Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Online ISSN : 1347-6947
Print ISSN : 0916-8451
Volume 58 , Issue 7
Showing 1-44 articles out of 44 articles from the selected issue
  • Jie Zhang, Guanying Wang, Hang Li, Cun Zhuang, Takashi Mizuno, Hitoshi ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1195-1201
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A water-soluble polysaccharide, FI, and water-insoluble polysaccharides, FII and FIII were extracted from Pleurotus citrinopileatus mushrooms. After fractionation, the antitumor activity of the fractions against Sarcoma 180 implanted in mice were examined, and the following active polysaccharides were obtained : Water-soluble polysaccharides Flo : A heteropolysaccharide containing 9.8% protein, and composed of glucose, mannose, arabinose, and galactose. FA-2-b-β : A glycoprotein consisting of glycan : protein = 40 : 60 w/w, with the glyco-chain composed of glucose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and fucose. FA-3 : A glycoprotein consisting of glycan : protein = 50 : 50 w/w, and glycan moiety consisting of glucose, galactose, xylose, mannose, and fucose. Water-insoluble polysaccharides FIII-1 : Protein-containing β-D-glucans, FIII-1-a, and -b were obtained from FIII-1 by gel filtration, composed of glucan : protein = 80 : 20, and 68 : 32 w/w, respectively. The glucan moieties of both were almost all (1→3)-β-D-glucan, and their molecular weights were 68 x 104 and 40 × 104. FIII-2 : Protein-containing β-D-glucans, FIII-2-a, and -b, were obtained from FIII-2 by gel filtration, with molecular weights 190 × 104 and 120 × 104, respectively. Both were almost all composed of glucan : protein = 87 : 13 w/w. Both glucan moieties were mainly (1→3)-β-D-glucan.
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  • Jie Zhang, Guanying Wang, Hang Li, Cun Zhuang, Takashi Mizuno, Hitoshi ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1202-1205
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A water-soluble polysaccharide, FI, extracted from the mycelium of Granoderma tsugae, was fractionated and purified by ion-exchange chromatography, gel tiltration, and affinity chromatography. Sixteen polysaccharides obtained were examined for antitumor effects on Sarcoma 180 in mice. The three active polysaccharides obtained were as follows : FIo-a : A glycan-protein complex containing 9.3% protein, and having a hetero-glyco-chain of mannose and xylose. FIo-b-α : Molecular weight 10, 000, glucan-protein complex containing 25.8% protein. The inhibition ratio was 61.8% against the solid cancer Sarcoma 180/mice ; the survival ratio was more than 194% of the control group (100). FA-1-b-α : Molcular weight 16, 000, a complex of glycan : protein = 42 : 58 w/w, consisting of glucose as a main component, and associated with arabinose, mannose, xylose, and galactose. This had a tumor inhibition ratio of 56% and a survival ratio of more than 182%. Comparison ofactive glycan with thefruiting body and mycelium : Among water-soluble polysaccharides of fruiting body, FIo-a and FA-1, with antitumor activity, were both glucogalactan-protein complexes of molecular weight 10, 000, but that of mycelium was a homoglucan protein complex in FIo-b-α and heteroglucan protein in both FA-1-a and FA-1-b-α. The heteroglucan had a low tumor inhibition ratio, but caused a high survival ratio in mice.
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  • Akinori Hirashima, Hiroshi Tarui, Morifusa Eto
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1206-1209
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    2-(Arylimino)thiazolidines (AITs) were synthesized by cyclizing monoethanolamine hydrogen sulfate with arylisothiocyanates in the presence of sodium hydroxide, or by the hydrochloric acid-catalyzed cyclization of thiourea. 2-(Aralkylamino)-2-thiazolines (AATs) and thiazines were obtained by the hydrochloric acid-catalyzed cyclization of the corresponding thioureas. 2-(2, 6-Diethylphenylimino)oxazolidine was obtained by cyclodesulfurizing the corresponding thiourea with yellow mercuric oxide. The activity for stimulating adenylate cyclase prepared from ventral nerve cords of the American cockroach Periplaneta americana L. by these compounds was examined at 100μM. AIT with a 2, 6-diethylphenyl group was more active than its oxazolidine derivative. Greater enzyme activation appeared to result from short-chain alkyl rather than halogen substitution at the 2, 6-positions of the aromatic ring of AITs. Increasing the chain length from methyl to ethyl in 2, 6-disubstituted AIT caused an increase in the enzyme activation. There was a marked decrease in the enzyme activation after alkylating the ring nitrogen or C5, and after ring expansion of potent AIT and AAT. Thus, a certain degree of bulkiness and hydrophobicity at the 2- and 6-positions on the phenyl ring of AIT and at the N-terminal of AIT and AAT were favorable for activating the adenylate cyclase.
