Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Online ISSN : 1347-6947
Print ISSN : 0916-8451
Volume 65 , Issue 3
Showing 1-47 articles out of 47 articles from the selected issue
Organic Chemistry
Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
  • Tohru SUZUKI, Emiko KITAGAWA, Fukumitsu SAKAKIBARA, Keiji IBATA, Kengo ...
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 487-494
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A λ phage genomic library of Aeromonas caviae ME-1, a multiple-xylanase-producing bacterium, was screened for xylan degradation activities. We isolated one clone, B65, which had weak xylanase activity, by the DNS method, but gave no visible bands on zymogram assay using SDS-xylan-PAGE. Based on TLC analyses of enzymatic products and some glycosidase assays using p-nitrophenyl substrates, we established that pB65 encodes a β-xylosidase gene. In the nucleotide sequence analysis, we found a 2190-bp open reading frame (ORF) named xysB. XysB protein is similar to some β-xylosidases, which are categorized in the glycosyl hydrolase family 52. Another ORF (xyg), that showed similarity to the family 67 α-glucuronidase, was also found downstream of the xysB gene. The xysB ORF and its promoter region were cloned into the pT7-Blue vector and the transformant cells had β-xylosidase activity. The relative molecular mass were estimated to be 75 kDa by SDS-PAGE and 159 kDa by gel filtration. These data showed that XysB has a dimeric structure of 80, 697 Da subunits. This enzyme showed optimal activity at 50°C and pH 6.0. It was stable below 40°C and pH 5-8. The Km and Vmax were calculated to be 0.34 mM and 33 nmol·min-1·μg-1, respectively. This enzyme also showed transglycosylation activity against X3 and produced X4 and X5.
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  • Rachid BENZERROUK, Ijaz A. QURESHI
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 495-500
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The sparse-fur (spf) mutant mouse has an X-linked deficiency of hepatic ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC), and develops hyperammonemia immediately after weaning and maintains it throughout its life span. We have studied the effects of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) on the hepatic mitochondrial proteins of the chronically hyperammonemic spf mice. Two different age groups of mice were studied, the weanlings (3 weeks) and the adult mice (8 weeks). Our results indicate that in the mitochondrial matrix, the untreated chronic hyperammonemia induced a significant increase in the quantity of 54.4-kDa protein in spf adult mice. After ALCAR treatment, in spf adult mice, the quantities of the 54.4-kDa, 63.8-kDa, and 129-kDa matrix proteins were significantly increased. In the mitochondrial inner membrane fraction of the spf weanling mice, a 53.5-kDa protein was significantly increased by ALCAR treatment. Our results show that: (a) chronic hyperammonemia has altered the mitochondrial matrix protein profile in spf mice, that (b) ALCAR has a modulating effect on various matrix and inner membrane proteins, and that (c) there was no effect of hyperammonemia or ALCAR treatment on the outer membrane proteins.
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  • Chao-Yun T. SHIH, Anwar A. KHAN, Shifang JIA, Junlin WU, Ding S. SHIH
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 501-509
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A chitinase was purified from the seeds of Benincasa hispida, a medicinal plant also called white gourd, and a member of the Cucurbitaceae family. Purification was done by using a procedure consisting of only two fractionation steps: an acid denaturation step followed by ion-exchange chromatography. The sequence of the N-terminal forty amino acid residues was analyzed and the sequence indicated that the enzyme is a class III chitinase. The enzyme, which is a basic chitinase, is one of at least five chitinases detected in the seed extract of B. hispida. Like other class III chitinases, this enzyme also has lysozyme activity. A genomic clone of the gene encoding the enzyme was isolated and sequenced. The gene has the potential to encode a protein of 301 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence of the protein, as expected from the N-terminal amino acid sequence, shares high degrees of similarity with other class III chitinases.
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  • Hajime KOBAYASHI, Michihiro SUNAKO, Makoto HAYASHI, Yoshikatsu MUROOKA
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 510-515
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Histo- and cytochemical techniques were used to study the DNA replication and fragmentation patterns in bacteroids formed by Mesorhizobium huakuii subsp. rengei in nodules of Astragalus sinicus. DNA replication was detected by the incorporation of 5-bromo deoxy-uridine. Signals denoting DNA synthesis were observed in plant nuclei within the nodule meristem and in bacteroids near the meristem. The TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling) assay was used to measure DNA fragmentation. In nutrient-depleted 1-mpi (month(s) post inoculation) nodule sections, some bacteroids were in vacuoles, and DNA fragmentation signals were observed only in such bacteroids. In contrast, 1-mpi nodule sections without nutrient depletion showed neither bacteroid localization in vacuoles nor DNA fragmentation signals. The bacteroid translocation into vacuoles upon nutrient starvation might results from autophagy of the plant. In 2-mpi nodule sections, bacteroids with DNA fragmentation signals appeared within the cytoplasm of some nodule cells in the senescence zone.
