Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Online ISSN : 1347-6947
Print ISSN : 0916-8451
Volume 58 , Issue 3
Showing 1-49 articles out of 49 articles from the selected issue
  • Keiko Kumeno, Kimie Kurimoto, Nobuko Nakahama, Michiko Watanabe
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 447-450
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Commercially available egg white was freeze-concentrated using bacterial ice nuclei, which improved its foaming properties. Baked meringue, angel cake, snow-jelly, and marshmallow were prepared using freeze-concentrated egg white foam and their physical properties were evaluated. We concluded that freeze-concentrated egg white can be used to make some foam foods.
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  • Takanori Kasai, Takeshi Sakamaki, Shuhachi Kuriyama
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 451-454
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    Ozonolysis processing of casein to prepare ozonated casein containing few phenylalanine residues and no other aromatic amino acid residues was modified. Physical and chemical properties of ozonated casein prepared with or without addition of hydrogen peroxide after ozonolysis were indistinguishable and the growth of rats fed the two ozonated casein preparation supplemented with appropriate free amino acids was also identical. Therefore, it was shown that ozonide formed by ozonolysis of casein was completely decomposed oxidatively without the treatment with hydrogen peroxide solution. Although more than 90% of phenylalanine was decomposed by ozonolysis of casein, ozonolysis caused alterations beyond the destruction of aromatic amino acid residues. Rats were fed diets containing 8% casein with 0.07% methionine (to total 0.3% methionine) and aspartic acid or 8% ozonated casein with 0.3% methionine and the free amino acid lost during ozonolysis. No significant difference in the growth and food intake was observed between the two groups. Although the biological value of ozonated casein diet was not inferior to the casein diet, true digestibility of the ozonated casein diet was significantly lower than the casein diet. The enlargement of cecum, kidney, and liver was observed in ozonated casein-fed groups. Accumulation of triglyceride in liver and decrease of plasma threonine and serine in ozonated casein-fed group suggested the occurrence of a threonine imbalance syndrome.
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  • Takashi Kuramoto, Yoko Ito, Mayumi Oda, Yukiyoshi Tamura, Sumio Kitaha ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 455-458
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    It was found that Cryptococcus magnus MG-27, a yeast isolated from soil, selectively hydrolyzed the terminal β-glucuronyl linkage of glycyrrhizin (1) to yield glycyrrhetic acid 3-O-mono-β-D-glucuronide (MGGR, 3), a potent sweetener (relative sweetness to sucrose : x941). The conditions for cultivation of this yeast with the maximum hydrolytic activity as well as the reaction conditions of 1 with the cells for the maximum yield of 3 were investigated. Based on the results, strain MG-27 was cultivated with a medium composed of 1.0% 1, 1.0% glucose, 0.5% Polypepton, and 0.3% yeast extract at 28 °C for 24h. The reaction of the resulting cells and 1 at pH 5.7 at 45 °C for 48h afforded 3 in a yield of 95%.
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  • Qing-Bai She, Takashi Hayakawa
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 459-463
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    The effect of vitamin B6 deticiency on the desaturation of linoleic acid (18 : 2n-6) to γ-linolenic acid (18 : 3n-6) in rat liver microsomes was studied. Rats fed with a vitamin B6-deficient 70% casein diet for 5weeks displayed a striking decrease mainly in the activity of terminal darutaΔ6-desaturase in the 18 : 2n-6desaturation system, although the activity of the electron-transport enzyme, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase, was also significantly decreased. The 18 : 2n-6 desaturation index, the arachidonic acid (20 : 4n-6)/18 : 2n-6 ratio in the liver microsomal total lipids and in their phosphatidylcholine (PC) fraction, decreased together with the microsomal A6-desaturase activity, these changes being quite faithfully reflected in the plasma lipid. Among the microsomal lipid components, the PC content signiticantly decreased. In addition, a highly positive correlation was found between the PC content and Δ6-desaturase activity in liver microsomes. In an in vitro experiment, the Δ6-desaturase activity decreased linearly with increasing rate of PC hydrolysis by phospholipase C. These results suggest that the altered PC content in microsomes induced by vitamin B6 deticiency in vivo may affect the 18 : 2n-6 desaturation and thus decrease the biosynthesis of 20 : 4n-6.