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  • Seigo Koura, Kiyoshi Takasuka, Noriyoshi Katsuyama, Chifuyu Ogino, Yuk ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1210-1212
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    The characteristic mode for the herbicidal action of 2-amino-3-chloro-1, 4-naphthoquinone (ACN) was investigated by using autotrophic green microalgae (Scenedesmus acutus). The effects of ACN on the growth, chlorophyll content, protoporphyrin-IX accumulation, and ethane production in Scenedesmus cells were measured in comparison with three reference herbicides, i. e., ioxynil, dinoseb, and chlorophthalim. ACN appeared to have a different mechanism for action from these three herbicides. S. acutus cells grown with ACN produced ethane, but the mechanism for its production is considered to have been ditferent from that of chlorophthalim. ACN may inhibit porphyrin biosynthesis at a different stage from that by chlorophthalim.
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  • Mohsen Zommara, Hironori Takagi, Masanobu Sakono, Yutaka Suzuki, Katsu ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1213-1217
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    The study was carried out to assess whether bovine milk whey and its products fermented by lactic acid bacteria could ameliorate the lipid peroxidation of hepatic mitochondria associated with cholestatic liver injury due to bile duct ligation. Rats were maintained on one of five diets for 3 weeks before being operated upon and killed 3 weeks after bile duct ligation. The diets included one deficient in vitamin E (control diet) and others supplemented with either 5o/o milk whey or 5o/o milk whey fermented with Bifidobacterium longum (B. longum), Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus), and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophillus (S. thermophilIus). Bile duct-ligated rats, compared with sham-operated rats, had higher organ weights (liver and spleen), higher serum alkaline phosphatase activity, higher serum bilirubin concentration, and higher content of hepatic mitochondrial lipid hydroperoxide. The rats fed on diets containing milk whey fermented with B. longum ameliorated the elevation of organ weights, enzyme activity, bilirubin concentration, and content of mitochondrial lipid hydroperoxide. Milk whey and milk whey fermented with L. acidophilus and S. thermophillus also suppressed the elevation of mitochondrial lipid hydroperoxide, but had no ameliorating effects on organ weights, enzyme activity, and bilirubin concentration. The elevation of serum lipid hydroperoxide was ameliorated in rats fed on diets containing milk whey and milk whey fermented with B. longum and S. thermophillus. The reduction in plasma 2-tocopherol due to bile duct ligation was ameliorated in those rats fed on diets containing milk whey fermented with B. longum as well as by S. themophillus. These results suggest that a milk whey fermented with lactic acid bacteria exerts a beneficial effect on free radical-mediated hepatic injury.
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  • Yasushi Kawai, Tadao Saito, Takahiro Toba, Shantanu Samant K., Takatos ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1218-1221
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    A new bacteriocin, gassericin A, was purified from the culture fluid of Lactobacillus gasseri LA39 mainly by reverse-phase (RP) chromatography. The purification of gassericin A from a modified MRS broth, in which Tween 80 had been replaced by oleic acid, resulted in a 4500-fold increase in specific activity with a 6% recovery. Gassericin A was eluted as a single peak on the chromatogram from RP-HPLC and migrated by SDS-PAGE as a single band with a molecular weight of ca. 3. 8 kDa. Gassericin A, a highly hydrophobic bacteriocin, was slightly soluble in water, but its solubility was increased by adding alcohol and acetonitrile. An amino acid analysis revealed that it was composed of 45.7% hydrophobic amino acids in the total residues of 35 amino acids. Gassericin A produced in the MRS broth associated strongly with Tween 80, although several further trials of dissociation were unsuccessful.