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  • Su Yun LYU, Won Bong PARK, Kyung Hee CHOI, Won Ho KIM
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 534-541
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A cytotoxic lectin (Viscum album L. coloratum agglutinin, VCA) from Korean mistletoe was isolated by affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4B immobilized with asialofetuin. In HL-60 cells, addition of VCA resulted in a dose- and time-dependent growth suppression, morphological changes of apoptotic nuclei, and DNA fragmentation characteristics of apoptosis. To investigate how caspase-3 activation during VCA-induced apoptosis induces cleavages of PARP, the expression of PARP and the pattern of caspase-3 activation in HL-60 cells were investigated. The native and processed PARP forms typically seen in apoptotic cells were observed, and a decrease in expression of the 32-kDa form of caspase-3 in a dose-dependent manner was observed. The VCA-induced apoptosis was significantly inhibited by a caspase-3 specific inhibitor, z-DEVD-FMK, and the PARP processing and caspase-3 activation were also inhibited by the inhibitor. A possible involvement of cell cycle arrest in VCA-induced apoptosis was investigated by flow cytometry and the results suggested that the apoptotic effect of VCA is not involved in the induction of cell cycle arrest.
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  • Takaomi YASUHARA, Toshiro TAKAI, Toshifumi YUUKI, Hirokazu OKUDAIRA, Y ...
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 563-569
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    cDNA clones encoding a major house dust mite allergen, Der f 1, were isolated from a Dermatophagoides farinae cDNA library by plaque immunoscreening using rabbit anti-Der f 1 serum. The sequences cover the complete open reading frame encoding the prepro-form. The sequence is different from previously reported cDNA of Der f 1 in six bases and the encoded amino acid sequence is different in two residues. Pro-forms of Der f 1 and its mutant, in which the N-glycosylation motif was disrupted, expressed in Pichia pastoris were converted to the mature forms by an in vitro activation process and they showed significant IgE-binding. The biologically active rDer f 1 molecules would be useful for diagnostic testing and allergen-specific immunotherapy. In contrast, Der f 1 directly expressed in Escherichia coli without the prosequence had very low IgE binding. The hypoallergenic Der f 1 polypeptide could be useful for safer and more effective immunotherapy.
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  • Mitsuhiro ITAYA, Syed M. SHAHEDUZZAMAN, Kuniko MATSUI, Akira OMORI, Ta ...
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 579-583
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A Bacillus subtilis plasmid encoding a green fluorescence protein gene (gfp) was constructed. The fluorescence of B. subtilis colonies having this plasmid on agar plates was so high that they could be readily discerned visually under UV light. The fluorescence could be effectively expressed in three ways (i) through use of a strong bsr promoter (blasticidin S resistance gene), (ii) by efficient translation with the bsr translation system, and (iii) through increase in the copy number per cell. The high stability of the GFP plasmid was demonstrated by using more complicated growth conditions without any antibiotic for selection.
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  • Sompong THAMMASIRIRAK, Takao TORIKATA, Kazutoshi TAKAMI, Koichi MURATA ...
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 584-592
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A novel goose-type lysozyme was purified from egg white of cassowary bird (Casuarius casuarius). The purification step was composed of two fractionation steps: pH treatment steps followed by a cation exchange column chromatography. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 20.8 kDa by SDS-PAGE. This enzyme was composed of 186 amino acid residues and showed similar amino acid composition to reported goose-type lysozymes. The N-terminal amino acid sequencing from transblotted protein found that this protein had no N-terminal. This enzyme showed either lytic or chitinase activities and had some different properties from those reported for goose lysozyme. The optimum pH and temperature on lytic activity of this lysozyme were pH 5 and 30°C at ionic strength of 0.1, respectively. This lysozyme was stable up to 30°C for lytic activity and the activity was completely abolished at 80°C. The chitinase activity against glycol chitin showed dual optimum pH around 4.5 and 11. The optimum temperature for chitinase activity was at 50°C and the enzyme was stable up to 40°C.
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  • Yoshiyuki MIYAZAKI, Masao YAMASAKI, Hiroko MISHIMA, Keiko MANSHO, Hiro ...
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 593-598
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this study, we attempted to induce the oxidative stress in mouse spleen lymphocytes with visible light irradiation and examined the effects of lipid peroxidation on immunoglobulin (Ig) production. The spleen lymphocytes were isolated from 8-week-old male balb/c mice and irradiated with 300 W visible light. When the cells were cultured for 72 hr, Ig contents in culture supernatants were decreased gradually by irradiation for over 30 min. The cell viability was also lowered by the irradiation. Intracellular phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) levels and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values in culture supernatants were measured as indices of lipid peroxidation and we found that Ig production by mouse spleen lymphocytes was suppressed accompanied with the progress of peroxidation of intracellular phospholipids. Cell membrane fluidity was also significantly decreased, but the intracellular Ig level was not changed in the irradiated cells. These results suggest that the peroxidation of intracellular lipids is a cause of the suppression of Ig production by mouse spleen lymphocytes via lowering cell viability and suppressing Ig synthesis and secretion.
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  • Makiko CHONO, Yoshihito SUZUKI, Keisuke NEMOTO, Hisakazu YAMANE, Nobor ...