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  • Toshiki Enomoto, Hideo Ohyama, Hiroko Sumiyoshi
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 464-466
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    The pyrophosphate : D-fructose 6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase (PPi-PFK) and 6-phosphofructokinase (ATP-PFK) activities were measured during germination of rice seeds. In plumule and radicle, the PPi-PFK activity was the highest just at the appearance of these organs. On the other hand, the activity of ATP-PFK was almost constant, and was always lower than that of PPi-PFK. Furthermore, the PPi-PFK activity of the apex including a growing point of plumule and of radicle was much higher than that of each base. On the contrary, the ATP-PFK activity did not show any significant difference between the apex and base, and was about equal to the PPi-PFK activity detected in the base of these organs. When these enzyme activities were measured in embryo, the highest activity of PPi-PFK was detected just before the onset of decrease of the seed weight. However, the activity of ATP-PFK did not show any significant change, and was always lower than that of PPi-PFK.
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  • Hideo Etoh, Nobuyoshi Ban, Junko Fujiyoshi, Nobuko Murayama, Kimio Sug ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 467-469
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    To better understand the antifouling action of para-substituted phenolic compounds, the antimicrobial activity, which is known to be related to the antifouling activity, was examined with Trychophyton mentagrophytes. The effect of phenolic compounds on mitochondrial swelling was also investigated to elucidate their membrane-perturbation action. The variation of each activity was quantitatively analyzed by a regression analysis, using hydrophobic substituent parameter π. Each activity varied parabolically with increasing hydrophobicity of the para-substituent, the optimum π value being ca. 3. 5-4. 0. The introduction of a bulky substituent to the ortho position resulted in a drastic decrease in each activity. It is therefore likely that the antimicrobial activity is due to perturbation of the membrane structure. Considering the good correlation between the antifouling and antimicrobial activities of para-substituted phenols, the antifouling activity is assumed to be related to perturbation of the membrane structure and/or function.
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  • Do-Young Yum, Hee-Chul Chung, Dong-Hoon Bai, Doo-Hwan Oh, Ju-Hyun Yu
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 470-474
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    SAP, an extracellular alkaline serine protease produced by Streptomyces sp. YSA-130, was purified to homogeneity by CM-Sephadex column chromatography and crystallization. The enzyme was a monomeric protein with a molecular weight of 19, 000 as estimated by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. The amino acid composition and amino-terminal sequence of SAP were similar to those of other bacterial serine proteases, i. e., Streptomyces griseus proteases A and B, Lysobacter enzymogenes α-lytic protease and Nocardiopsis dassonvillei subsp. prasina OPC-210 alkaline serine protease NDP-I. The optimum temperature and pH for the enzyme activity were 60°C and l1. 5. The enzyme was stable up 50°C, and between pHs 4 and 12. The activity was inhibited by Ag+, Hg2+, Co2 +, sodium dodecyl sulfate, N-bromosuccinimide, diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP), 2, 3-butanedione, 5, 5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB), iodoacetate, Nethylmaleimide (NEM), phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), and phenylglyoxal.
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  • Hitoshi Kumagai, Misaki Iwase, Hitomi Kumagai, Akinori Mizuno, Toshima ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 475-481
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    Solution thermodynamics was applied to the water sorption isotherms of foods. First, we corrected Le Maguer's theory. By this correction, it was found that the same thermodynamic equations were applicable to both water sorption data measured at constant total pressure (P) and to those measured under the particular vapor pressure, P = Pw, for a food material. Second, the change in the water sorption behavior of rice flour by defatting and extrusion cooking was analyzed by solution thermodynamics. It was confirmed that the principle of solution thermodynamics is more appropriate than that of conventional adsorption thermodynamics for evaluating the affinity of food for water. The enhanced affinity of rice flour for water by defatting and extrusion was quantitatively evaluated by solution thermodynamics.