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  • Osato Miyawaki, Rungnaphar Pongsawanit
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1222-1225
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    The effective thermal conductivity of binary aqueous solutions or gel systems of glucose, sucrose, potato starch, gelatin, and egg albumin in the frozen state were theoretically investigated. Structural models were used for evaluating heat conduction combined with the ice fraction measured for the same sample as that used in the measurement of effective thermal conductivity. The temperature-dependency of the ice fraction was determined by the phase diagram or DSC method. The structural models employed, with no fitting parameters involved, were the series, parallel, and Maxwell-Eucken models with ice as the dispersed phase (ME1 model) and as the continuous phase (ME2 model). The intrinsic thermal condictivity for each component was determined from measurements taken on unfrozen sample. Although alI of the four models were applicable to the unfrozen sample with no substantial ditference in prediction, the ME1 model, which was composed of the dispersed ice phase and continuous thick solution phase, was the only model applicable to the frozen sample for predicting the effective thermal conductivity within 10% accuracy. With all the samples tested, the ME1 model gave the best results of the four models, suggesting the wide applicability of this modeI for predicting the effective thermal conductivity of frozen food materials.
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  • Yumi Yoshikawa, Kanji Matsumoto, Kazuhisa Nagata, Toshio Sato
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1226-1230
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    Trehalose is a disaccharide of glucose mainly found in bakers' yeast. We investigated the extraction conditions for trehalose from bakers's yeast with an ethanol-water solution to increase the yield of trehalose from the yeast cells. A high extraction ratio of trehalose was obtained from thermally treated yeast, that is, from yeast cells treated by drying and heating, when compared with that from untreated raw yeast. This thermal had the effect of inactivating trehalase, which is a hydrolytic enzyme of trehalose, and accelerated the disruption of the yeast cells. These effects facilitated the extraction of trehalose within a short time at 25°C. When an ethanol-water solution of high concentration was used as the extraction solvent, the concentration of residual protein in the yeast extract was quite small. Especially in the case of dried yeast, The removal of protein from the yeast extract was not necessary for isolating and purifying trehalose after lt had been extracted.
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  • Rikizo Aono, Takaaki Negishi, Kazuhiko Aibe, Akira Inoue, Koki Horikos ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1231-1235
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    The extent of organic solvent tolerance was variable among strains of Escherichia coli K-12. Genetic analyses of n-hexane-tolerant strains indicated that a number of genes were involved in the solvent-tolerance phenotype. One such gene, designated ostA, was mapped at 1. 2 min, close to pdxA. Transduction of ostA from a n-hexane-sensitive strain to a n-hexane-tolerant strain generated n-hexane-sensitive transductants. The sensitive transductant restored n-hexane-tolerance by transduction of ostA from a tolerant strain. Thus, the gene ostA is one of the genes that contributes to deciding the level of organic solvent tolerance in E. coli.
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  • Yuzo Yamada, Minako Matsuda, Kojiro Maeda, Chihiro Sakakibara, Kozabur ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1236-1244
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    The partial base sequences of 18S and 26S rRNAs of strains of Williopsis and Saturnospora species were analyzed. In the three regions partially sequenced, the higher base differences were observed in the strains examined of the three species, W. californica, W. mucosa, and W. pratensis, compared with those of W. saturnus var. saturnus (type species of genus Williopsis), W. beijerinckii, W. mrakii, W. saturnus var. subsuLfficiens, W. suaveolens, P. membranaefaciens (type species of genus Pichia), C. matritensis (type species of genus Citeromyces), and S'spora dispora (type species of genus Saturnospora) : the percent similarities were 52-82 in positions 493-622, 130 bases, of 26S rRNA, and the number of base differences was 28-6 in positions 1611-1835, 225 bases, of 26S rRNA, and the number of base differences was 2541in positions 1451-1618, 168 bases, of 18S rRNA. In the 18S rRNA partial base sequencings, W. mucosa had an identical base sequence with P. anomala (≡H. anomala, type species of genus Hansenula). Based on the sequence data obtained, the taxonomic positions of the three Williopsis species mentioned above are discussed. The genus Zygowilliopsis KUDRIAVZEV was postulated to be retained and emended, and a new genus, Komagataea was proposed for W. pratensis with a new combination, Komagataea pratensis.