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 605-612
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We have previously cloned a cDNA of a putative serine/threonine protein kinase gene named CsPK3 from cucumber, the mRNA level of which was up-regulated by auxin and down-regulated by light irradiation. To examine the CsPK3 gene expression in detail, we cloned a genomic DNA of CsPK3 gene and made transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Petit Havana SR1) plants containing the fused CsPK3 promoter-β-glucuronidase gene. The β-glucuronidase expression was detected in the shoot apex, vascular tissues, and the outermost layer of cortex. The histological distribution of CsPK3 mRNA in cucumber seedlings was supported by in situ hybridization, where the positive signals were observed in similar tissues as those observed by β-glucuronidase staining. The responsiveness of the CsPK3 gene to auxin and light was also confirmed for β-glucuronidase activity. The pattern of β-glucuronidase staining changed during the development of the tobacco seedlings. The results of our experiment showed that CsPK3 was expressed in a wide variety of tissues and cells in which the developmental and growth controls by auxin are suggested.
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  • Takehiro YOKOTA, Takashi TONOZUKA, Yoichiro SHIMURA, Kazuhiro ICHIKAWA ...
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 619-626
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The structures of Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47 α-amylase II mutant (d325nTVA II) complexed with substrate analogues, methyl β-cyclodextrin (mβ-CD) and maltohexaose (G6), were solved by X-ray diffraction at 3.2Å and 3.3Å resolution, respectively. In d325nTVA II-mβ-CD complex, the orientation and binding-position of β-CD in TVA II were identical to those in cyclodextin glucanotransferase (CGTase). The active site residues were essentialy conserved, while there are no residues corresponding to Tyr89, Phe183, and His233 of CGTase in TVA II. In d325nTVA II-G6 complex, the electron density maps of two glucosyl units at the non-reducing end were disordered and invisible. The four glucosyl units of G6 were bound to TVA II as in CGTase, while the others were not stacked and were probably flexible. The residues of TVA II corresponding to Tyr89, Lys232, and His233 of CGTase were completely lacking. These results suggest that the lack of the residues related to α-glucan and CD-stacking causes the functional distinctions between CGTase and TVA II.
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  • Hiroyuki NAGAOKA, Hiroshi KAYAHARA, Yasushi WAKABAYASHI
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 634-637
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It was found that ovalbumin stereoselectively oxidized one of the enantiomers of p-substituted racemic alcohols, thereby providing optically active alcohols with high optical purities. It was found out that, when used appropriately in combination with immobilized pea protein, immobilized ovalbumin made it possible to resolve and synthesize racemic 1-(2-naphthyl)ethanol, 1-phenylethanol, and 1-phenyl-1-propanol. Immobilized ovalbumin could be continuously recycled at least three times without lowering the yield and purity of the products. These results suggested that cereals, beans, and ovalbumin might have additional fourth function among conventional foods. Namely, there might contain nutritional, sensory, biologically regulatory and bio-catalytic functions in conventional foods.
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  • Jun HIROSE, Kazuhiko MAEDA, Haruhiko YOKOI, Yoshiyuki TAKASAKI
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 658-661
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A mannose isomerase from Agrobacterium radiobacter M-1 (formerly Pseudomonas sp. MI) was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and characterized. A cell-free extract was separated by ammonium sulfate fractionation, Butyl-Toyopearl 650M, DEAE-Sepharose and hydroxylapatite column chromatography. Its molecular mass was estimated to be 44 kDa by SDS-PAGE and 90 kDa by gel filtration, in which the enzyme is most likely a dimer composed of two identical subunits. The purified enzyme had an optimum pH at 8.0, an optimum temperature at 60°C, a pI of 5.2 and a Km of 20 mM, and specifically converted D-mannose and D-lyxose to ketose. The N-terminal amino acid sequence was identified.
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  • Shin-ichiro MITSUNAGA, Osamu KAWAKAMI, Tomoyo NUMATA, Junji YAMAGUCHI, ...
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 662-665
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A polymorphism in rice amylases at an early stage of seed germination is analyzed by zymogram. In nonglutinous cultivars of rice, α-amylase isozymes are mainly confirmed in germinating seeds. However, in glutinous cultivars, β-amylase isozymes, which are not confirmed in nonglutinous cultivars, make up the major part of the total amylase activity and the expression of α-amylases are repressed.
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  • Tadanori AIMI, Sanae KANO, Qian WANG, Tsutomu MORINAGA
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 678-682
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Three genes encoding G protein alpha subunits were cloned from the white root rot fungus, Rosellinia necatrix, and characterized. Only one copy of each gene was present in the genome. The protein sequences of Rga1, Rga2, and Rga3 are very similar to those of MagA, MagB and MagC of Magnaporthe grisea, respectively. Moreover, Rga1 is similar to Mod-D which is closely related to vegetative incompatibility in Podospora anserina, which suggests that Rga1 is important in the vegetative incompatibility reaction in R. necatrix. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis of Rga1, Rga2, and Rga3 mRNA expression showed that the three genes were all transcribed in R. necatrix cells.