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  • Susumu Teraguchi, Kazuhiro Ozawa, Satoko Yasuda, Kouichirou Shin, Yasu ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 482-487
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    The number of faecal Enterobacteriaceae increased greatly in SPF mice fed bovine milk compared to SPF mice fed a commercial pelleted diet (F-2, Funabashi Farm Co., Chiba, Japan). As dominant species of Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis were isolated from mice feces. When mice were fed milk with bovine lactoferrin (bLF) added, the faecal bacterial number decreased to the level found in the feces of mice fed the pelleted diet (F-2). Administered bLF also caused suppression of the initial proliferation of faecal Enterobacteriaceae in the milk-fed mice. This result indicates a bacteriostatic effect of bLF in vivo. The bacteriostatic effect of administered bLF was dependent on the concentration of bLF and the duration of feeding, but independent of the iron-chelating ability of bLF. Compared with other proteins, only bLF showed this specific activity. The same effect was observed in each part of the gastrointestinal tract of mice fed bLF-containing milk. A hydrolysate of bLF digested with porcine pepsin showed the same effect on the faecal bacteria as native bLF. These results indicate that administered bLF has a bacteriostatic effect against Enterobacteriaceae in the gut even after it has been digested to some extent.
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  • Koichi Itakura, Koji Uchida, Shunro Kawakishi
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 488-493
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    Oxygenation of tryptophan analogues, 2-(3-indolyl) acetic acid (1), 3-(3-indolyl) propionic acid (2), N-benzoyl-L-tryptophan (3), N-tert-butoxycarbonyl-L-tryptophan (4), and N-benzoyl-L-tryptophan n-butylamide (5), with potassium superoxide (KO2) in dimethyl sulfoxide have been studied. In the case of 1, the major products were 2-formylaminobenzoic acid (25. 3%) and 2'-formylaminoacetophenone (18. 0%), which were produced by the secondary oxidation of 3-(2-formylaminophenyl)-3-oxopropinoic acid. The reaction of 2 with O2 - afforded 4-(2-formylaminophenyl)-4-oxobutanoic acid as the major product (43. 3%), and 2-(3-dioxindolyl) acetic acid (14. 5%) was also obtained. The reaction of 3 and 4 afforded 2-benzoylamino-4-(2-formylaminophenyl)-4-oxobutanoic acid (42. 1%) and 2-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-4-(2-formylaminophenyl)-4-oxobutanoic acid (95. 7%) as the major products, respectively. In the case of 3, 1-benzoyl-2-carboxy-3a-hydroxy-1, 2, 3, 3a, 8, 8a-hexahydropyrrolo[2, 3-b]indole (27. 4%) was also obtained. Unlike 3 and 4, the reaction of 5 mainly afforded N-n-butyl-2-benzoylamino-3-(3-dioxindolyl)propanamide (15) (52. 4%). We found that 1-n-butyl-2-oxo-3-benzoylamino-4a-hydroxy-1, 2, 3, 4, 4a, 9, 9a-heptahydropyrido[2, 3-b]indole is a precursor of 15. A similar difference in the reactivity between 3, 4, and 5 was also observed for two tryptophan-containing dipeptides, N-acetyl-glycyl-L-tryptophan and N-acetyl-L-tryptophyl-glycine.
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  • Takeo Murui, Masaki Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki Takeuchi, Shigeki Fujii, Haruk ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 494-497
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    The effects of soybean oil (SOO, control), soybean lecithin (SOL), and of sterylglycocides (STG) and phospholipids (PL) fractionated from SOL on lipid indices in the plasma, liver, and feces were examined for male Wistar rats fed with diets containing these lipids for 3 weeks. The body weight gain and liver weight decreased or tended to be reduced in the animals given the diet containing a 5% STG mixture (STGM) compared with the values in the other dietary groups. The plasma lipid concentration in general declined in the rats fed with the diets supplemented with 5% SOL, STGM, or the PL mixture (PLM), and with 1% of STGM, acylated STG (ASTG), or non-acylated STG (NSTG). The triacylglycerol level was significantly depressed in the rats fed with the diets including 1 or 5% of STGM, ASTG, or NSTG when compared to the level of the SOO-fed animals. The total cholesterol and triacylglycerol contents in the liver were lower in the rats provided with the diets containing 5% of SOL, PC, or PLM than in the SOO- or STGM-diet-fed animals. The rats given the diets supplemented with 1 or 5% of STGM, ASTG, or NSTG had a decreased content of liver triacylglycerol compared with the content of the SOO-fed animals. The amounts of total lipids and total cholesterol excreted into the feces were higher in the rats fed with the diets supplemented with 5% SOL, or with 1% of STGM, ASTG, or NSTG, or especially with 5% STGM than in the SOO-fed animals. The present results suggest that STG suppressed the absorption of cholesterol and fatty acids in the intestines.