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  • Yuzo Yamada, Kojiro Maeda, Kozaburo Mikata
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1245-1257
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    The twenty-seven strains of the hat-shaped ascospore-forming, nitrate-assimilating species, formerly classified in the genus Hansenula, of the genus Pichia were examined for their 18S and 26S rRNA partial base sequencings. All the strains examined were separate phylogenetically from the type strain of P. membranaefaciens (type species of genus Pichia). Based on the sequence data obtained [by number of base differences (tive or more) with P. anomala and base sequences on fingerprint segment] in the 18S rRNA partial base sequences, these species were divided into seven groups. Group I, including P. anomala ( ≡H. anomala, type species of genus Hansenula), P. canadensis, P. muscicola, P. silvicola, P. subpelliculosa, P. americana, P. bimundalis, P. cferrii, P. sydowiorum, P. bispora, and P. fabianii, corresponded to the genus Hansenula Sydow et Sydow. Groups II and III were comprised of P. capsulata and P. holstii, respectively. Group IV included P. angusta, P. minuta var. minuta, P. minuta var. nonfermentans, P. philodendra, P. glucozyma, and P. henricii. Groups V, VI, and VII included P. jadinii, P. petersonii, and P. dryadoides, respectively. The nitrate assimilation-negative species, P. wickerhamii was phylogenetically distant from P. membranaefaciens. The seven groupings are discussed phylogenetically and taxonomically. For Groups IV, II, and III, the three new genera were proposed as Ogataea, Kuraishia, and Nakazawaea, respectively, with the type species, O. minuta (≡P. minuta), K. capsulata (≡P. capsulata), and N. holstii (≡P. holstii).
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  • Masami Kimura, Miwa Shizuki, Kazuyo Miyoshi, Tomomi Sasai, Hiroshi Hid ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1258-1261
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    Emulsification properties are very important to control the texture of foods. However, the relationship between the molecular structure and emulsification properties of edible oils is not understood. To analyze this relationship, the emulsitication susceptibilities of various kinds of single triacylglycerol molecular species and edible oils were systematically measured. The emulsification susceptibility increased as the carbon number and double bond number of triacylglycerol molecular species consisting oils increased. In addition, the effect of the double bond number was predominant. These results demonstrate that the emulsification property is affected by the molecular structure of oils. Furthermore, the emulsitication susceptibilities of edible oiIs modified by enzymatic interesterification were changed as compared with those of native oils. This shows that emulsitication property can be changed by the modification of the molecular structure of edible oils.
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  • Miwako Matsumoto, Hiroshi Nago
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1262-1266
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    Lasiodiplodia theobromae GK-1, a strain of filamentous fungi isolated from the surface of fruit of the coconut palm, produced a coconut-like aroma in potato-dextrose-agar medium. As the compound most responsible for the aroma, 2-octeno-δ-lactone was identified. Comparing to (R)-2-deceno-δ-lactone, its stereochemistry was found to be 100% of R-configuration by using gas chromatographic enantiomeric separation after converting the lactone to lactol methyl ethers. Mellein and β-phenylethanol were found in the early stages of the culture. Degradative process of δ-lactones by the strain GK-1 was also investigated.
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  • Hiroshi Nago, Miwako Matsumoto
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1267-1272
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    One function of the volatiles produced by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae was supposed to be ecological, as an insect attractant, which could get the attracted insects to be a vector of the fungal spores. L. theobromae, a mellein-producing fungus, was isolated from the outer surface of a danaid butterfly, ldea leuconoe. Ingestion by the butterfly of mellein on some plant tissues that contained mellein from 0. 3 to 11 ppm was observed in the field and also in an insectarium. All these plant tissues were infected with L. theobromae, therefore, the mellein was concluded to be produced by the fungi. These observation suggests the presence of a kind of mutualistic relation between ldea leuconoe and L. theobromae associated with mellein, which is a suspected sex pheromone of the buttertly, accumulated in its hairpencil.
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  • Yukio Suzuki, Kei Uchida
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1273-1276
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    A new derivative of thiamin, glycosylated thiamin, was found to be formed from o-nitrophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside and thiamin in 33% CH3CN by Aspergillus oryzae β-galactosidase. The derivative was isolated in a crystalline form from the reaction mixture by a procedure including PPC, activated vitachange column chromatography, ethanol treatment, PPC, gel-filtration on Toyopearl HW-40S, and lyophilization, and identified as 5'-O-(β-D-galactopyranosyl)-thiamin on the basis of various experimental results, viz., FAB-MS, UV, IR, 1H-, and 13C-NMR spectra, thiochrome formation with K3[Fe(CN)6]-NaOH reagent, and products by hydrolysis with α- and β-galactosidases. O-β-Galactosylthiamin was odorless and mildly sweet with no stimulative tongue-pricking taste.