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  • Shigeru OGAWA, Yumi OTTA, Akikazu ANDO, Yoshiho NAGATA
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 686-689
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Using an affinity adsorbent prepared from L-fucose and starch, a lectin was isolated from fruit bodies of an ascomycete mushroom, Melastiza chateri. The lectin was found to cross-react with antiserum against Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL), that had been obtained from another ascomycete mushroom. The N-terminal amino acid sequence was analyzed, and among 20 residues 12 were the same as AAL. The molecular mass of the lectin estimated by SDS-PAGE was approximately 40 kDa, which is larger than that of AAL. Mycelial isolate was obtained from M. chateri by germinating ascospores, and identified by analyzing restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) of DNA. The isolate from M. chateri did not synthesize the lectin, although the isolate from A. aurantia had been known to synthesize AAL as much as the fruit body.
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  • Kaoru NAKASONE, Mitsunori YAMADA, Mohammad Hassan QURESHI, Chiaki KATO ...
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 690-693
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We have isolated the genes for quinol oxidase from a deep-sea piezophilic bacterium, Shewanella violacea. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the cyo subunits showed that this oxidase has high similarity to Escherichia coli bo-type quinol oxidase. Northern blot analysis showed that these genes are expressed at a high level when the bacterium is grown at elevated pressure. Upstream in the cyo-operon, a σ54-binding motif and an octamer sequence unit were found, suggesting that these elements may play a role in regulation of expression of the cyo-operon in response to changes in pressure.
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  • Toshiro TAKAI, Midori AKAGAWA-CHIHARA, Toyokazu YOKOTA, Yasushi OKUMUR ...
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 694-697
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A total of sixteen recombinant variants of a major house dust mite allergen Der f 2, the wild-type Der f 2, six cysteine mutants, six proline mutants, and three lysine mutants, were expressed in Escherichia coli. The cells were solubilized and run on SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. Epitopes for five mouse anti-Der f 2 monoclonal antibodies, 1B2, 7C10, 13A4, 15E11, and 18G8, to the recombinant Der f 2 variants were characterized by immunoblot analysis.
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  • Yoichi ASO, Akihiro NAKAJIMA, Kohji MENO, Masatsune ISHIGURO
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 698-701
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Incubation at 70°C converted the Bacillus stearothermophilus lipoate acetyltransferase inner core into an unidentified active molecular form, X, yielding an inactive aggregate. The core and X showed similar thermostabilities, but they were different in the recovery of enzyme activity after incubation with 1.2-2.0 M guanidine hydrochloride and its subsequent removal; the core was hardly recovered, but X was well recovered.
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  • Hyekyeong PARK, Isao KUSAKABE, Yoshikiyo SAKAKIBARA, Hideyuki KOBAYASH ...
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 702-705
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The autoproteolytic processing of mature aspartic proteinase from sunflower seeds was investigated. The mature aspartic proteinase (48 kDa) was processed at N65s-D66s in the plant-specific region of the enzyme to form 34-kDa and 14-kDa subunits. The next step was the hydrolysis of the A25s-Q26s and N97s-E98s bonds to form a 39-kDa enzyme that consisted of 29-kDa and 9-kDa disulfide-bonded subunits. Finally, bonds including V1s-M2s, M2s-S3s, C100s-D101s, and D101s-R102s were cleaved to form non-covalently bound subunits (29 kDa and 9 kDa) by eliminating the disulfide bonds in the plant-specific region of the protein.
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  • Shan-Ming YANG, Naoko YOKOI, Yoshihiro KANAMARU, Osamu TAKENAKA, Yasur ...
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 714-718
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We examined a large number of individual human and animal saliva samples for the reactivity with 1CF11, a mouse monoclonal antibody previously produced for the characterization of human milk mucin and apparently recognizing a certain carbohydrate antigenic structure shared by various human glycoproteins in secretions. The results obtained here confirm the unique occurrence of 1CF11 epitope in each and every saliva sample from humans and Old world monkeys as well, though a vast variety was observed among individual saliva samples in the immunological reactivity with 1CF11.
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  • Kazuhiko SAEKI, Yasuhiro TAKAHASHI, Hirozo OH-OKA, Tatsumi UMEOKA, Yut ...
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 719-724
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The amino acid sequence of the coat protein (CP) of a tobacco necrosis virus (TNV) strain, Toyama isolate, was determined by a combination of peptide and cDNA sequencing. The deduced sequence of 276 residues was compared with CPs of other TNV isolates and other plant virus isolates of Tombusviridae. It showed the highest similarity to the TNV Nebraska isolate with 92% identity and moderate similarity to the TNV strain A with 51% identity, confirming the previous serological analysis. It also showed overall similarity with CPs of mostly genera Necrovirus and Sobemovirus, and partial similarity with CPs of genera Tombusvirus and Carmovirus. Among 13 CPs that showed overall similarity, there were 10 completely conserved residues. These included three residues that participate in Ca2+ ligation at the interfaces of virion subunits in TNV crystal structure, suggesting that similar metal binding occur in the viruses of genera Necrovirus and Sobemovirus.
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  • Yasuhiro KASHIMA, Yusuke NAKAJIMA, Akihiko KOSUGI, Kenji TAYAMA, Yukim ...
