepatic injury under these experimental conditions. The low-molecular-weight fraction (LMW) of MGN-3 showed the strongest protective effect on D-GalN-induced liver injury, its main sugar component being glucose. Moreover, the D-GalN-induced IL-18 expression was significantly reduced by treating with MGN-3 and LMW. The results suggest that MGN-3 and LMW could provide significant protection against D-GalN liver injury, and that IL-18 might be involved in their protective influence.
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  • Nahla ZGHONDA, Shigeki YOSHIDA, Shoji EZAKI, Yoshie OTAKE, Chie MURAKA ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages 954-960
    Published: May 23, 2012
    Released: May 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2012
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    The present study compared the effects of resveratrol and its dimer ε-viniferin on vascular endothelial cells (VECs) functions, and on the blood pressure and cardiac mass of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Treatment of VECs with these compounds enhanced cell proliferation via nitric oxide generation and protected the cells from oxidative stress by suppressing increases in intracellular oxygen species. ε-Viniferin was more potent than resveratrol in most of these effects. ε-Viniferin, but not resveratrol inhibited angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in vitro. Three weeks of ε-viniferin treatment (5 mg/kg) reduced the systolic blood pressure and improved the whole cardiac mass and left ventricle mass indexes in SHRs. In contrast, resveratrol administration (2.5 mg/kg) failed to lower the blood pressure and significantly improve these mass indexes. These data suggest that ε-viniferin as well as resveratrol may be involved in protecting the functions of VECs and the heart.
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  • Hiromu OHNOGI, Yoko KUDO, Kenichi TAHARA, Katsumi SUGIYAMA, Tatsuji EN ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages 961-966
    Published: May 23, 2012
    Released: May 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2012
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    Angelica keiskei (Ashitaba in Japanese), a traditional herb in Japan, contains abundant prenylated chalcones. It has been reported that the chalcones from A. keiskei showed such bioactivities as anti-bacterial, anti-cancer and anti-diabetic effects. Xanthoangelol, 4-hydroxyderricin and six new chalcones were isolated in this study from an ethanol extract of A. keiskei by octadecyl silyl (ODS) and silica gel chromatography, and identified by 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-resolution mass spectrometric analyses. The chalcones from A. keiskei markedly increased the expression of the adiponectin gene and the production of adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These results suggest that the chalcones from A. keiskei might be useful for preventing the metabolic syndrome.
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  • Shoichiro ISHIZAKI, Yumiko SAKAI, Takeo YANO, Shigeru NAKANO, Toshihir ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages 980-985
    Published: May 23, 2012
    Released: May 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2012
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    Salmonid fish is one of the allergenic items that are recommended to be labeled in the Japanese allergen-labeling system. This study develops a salmonid-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. A new primer pair, SKE-F/SKE-R, was designed to specifically detect the salmonid fish gene encoding mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b. Genomic DNAs extracted from 58 kinds of seafood and 11 kinds of processed food were individually subjected to PCR by using the primer pair, and a salmonid-specific fragment of 212 bp was only amplified in the salmonid samples and salmonid-containing processed foods. The detection limit of the PCR method was as low as 0.02 fg/µL of salmonid fish DNA (corresponding to 10 copies). There is no ELISA method for salmonid fish, making our PCR method the only reliable measure for detecting salmonid fish in processed foods.
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Food & Nutrition Science Notes
Food & Nutrition Science Communication
  • Satoru MOTOKI, Hiroaki KITAZAWA, Tomoo MAEDA, Takashi SUZUKI, Hideyuki ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages 1047-1050
    Published: May 23, 2012
    Released: May 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between various cultivation conditions and the amounts of the rutin (RT) and protodioscin (PD) in asparagus spears. Green and white spears were grown in open culture and under two different blanching conditions. Although RT was detected only in the green spears, PD was detected mainly in white spears produced by covering with soil. The RT and PD contents of cladophylls grown in an open field and in a closed cultivation system were also investigated, and the closed system resulted in cladophylls with low RT and high PD, unlike the open field.
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Microbiology & Fermentation Technology Regular Papers
  • Katsuhiko FUJII, Ayaka OOSUGI, Shiori SEKIUCHI
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages 906-911
    Published: May 23, 2012
    Released: May 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material
    Cellulolytic microbes in the soil of the Yanbaru, a subtropical forest with an endemic biota, on Okinawa Island, were isolated and characterized in a search for novel microbial strains with biotechnological potential. Soil samples of the Yanbaru were suspended in sterilized water, inoculated on mineral salt agar overlaid with a filter paper as carbon source, and cultivated aerobically at 30 °C. After 2 weeks of cultivation, emerging colonies were isolated and subjected to phylogenetic and enzyme analyses. The phylogenetic analyses revealed bacterial and fungal isolates belonging to nine and three genera respectively. All isolates possessed cellulase activity, and several strains showed strong activity comparable to Trichoderma cellulase. Many isolates also exhibited xylanase activity.
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  • Phisit SEESURIYACHAN, Ampin KUNTIYA, Prasert HANMOUNGJAI, Charin TECHA ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages 912-917
    Published: May 23, 2012
    Released: May 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It is believed that high concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) suppress the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharide (EPS) in lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Nevertheless, overproduction of EPSs due to high salinity stress in solid state fermentation performed on an agar surface was demonstrated in this study using a response surface methodology via a central composite design (CCD). Under optimized conditions with NaCl 4.97% and sucrose 136.5 g/L at 40.79 h of incubation, the EPS yield was 259% (86.36 g/L of EPS), higher than the maximum yield produced with the modified MRS medium containing only 120 g/L of sucrose without NaCl (33.4 g/L of EPS). Biosynthesis of EPS by Lactobacillus confusus TISTR 1498 was independent of biomass production. Our results indicated that high salinity stress can enhance EPS production in solid state fermentation.
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  • Naoki ISHIBASHI, Kohei HIMENO, Koji FUJITA, Yoshimitsu MASUDA, Rodney ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages 947-953
    Published: May 23, 2012
    Released: May 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Enterocins NKR-5-3A, B, C, and D were purified from the culture supernatant of Enterococcus faecium NKR-5-3 and characterized. Among the four purified peptides, enterocin NKR-5-3A (5242.3 Da) was identical to brochocin A, produced by Brochothrix campestris ATCC 43754, in mature peptides, and its putative synergistic peptide, enterocin NKR-5-3Z, was found to be encoded in ent53Z downstream of ent53A, encoding enterocin NKR-5-3A. Enterocin NKR-5-3B (6316.4 Da) showed a broad antimicrobial spectrum, and enterocin NKR-5-3C (4512.8 Da) showed high activity against Listeria. Enterocin NKR-5-3D (2843.5 Da), showing high homology to an inducing peptide produced by Lactobacillus sakei 5, induced the production of the enterocins. The enterocins showed different antimicrobial spectra and intensities. E. faecium NKR-5-3 concomitantly produced enterocins NKR-5-3A, B, C, and D which probably belong to different classes of bacteriocins. Furthermore, NKR-5-3 production was induced by enterocin NKR-5-3D.
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Microbiology & Fermentation Technology Communication
Environmental Science Note
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