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  • Osamu Negishi, Tetsuo Ozawa, Hiroshi Imagawa
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1277-1281
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    Guanosine deaminase and guanine deaminase were partially purified from tea leaves. The optimum activity of guanosine deaminase was observed at pH 7.5 and that of guanine deaminase was at pH 7.0-7.5 and 8.5. Guanosine deaminase was an unstable enzyme. The activities of these deaminases were significantly inhibited by heavy metals. Molecular weights of guanosine deaminase and guanine deaminase as measured by gel filtration were about 18, 000 and 54, 000, respectively. The Km for the respective substrates, guanosine and guanine, were 9.5 pM and 41. 7μM. Guanosine deaminase was considered to catalyze the deamination of 2'-deoxyguanosine besides guanosine. It is suggested that guanosine deaminase as well as guanine deaminase in tea leaves not only acts on the catabolic pathway, but also is involved in the biosynthesis of caffeine from guanosine or guanine nucleotides.
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  • Shin-ichi Fukuoka
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1282-1285
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    To characterize molecules involved in the intracellular sorting and regulated exocytosis of digestive enzymes in the pancreas, proteins that are speciticially associated with the zymogen granule membranes were analyzed. Zymogen granules, the major secretory organelles in the pancreas, were highly puritied. SDS-PAGE analysis found at least 7 protein components in the zymogen granule membranes including ZAP (zymogen granule membrane associated protein) 75, 54, 47, 36, 32, 29, 25 (numbers refer to their apparent kDas). ZAP75 is identical to the glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein, GP2. Partial amino acid sequencing of ZAP47 and ZAP36 found similarities to a preprocarboxypeptidase B and annexins, respectively. The method we used was a useful tool for structural analysis of the members of ZAPs.
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  • Hiroyuki Arai, Yasuo Igarashi, Tohru Kodama
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1286-1291
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    In the denitrification gene cluster from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an operon encoding three open reading frames (nirQ, ORF2, ORF3) was upstream of the structural gene for nitrite reductase (nirS) as a divergent transcriptional organization. A nucleotide-binding protein encoded by nirQ was 76o/o identical to the Pseudomonas stutzeri nirQ gene product, which was shown to be necessary for activating nitrite and nitric oxide reductases. The gene product of ORF2 was homologous to subunit III of cytochrome oxidases. The nirQ gene was transcribed under denitrifying conditions. The intergenic region of nirS and nirQ has only one binding motif for ANR, a regulatory protein for anaerobic gene expression correspond to FNR in E. coli. Complementation analyses showed that the transcription of both nirS and nirQ completely depended on ANR.
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  • Tadashi Nagashima, Yutaka Yamamoto, Katsuya Gomi, Katsuhiko Kitamoto, ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1292-1296
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    A high level production system for heterologous protein by cold culture of yeast transformants at 15°C was developed. The yeast transformants, carrying a plasmid containing cDNA for Aspergillus oryzae α-amylase (Taka-amylase A) or human lysozyme synthetic DNA, were cultivated in a selective medium for 1 or 2 days until full growth at 30°C. The yeast cells were harvested by centrifugation from the culture fluid and then were transferred to YPD medium. These inoculated broths were incubated for 2 days at 15°C and then for another 2 days at 30°C. By the cold culture method described above, higher amounts of Taka-amylase A (28. 6 mg/liter) and human lysozyme (6. 1 mg/liter) were produced by the yeast transformants compared to those by conventional methods. Heterologous protein productions using YEp, YCp, and YIp types of yeast expression vectors with ADH1 or GAPDH promoter by the cold culture method showed effective productivity of about 2-fold compared to those by the conventional method of culture at 30°C. The high level production of heterologous protein by this method was not specific to the S. cerevisiae strains examined.
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  • Kozo Nakamura, Atsushi Enomoto, Hideo Fukushima, Kiyotaka Nagai, Masar ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1297-1301
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    In order to develop a novel sterilization method for heat-sensitive materials, the disruption of microbial cells by the rapid release of gas pressure was examined under various conditions of pressure, temperature, treatment time and water content of the cells. Wet cells of baker's yeast were completely destroyed, after the microorganisms had been saturated with CO2 gas at 40°C and 40 atm for more than 3h when the pressure was suddenly discharged. On the other hand, dry cells were poorly killed even under the same experimental conditions. In particular, N2 gas with low solubility in water had no effect on the survival ratio of the yeast. From these results, the death of microorganisms may be caused by mechanical breakage and/or physiological damage related to gas sorption and desorption by the cells.