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 725-727
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The regulation mechanism for expression of the ethanol inducible esterase gene, est1, was investigated in A. pasteurianus. Deletion analysis of the 5' non coding region of est1 showed that the FNR-binding consensus sequence is important in the induction of est1 by ethanol. Cells grown under oxygen starvation produced esterase-1 in not only the presence but also the absence of ethanol. These results suggest that the induction of est1-expression depends on the oxygen concentration, and the gene may be induced by a FNR-like factor activated by a decrease in the intracellular oxygen concentration.
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Food & Nutrition Science
  • Hiroyuki TANIMOTO, Masato MORI, Masao MOTOKI, Kunio TORII, Motoni KADO ...
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 516-521
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We prepared natto (fermented soybeans) mucilage containing poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) from commercial natto. The effect of natto mucilage on calcium (Ca) solubility in vitro and in vivo was investigated. Ca solubility in vitro increased with an increase in the amount of natto mucilage, due to inhibition of the formation of an insoluble complex of Ca with phosphate by natto mucilage. Rats were fed with 5 g of soybean protein isolate, natto, mucilage-free natto, or natto mucilage diet for 1.5 h. Small intestinal contents were collected 2.5 h after ingestion. In the lower half of the small intestine, both the amount and the percentage of soluble Ca of intestinal contents were significantly higher (P<0.001) in rats fed with natto mucilage diet than in those fed with the other diets. Natto mucilage also increased Ca solubility in vivo. These results suggested that γ-PGA is responsible for the increasing effect of natto mucilage on Ca solubility.
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  • Reiko HIRASAWA, Kumio YOKOIGAWA, Yuka ISOBE, Hiroyasu KAWAI
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 522-526
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We examined the freeze tolerance of bakers’ yeast loaded with exogenous trehalose. Freeze-tolerant and freeze-sensitive compressed bakers’ yeast samples were soaked at several temperatures in 0.5 M and 1 M trehalose and analyzed. The intracellular trehalose contents in both types of bakers’ yeast increased with increasing soaking period. The initial trehalose-accumulation rate increased with increasing exogenous trehalose concentration and soaking temperature. The maximum trehalose content was almost identical (200-250 mg/g of dry cells) irrespective of the soaking temperature and the type of bakers’ yeast, but depended on the exogenous trehalose concentration. The leavening ability of both types of bakers’ yeast loaded with trehalose was almost identical to that of the respective original cells, irrespective of the soaking conditions. The freeze-tolerant ratio (FTR) of both types of bakers’ yeast increased with increasing intracellular trehalose content. However, FTR decreased during over-soaking after the maximum amount of trehalose had accumulated. FTR of the freeze-sensitive bakers’ yeast was more efficiently improved than that of the freeze-tolerant type.
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  • Miou TODA, Jun KAWABATA, Takanori KASAI
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 542-547
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
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    The clove ellagitannins and their related polygalloyl-glucoses inhibited maltase activity of rat intestinal α-glucosidases. The structure-activity relationship study of those galloylglucoses, varying the extent of galloylation on the glucose core, with the ellagitannins, indicated that an increasing number of galloyl units in the molecule lead to an increase in the inhibitory activity. Penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, with five galloyl groups showed the highest inhibitory activity. On the other hand, hexahydroxydiphenoyl units contained in the ellagitannins had little effect on the activity. After separation of maltase-glucoamylase and sucrase-isomaltase complexes from the crude mixture of the rat α-glucosidases, the inhibitory activities of the galloylglucose derivatives against each complex were examined. The inhibitory influence on the maltase-glucoamylase complex was more potent than on the sucrase-isomaltase complex.
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  • Meihua LI, Emiko SUZUKI, Tadao KURATA
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 599-604
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    2,3-Diketo-L-gulonic acid (DKG) is an important intermediate product of oxidative degradation of L-ascorbic acid (AsA) in both biological and food systems, but the physiological function of DKG is still unclear. In this study, it was found that DKG had a strong antioxidative effect on copper-dependent oxidative modification of yolk lipoprotein (YLP), on the basis of both the decreased electrophoretic mobility and longer lag time of conjugated diene formation in a concentration-dependent manner. DKG is known to be very unstable and easily converts into two δ-lactones of DKG, the 3,4-enediol form of DKG δ-lactone (3,4-DKGL) and 2,3-enediol form of DKG δ-lactone (2,3-DKGL) depending on both pH and temperature. 3,4-DKGL was thought to be the first degradation product of DKG and could play an antioxidative role in the oxidation of lipoproteins induced by copper ion or peroxyl radicals in neutral aqueous solution.
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  • Osamu WATANABE, Hiroshi HARA, Yoritaka AOYAMA, Takanori KASAI
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 613-618
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We have previously reported that a phosphorylated guar gum hydrolysate (P-GGH) promoted calcium absorption and the accumulation of bone calcium in rats. We now investigate the effect of P-GGH (50 g/kg of diet) on the intestinal calcium absorption and bones of ovariectomized (OVX) rats in comparison with shamoperated rats over a six-week ingestion period. The apparent calcium absorption was decreased by aging and ovariectomy in the rats fed on the control and GGH diets (50 g/kg of diet), but not in the rats fed on the P-GGH diet. The absorption was higher in the P-GGH group than in the GGH and control diet groups in the fourth and sixth weeks after feeding the test diets to OVX rats. Femoral calcium and strength were decreased by OVX in the rats fed on the control and GGH diets, but not in the rats fed on the P-GGH diet. The values of these parameters were higher in the P-GGH group than in either the control or GGH group of OVX rats. The amount of soluble calcium in the ileal contents was higher in the P-GGH group than in the control and GGH groups. These results indicate that P-GGH may be useful for preventing the reduction of intestinal calcium absorption and bone in the condition of estrogen deficiency.