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  • Tsuyoshi Ohsumi, Hiroyuki Sato, Yasuhiko Yoshihara, Shigeho Ikeda
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1302-1305
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    The possibility of using lysine-accumulating yeast cells as a rumen-stable source of lysine for ruminants was investigated. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain AJ14599 accomulated free lysine amounting to 15% of the dry weight of the cells when cultured in a medium with the lysine precursor, L-α-aminoadipate (AAA). A mutant, LA-1, which was induced from AJ14599 and resistant to S-(β-aminoethyl)-cysteine (AEC), accumulated 4% free lysine in AAA-free medium. In both LA-1 and AJ14599 cells, more than 90% of the free lysine was in vacuoles. In an in vitro evaluation, the intracellular lysine was stably maintained and protected from microbial degradation during incubation in intact rumen juice, but it was immediately and completely released in a digestive enzyme (pepsin) solution. Lysine in LA-1 cells was also nutritionally available for weanling rats. Thus, lysine-accumulating yeast cells were effective for use as a rumen-stable source of lysine.
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  • Nobuya Itoh, Toyoko Kouzai, Yoshinao Koide
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1306-1308
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    The optimum conditions for electro-transformation of some Pseudomonas strains including P. putida, P. fluorescens, and P. flavida, were detined using the pNI105 vector, resulting in 100-10, 000 fold increases in transformation efficiency compared with conven tional chemical transformation with MgCl2. The growth phase of the cultured cells and the tield strength were important in obtaining high transformation efficiency. Under optimal conditions, 3. 2 × 107transformants per 1μg DNA were obtained using a combination of pNI105 and P. fluorescens IAM12022. This value is the highest ever obtained for a Pseudomanas species. In addition, the procedures were applicable to the effective transformation of fluorescent Pseudomonas strains with pNI vectors.
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  • Eiichi Kuwano, Tomomi Hisano, Motomi Sonoda, Morifusa Eto
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1309-1310
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    Precocious metamorphosis of the silkworm induced by a variety of 1, 5-disubstituted imidazoles was prevented by the dietary administration of 20-hydroxyecdysone, as well as by the topical application of methoprene, a juvenile hormone mimic.
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  • Joko Sulistyo, Yoshi Kamiyama, Hirotaka Ito, Tsuneo Yasui
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1311-1313
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    β-Xylosidase of Aspergillus pulverulentus catalyzes a transxylosla-tion reaction from xylooligosaccharides to acceptor hydroquinone. Two transfer products were purified and their structures were examined. These were identified as hydroquinone β-(1→4)-xyloside and hydroquinone 4-O-(β-xylosyl)-β-xyloside. The hydrolysis of these glycosides apparently took place accompanying the synthesis of the transfer products.
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  • Hiroshi Kawakami, Yumiko Ishiyama, Tadashi Idota
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1314-1315
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    To clarify the stability of milk gangliosides under natural acidic conditions in the stomach, the resistance of monosialoganglioside 3(GM3) and disialoganglioside 3 (GD3) to gastric juice and acid so-lutions was investigated. The data presented here suggest that GM3and GD3 in milk are likely to reach the intestinal tract because over 80% of the sialic acid in their structure remained intact under the same acidic conditions found in an infant's stomach.
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  • Masamichi Koseki, Hironobu Seki, Keiichi Funayama, Naofumi Kitabatake, ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1316-1317
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    The effects of feeding of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on the contents of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) derived from bacterial fermentation in the colon were examined in rats. The concentration of lipids in the feces was also measured. Tripalmitin or samower oil at the concentration of 10% (w/w) in the diet with 5% (w/w) corn oil were used as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively.
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  • Masatake Toyoda, Yukio Saito, Mitsuru Uchiyama, Annette Troy L., Mary ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1318-1320
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    Chemical studies were conducted to determine the origin of the 3-(phenylamino)alanine (PAA) contaminant in EMS-associated L-tryptophan samples. Anthranilic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of the L-tryptophan, was heated at 80°C for 6h under acidic conditions to produce 140μg of aniline/g of anthranilic acid. The presence of aniline was verified by HPLC-UV and GC-MS. PAA (160μg of PAA/g of aniline) was produced by heating aniline and serine at 80°C for 6h under basic conditions. PAA was confirmed by HPLC-UV and LC-MS. These results suggest that PAA could be formed under the fermentation and puritication conditions used to produce L-tryptophan on an industrial scale.
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  • Hideo Maeba, Hiroyuki Narihata, Fujio Kobayashi
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1321-1323
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    Three different types of cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitors, lovastatin, ketoconazole, and 25-hydroxycholesterol, showed their respective resistance against amphotericin B (AmB) cytotoxicity in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells. The negative correlation between the acquisition of AmB resistance and the decrease of cellular cholesterol content by the inhibitor was confirmed.