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  • Koichiro OHNUKI, Toshio MORITANI, Kengo ISHIHARA, Tohru FUSHIKI
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 638-643
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We assessed the sympatho-vagal activities of the heart after administration of capsaicin by measuring the power spectral analysis in rats. There were major two frequency components of heart rate variability, which we defined as high (1.0 Hz<, HF) and low (LF, <1.0 Hz) frequency components. Vagal blockade by atropine abolished the high frequency component, and lowered the amplitude of the low frequency component. On the other hand, under conditions of sympathetic blockade by propranolol, the low frequency component was reduced. Combined vagal and sympathetic blockade abolished all heart rate fluctuations. We analyzed the low and high frequency components by integrating the spectrum for the respective band width. The rats administered capsaicin had a higher heart rate and sympathetic nervous system index (LF/HF) than the control group of rats. These results suggest that power spectral analysis is an effective and noninvasive method for detecting subtle changes in autonomic activity in response to the intake of foods or drugs.
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  • Masakuni TAKO, Seiki KIYUNA, Shuntoku UECHI, Fujiya HONGO
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 654-657
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
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    An alginate was isolated from commercially cultured Nemacystus decipiens which had been harvested in Yonashiro Town (Okinawa, Japan). The yield of the alginate was 1.6% (w/w of wet alga), and the uronic acid, ash and moisture contents of the alginate were 86.0%, 12.0%, and 2.3% (w/w), respectively. The molecular mass of the alginate was estimated to be about 1.5×105. The infrared spectrum and optical rotation of the alginate were in agreement with those of the standard alginate. D-Mannuronic acid and L-guluronic acid were identified by 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy, the molar ratio of both sugar residues being estimated to be 0.72:1.00.
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  • Puming HE, Yasuhiro NODA, Kimio SUGIYAMA
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 670-673
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
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    Extracts of various types of tea and coffee significantly suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury, as assessed by the plasma enzyme activities, in D-galactosamine-sensitized rats when administered orally once before injecting the drugs. These was a significant negative correlation between the caffeine levels of these extracts and liver injury. Authentic caffeine also had a hepatoprotective effect. These results suggest that caffeine-containing beverages generally suppress LPS-induced liver injury according to their caffeine content.
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  • Kimio SUGIYAMA, Yasuhiro NODA, Puming HE
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 674-677
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
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    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced hepatitis and apoptosis, as respectively assessed by serum enzyme activities and hepatic DNA fragmentation were effectively suppressed by a single force-feeding of caffeine (100 mg/kg) 1.5 h before injecting the drug. In contrast, caffeine had no significant effect on anti-Fas antibody-induced hepatitis and apoptosis. These results suggest that caffeine differentially affected TNF-α receptor- and Fas-mediated hepatitis and apoptosis.
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  • Megumi MORIYAMA, Chiyoko TOKUE, Hideko OGIWARA, Hiroko KIMURA, Soichi ...
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 706-709
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
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    The chemical and nutritional properties were investigated of hypoallergenic wheat flour (HWF) prepared by the cellulase-actinase treatment. HWF was composed mainly of oligopeptides and free amino acids, and its average molecular weight was lower than 1,000. Feeding tests on rats showed that, with respect to the PER, GOT and GPT activities and other nutritional indices, the HWF diet was almost equivalent to the control diet which had been prepared from normal wheat flour (NWF). No abnormality was apparent in the main organs after the HWF diet had been fed for 3 weeks. The small intestinal absorption of the HWF diet was found normal by measuring the free amino acid concentration in the intestinal tract and in the portal vein plasma. These data suggest that te absorption of amino acids from the HWF diet was comparable with or more efficient than that from a simulated free amino acid diet.
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  • Nobuyuki MATOBA, Yuko YAMADA, Hachiro USUI, Ryusuke NAKAGIRI, Masaaki ...
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 736-739
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
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    We obtained a potent anti-hypertensive peptide, RPFHPF, by replacing the amino acid residues of ovokinin(2-7) (RADHPF), an orally active anti-hypertensive peptide derived from ovalbumin. After intravenous administration in anesthetized Wistar rats, the designed peptide [Pro2, Phe3]-ovokinin(2-7) had a long-lasting hypotensive activity at a dose of 10 mg/kg, while that of ovokinin(2-7) was only transient even at a dose of 100 mg/kg. After oral administration in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), [Pro2, Phe3]-ovokinin(2-7) significantly lowered the systolic blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. It is noteworthy that the minimum effective dose of [Pro2, Phe3]-ovokinin(2-7) was 0.3 mg/kg, about one-thirtieth of that of ovokinin(2-7). On the other hand, orally administered [Pro2, Phe3]-ovokinin(2-7) did not show any significant hypotensive effect in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs) even at a dose of 3 mg/kg. Taken together, [Pro2, Phe3]-ovokinin(2-7) proved to be an ideal, potent anti-hypertensive peptide with little effect on normal blood pressure when given orally.