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  • Norihiko Terahara, Masa-Atsu Yamaguchu, Toshio Honda
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1324-1325
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    Four cyanidin-based anthocyanins (1-4) were isolated from the red onion, Allium cepa L. Pigments 1 and 3 were identified as cyanidin 3-glucoside (Cy 3-Glc) and 3-malonylglucoside (Cy 3-MaGlc), respectively, by cochromatography with standard pigments. Anthocyanins 2 and 4 were respectively determined as cyanidin 3-laminaribioside (Cy 3-Lam) and 3-malonyllaminaribio-side (Cy 3-MaLam), a new anthocyanin, mainly by NMR tech-niques. Malonylated anthocyanins 3 and 4 were found for the first time in red onions.
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  • Kozo Ogawa, Toshifumi Yui, Keizo Okamura, Akira Misaki
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1326-1327
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    Crystalline polymorphs of the backbone (1→3)-α-D-glucans of two streptococcal α-glucans were studied by X-ray diffraction measurements in comparison with that of a fungal (1→3)-α-D-glucan. The glucan produced by S. salivarius changed its polymorph from the hydrated form at 100% relative humidity to the dehydrated form under vacuum, that produced by cariogenic S. mutans took the dehydrated form only, and the fungal glucan always showed the hydrated form. The difference of polymorphic behavior was ascribed to the molecular weight of the glucan since the fungal glucan showed the highest viscosity, the saliverius glucan, middle, and the mutans glucan, the lowest.
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  • Tomoyuki Okamoto, Hiroshi Taguchi, Katsumi Nakamura, Hiroshi Ikenaga
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1328-1329
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    The production of ethanol from maltose by Zymobacter palmae T109 in monoculture fermentations, and in co-culture fermentations together with Zymomonas mobilis B69 was studies. Zymobacter palmae T109, produced 5. 5% (w/v) of ethanol when co-cultured with Zymomonas mobilis B69, but Zymobacter palmae T 109 produced only 4. 9% (w/v) ethanol from 15% (w/v) maltose medium in monoculture fermentation.
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  • Kenichi Horiuchi, Kazunori Kosashi, Hidetomo Nagata, Toshinobu Satoh, ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1330-1331
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    Pseudomonas cepacia . hydrolyzed rac-1-phenyl-2-propyl acetate and propionate asymmetrically, affording R(-)-1-phenyl-2-propa-nol and the ester of S(+)-1-phenyl-2-propanol.
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  • Ken-ichiro Hayashi, Masahira Nakagawa, Tomoyuki Fujita, Mitsuru Nakaya ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1332-1333
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    Alisamycin is a new manumycin group antibiotic. Manumycin group antibiotics have three asymmetric carbons at C4, C5, and C6 in their structures. The absolute structure of alisamycin was determined by the exciton chirality method and CD spectrum of the oxidative product of alisamycin. Configurations of C4, C5, and C6were assigned to be 4R, 5S, and 6R.
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  • Nobuko Minagawa, Keiichi Meguro, Shigeru Sakajo, Akio Yoshimoto
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1334-1335
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    An antitumor antibiotic, ascofuranone, selectively inhibited succinate- and NADPH-dependent O2 uptake activity of the mito-chondria from Hansenula anomala, suggesting its interaction with the ubiquinone-reduction site of succinate dehydrogenase and external NADPH-dehydrogenase reactions. The action of ascofur-anone on the mitochondria is clearly different from that of antimycin A, the Qi site inhibitor.
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  • Yoshihiko Inamori, Chikaaki Muro, Kyoko Osaka, Yuichiro Funakoshi, Yos ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1336-1337
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    3-Thiophenecarboxylic acid (1) showed strong growth-inhibitory activity toward the following plants but not Glycine max Merrill ; Brassica campestris subsp. rapa Hook. fil. et Anders, Sesamum indicum L., Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia LAM, Echinochloa utilis OHWl et YABUNO and Allium tuberosum ROTTLER. Compound 1 strongly inhibited the growth of roots of S. indicum and L. sativa even at the low concentration of 5.0 × 10-5 M. The growth-inhibitory activity of1-related compounds (2-6) on S. indicum was also studied. Among the compounds, 3-thiopheneacetic acid (6) showed the strongest inhibitory activity, but 3-thiophenecarboxaldehyde (2), 3-thiophenemethanol (3), and 3-thiophenecarboxamide (5) showed no activity. The radicles of plants treated with these active compounds showed negative geotropism.
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  • Yuki Hidaka, Masumi Hasegawa, Tadaatsu Nakahara, Takayuki Hoshino
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1338-1339
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    Thermus thermophilus mutants carrying unlinked double auxotrophic markers were transformed with wild type chromosomal DNA at various growth phases. The percentages of competent cells in the total population were calculated based on the results of transformation efliciencies for single or double markers. It was concluded that all the T. thermophilus cells at any growth phase were competent.
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  • Shingo Sakai, Masayuki Katsumi
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1340-1342
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    Gibberellin (GA)-binding proteins (GBPs) were partially purified by atlinity chromatography on GA3-linked Sepharose 4B from dark-grown maize seedlings of dwarf-8 (D8) and its normal allele. GBPs from normal seedlings contained a high-affinity component with a dissociation constant (Kd) for GA4 of 0.3μM. The high-aflinity component was not detected in GBPs from D8 seedlings but they contained a low-affinity component with a KdGA4 of 1.3μM. The binding of [3H]-GA4 to GBPs from normal seedlings was inhibited by GA1 and GA3, but that from D8 seedlings was only weakly inhibited by GA1 and GA3.
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  • Keun-Hyung Park, Jong-Dae Park, Kyu-Hawn Hyun, Masayoshi Nakayama, Tak ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1343-1344
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    Brassinolide (1), castasterone (2), typhasterol (3), teasterone (4), and 28-norcastasterone (5), as well as monopalmitin and monoolein, were identified from immature seeds of Cassia tora L. as the active principles in the rice lamina inclination bioassay. The biological activity of monoolein was five orders of magnitude lower than that of brassinolide, but higher than that of indole-3-acetic acid.
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  • Kei Hashimoto, Naoaki Matsunaga, Makoto Shimizu
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1345-1346
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    The Effect of vegetable extracts on intestinal epithelial permeability was investigated by using Caco-2 cell monolayers as the model system. Among 32 kinds of vegetable samples, the extract of sweet pepper is considered to have contained certain substances that could modulate the tight junction permeability.
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  • Shohei Sakuda, Ze-Yang Zhou, Yasuhiro Yamada
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1347-1348
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    A novel dimer of an inositol glycoside was isolated from the mycelial extracts of Streptomyces sp. AJ 9463. Its structure was assigned as a disulfide of 2-(Nacetyl-L-cysteinyl)amido-2-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→1)-lD-myo-inositol (1).
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  • Masayuki Fujita, Yuhki Hanada, Yasuhiko Adachi
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1349-1350
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    When sarcocarp tissue of pumpkin fruit was exposed to 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid under nutrition-free condition, specitic activity of glutathione S-transferase (EC 2. 5. 1. 18) in the tissue increased. Four glutathione S-transferases, all of which were found in pumpkin callus, were detected in the tissue exposed to 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by two-dimensional electrophoresis. These results suggested that 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid induced the pumpkin glutathione S-transferases.
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  • Tsuyoshi Ohsumi, Yasuhiko Yoshihara, Shigeho Ikeda
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1351-1352
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    Several Nε-acyllysine derivatives were found to inhibit both aspartokinase and cell growth of Brevibacterium lactofermentum. More than ten carbon chains in the Nε-acyl group were necessary to inhibit the enzyme. In addition, the methylation of the α-amino group was not directly involved in the inhibitory activity, but it was related to inhibition by its effect on enhancing the molecules'solubility in water. The inhibition of cell growth was not reversed by individual addition of lysine, threonine, or methionine, but was reversed by the simultaneous addition of all three amino acids.
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  • Katsuya Kato, Masato Katayama, Rakesh Gautam K., Shozo Fujii, Hiroshi ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1353-1354
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    The optical resolution of the title compound (TFNE) was achieved by lipase LIP-catalyzed enantioselective acetylation (Evalue > 100)with vinyl acetate in octane. S-TFNE acetate and R-TFNE were obtained with high optical purity.
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  • Takuji Ohwada, Keiko Igawa, Tetsuya Sato, Masayuki Mikami
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 7 Pages 1355-1356
    Published: July 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    Hydroxylysine (around 1mM) was found to severely inhibit the growth of the Rhizobium cells tested but not the growth of other bacteria including Bradyrhizobium and some yeasts. This seems to show that hydroxylysine is a conspicuous growth inhibitor of Rhizobium bacteria and suggests that this compound suppresses the division of the infected cells containing bacteroids in the host plant.
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