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Microbiology & Fermentation Technology
  • Takaaki YANAI, Michikatsu SATO
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 527-533
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
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    An intracellular β-D-xylosidase from Candida utilis IFO 0639 was purified to homogeneity trough four chromatographic steps. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be 92 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The enzyme had an isoelectric point at 5.6, and was most active at pH 6.0 and at around 40°C. Ethanol at an optimal concentration (10%,v/v) stimulated the initial enzyme activity by 57%. D-Xylose, the product of the β-D-xylosidase, has no effect on the enzyme activity at 300 mM. The β-D-xylosidase was highly specific to the β-D-xylopyranoside configuration. The enzyme hydrolyzed β-1, 4-linked xylo-oligosaccharides with chain lengths from 2 to 5 by releasing xylose from the non-reducing end. It showed no activity against xylan. The enzyme efficiently released monoterpenols from an aroma precursor extracted from Muscat grape juice. The fermentation of Muscat juice coupled with the enzyme addition produced a small increase in the concentration of monoterpenols.
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  • Junji KUROKAWA, Eiakalak HEMJINDA, Takamitsu ARAI, Shuichi KARITA, Tet ...
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 548-554
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
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    The man26B gene of Clostridium thermocellum strain F1 was found in pKS305, which had been selected as a recombinant plasmid conferring endoglucanase activity on Escherichia coli. The open reading frame of man26B consists of 1,773 nucleotides encoding a protein of 591 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 67,047. Man26B is a modular enzyme composed of an N-terminal signal peptide and three domains in the following order: a mannan-binding domain, a family 26 mannanase domain, and a dockerin domain responsible for cellulosome assembly. We found that this gene was a homologue of the man26A gene of C. thermocellum strain YS but that there were insertion or deletion mutations that caused a frame-shift mutation affecting a stretch of 26 amino acids in the catalytic domain. Man26B devoid of the dockerin domain was constructed and purified from a recombinant E. coli, and its enzyme properties were examined. Immunological analysis indicated that Man26B was a catalytic component of the C. thermocellum F1 cellulosome.
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  • Tsuyoshi SUGIO, Hiroyuki KUWANO, Atsunori NEGISHI, Terunobu MAEDA, Fum ...
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 555-562
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Cell growth of three hundred iron-oxidizing bacteria isolated from natural environments was inhibited strongly by 0.05 mM, and completely by 0.2 mM of sodium tungstate (Na2WO4), respectively. Since no great difference in the level of tungsten inhibition was observed among the 300 strains tested, the mechanism of inhibition by Na2WO4 was studied with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain AP19-3. When resting cells of AP19-3 were incubated in 0.1 M β-alanine-SO2-4 buffer (pH 3.0) with 0.1 mM Na2WO4 for 1 h, the amount of tungsten bound to the cells was 12 μg/mg protein. The optimum pH for tungsten binding to the resting cells was 2∼3. Approximately 2 times more tungsten bound to the cells at pH 3.0 than at pH 6.0 The tungsten binding was specifically inhibited by sodium molybdenum. However, copper, nickel, cadmium, zinc, manganese, cobalt, and vanadate did not disturb tungsten binding to the resting cells. The iron-oxidizing activity of AP19-3 was inhibited 24, 62, and 77% by 1, 5, and 10 mM of Na2WO4, respectively. Among the components of iron oxidation enzyme system, iron: cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity was not inhibited by 10 mM of Na2WO4. In contrast, the activity of cytochrome c oxidase purified highly from the strain was inhibited 50 and 72%, respectively, by 0.05 and 0.1 mM of Na2WO4. The amounts of tungsten bound to plasma membrane, cytosol fraction, and a purified cytochrome c oxidase were 8, 0.5, and 191 μg/mg protein, respectively. From the results, the growth inhibition by Na2WO4 observed in A. ferrooxidans is explained as follows: tungsten binds to cytochrome c oxidase in plasma membranes and inhibits cytochrome c oxidase activity, and as a results, the generation of energy needed for cell growth from the oxidation of Fe2+ is stopped.
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  • Hiroshi MATSUI, Hisashi KAWASAKI, Megumi SHIMAOKA, Osamu KURAHASHI
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 570-578
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
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    For the derivation of an inosine-overproducing strain from the wild type microorganism, it is known that the addition of an adenine requirement, removal of purine nucleoside hydrolyzing activity, removal of the feedback inhibition, and repression of key enzymes in the purine nucleotides biosynthetic pathway are essential. Thus, the disruption of purA (adenine requirement), deoD (removal of purine nucleosides phosphorylase activity), purR (derepression of the regulation of purine nucleotides biosynthetic pathway), and the insensitivity of the feedback inhibition of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) amidotransferase by adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) and guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP) were done in the Escherichia coli strain W3110, and then the inosine productivity was estimated. In the case of using a plasmid harboring the PRPP amidotransferase gene (purF) that encoded a desensitized PRPP amidotransferase, purF disrupted mutants were used as the host strains. It was found that the innovation of the four genotypes brough about a small amount of inosine accumulation. Furthermore, an adenine auxotrophic mutant of E. coli showed inappropriate adenine use because its growth could not respond efficiently to the concentration of adenine added. As the presence of adenosine deaminase is well known in E. coli and it is thought to be involved in adenine use, a mutant disrupted adenosine deaminase gene (add) wad constructed and tested. The mutant, which is deficient in purF, purA, deoD, purR, and add genes, and harboring the desensitized purF as a plasmid, accumulated about 1 g of inosine per liter. Although we investigated the effects of purR disruption and purF gene improvement, unexpectedly an increase in the inosine productivity could not be found with this mutant.
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  • Hiroya YURIMOTO, Tetsuya HASEGAWA, Yasuyoshi SAKAI, Nobuo KATO
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 627-633
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
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    D-Amino acid oxidase (DAO, EC 1.4.3.3) from a methylotrophic yeast, Candida boidinii, was produced at a high level under the control of the alcohol oxidase gene promoter in the original host. The enzyme was a peroxisomal and monomeric enzyme, and contained noncovalently-bound FAD as a cofactor. The enzyme was active toward several D-amino acids such as D-Ala, D-Met, and D-Ser. An alcohol oxidase-depleted strain (aod1Δ) was found to be a more suitable host for DAO production than the wild-type strain. Several post-translational effects may be responsible for the improvement of the DAO productivity by the aod1Δ strain. Finally, an aod1Δ strain transformant having multi-copies of an expression plasmid on its chromosome could produce DAO amounting up to 30% of the total soluble proteins.
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  • Akihiko MARUYAMA, Tatsuro FUJIO
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 644-650
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To improve ATP production from adenine, we optimized cultivation and reaction conditions for the ATP producing strain, Corynebacterium ammoniagenes KY13510. In the conventional method, 28% NH4OH has been used both to adjust pH during cultivation and reaction, and to provide nitrogen for cell growth. In the ATP-producing reaction, high concentrations of inorganic phosphate and magnesium ion are needed, which form magnesium ammonium phosphate (MgNH4PO4) precipitate. To keep inorganic phosphate and magnesium ions soluble in the reaction mixture, it was indispensable to add phytic acid as a chelating agent of divalent metal ions. Under such conditions, 37 mg/ml (61.2 mM) ATP was accumulated in 13 h (Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 21, 143 1985). If ammonium ion was depleted from the reaction mixture to avoid MgNH4PO4 formation, we expected that there was no need to add phytic acid and ATP accumulation might be improved. Therefore, we obtained the cultured broth of C. ammoniagenes KY13510 strain with low ammonium ion content (less than 1 mg/ml as NH3) by the method that a part of alkali solution (28% NH4OH) for pH control was replaced with 10 N KOH. Using this culture broth, ATP producing reaction was done in 2-liter jar fermentor, controlling the pH of the reaction mixture with 10 N KOH. Under these conditions, the rate of ATP accumulation improved greatly, and 70.6 mg/ml (117 mM) ATP was accumulated in 28 h. The molar conversion ratio from adenine to ATP was about 82%. Phytic acid was slightly inhibitory to ATP formation under these ammonium-limited conditions.
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  • Mika TANAKA, Hidetoshi OKUYAMA, Naoki MORITA
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 666-669
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
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    The β-lactamase gene (mbla) of the psychrophilic marine bacterium Moritella marina strain MP-1 was identified in a previously isolated genomic DNA fragment and it was expressed in Escherichia coli cells. The mbla gene encoded a protein consisting of 287 amino acid residues. Its predicted amino acid sequence showed approximately 50% identity with that of a number of class A β-lactamases, especially with that of CARB/PSE type of β-lactamases (carbenicillinases). E. coli transformed with the plasmid containing mbla grew on an amplicillin-containing plate at 37°C but not at 42°C, suggesting that the β-lactamase of this bacterium is heat-labile.
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  • El-Sayed E. HABIB, Kazumi YOKOMIZO, Kazuhiko NAGAO, Shinji HARADA, Mas ...
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 683-685
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
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    A novel antiviral agent, fattiviracin FV-8, purified from the culture broth of Streptomyces microflavus strain No. 2445, showed potent antiviral activities against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and influenza A and B viruses. The action mechanism of fattiviracin FV-8 against HIV-1 was examined. As a result, the agent was thought to act on HIV-1 particles directly without lysis of the particles, and it affords the inhibition of viral entry into the host cells.
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  • Akihiko KOSUGI, Yukimichi KOIZUMI, Fujiharu YANAGIDA, Shigezo UDAKA
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 728-731
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 28, 2002
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    Using a mutant defective in cysteine uptake, which is resistant to a toxic analog of cysteine, allylglycine, we searched for a gene that complements the defect in cysteine uptake in a yeast genomic library and found a DNA fragment causing the recovery of cysteine uptake and sensitivity to allylglycine. The gene in the fragment was identical to MUP1, the high affinity methionine permease gene. We conclude that Mup1 is a major permease in cysteine uptake.
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