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  • Masato Yoshida, Shin-Ichi Kato, Suguru Oguri, Yoshiho Nagata
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 498-501
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    Hemagglutinating activity in fruit bodies of Pleurotus cornucopiae was separated by DEAE column chromatography into two, adsorbed and unadsorbed, fractions. From the unadsorbed fraction, three active substances were purified and characterized. The main component (PCL-a) consisted of two identical subunits with an apparent molecular mass of 16kDa and the second (PCL-b) consisted of two heterogeneous subunits of 16 and 15kDa. The three lectins as well as the two kinds of subunits were immunologically cross-reactive with anti-PCL-a serum. Amino acid compositions of the two subunits were similar, and N-terminal residues of the subunits were blocked. Hemagglutinating activities of the three lectins were not inhibited by any monosaccharide tested but were strongly inhibited by asialo-mucin. From these results, the three lectins in P. cornucopiae were found to be isolectins.
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  • Suguru Oguri, Masato Yoshida, Yoshiho Nagata
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 502-506
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    Among mushrooms of Pleurotus cornucopiae two kinds of fruit bodies, lectin (PCL)-containing and -deficient, were found. The PCL-deficient fruit body was found to contain a 16. 5-kDa protein, which was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. Properties of the protein were investigated in comparison with PCL. The protein consisted of four identical subunits each having a molecular mass of 16. 5kDa, which was close to that of PCL. Partial amino acid sequences of the two proteins were analyzed and some sequence homology was found, although the protein did not cross-react with anti-PCL serum and it was devoid of binding activity for mucin, an inhibitor of PCL. The 16. 5-kDa protein was not found in vegetatively growing mycelia, indicating that the synthesis of the protein was developmentally regulated as was PCL. The results suggest that the 16. 5-kDa protein was related to PCL.
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  • Suguru Oguri, Yoshiho Nagata
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 507-511
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    The complete amino acid sequence of a lectin-related 16. 5-kDa protein (PCL-RP) isolated from fruit bodies of a lectin-deficient strain of P. cornucopiae is presented. The sequences of six out of the seven peptides generated by digestion with lysylendopeptidase and four of the five peptides generated by cyanogen bromide cleavage were completely analyzed. Overlapping peptides were obtained by arginylendopeptidase digestion. PCL-RP was a single-chain protein consisting of 144 amino acid residues and its N-terminal serine was blocked with acetate. A proline-rich sequence was found in the carboxyl terminal portion. The N-terminal sequence of PCL-RP showed some homology with those of two known Basidiomycete lectins
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  • Yoshihiro Kawasaki, Yoshinori Takahashi, Masaru Nakatani, Mototake Mur ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 512-516
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    In our previous paper we demonstrated that chemical modification using the water-soluble acylating reagent, [p-hydroxy]phenyldimethylsulfonium methylsulfate, enabled us to introduce a variety of hydrophobic modifying groups into an enzyme molecule in an aqueous medium under mild conditions. To investigate the effects of these introducing groups on the hydrolytic activity of the modified enzyme, chymotrypsin and trypsin were modified with acetyl, decanoyl, lauroyl, myristoyl, and palmitoyl groups. We found an optimum carbon chain length and an optimum modification ratio for the fatty acid-modified enzyme to catalyze a hydrolytic reaction in aqueous-organic media, and the correlation between the hydrolytic activity and the dispersibility in the aqueous-organic media. Compared with the unmodified enzyme, the chemical modification reduced Km, but had no significant effect on kcat. The chemical modification seems to promote the dispersibility of the enzymes in aqueous-organic media, and leads to increasing the affinity of the enzyme to a substrate.
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  • Takashi Kometani, Yoshinobu Terada, Takahisa Nishimure, Hiroshi Takii, ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 517-520
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    Cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (1, 4-α-D-glucan 4-α-D-(1, 4-α-D-glucano)-transferase (cyclizing), EC 2. 4. 1. 19, CGTase) from an alkalophilic Bacillus species was purified by starch adsorption and Q-Sepharose chromatography. The purified enzyme had cyclizing activity, transglycosylating (coupling) activity, and starch-hydrolyzing activity, and their pH-activity curves had a single peak (pH 5. 5 as the optimum pH)with a broad shoulder at alkaline pHs. Transglycosylation to various saccharides and flavonoids at alkaline pH was more effective than that at neutral pH. Among flavonoids, those containing rutinose (diosmin and hesperidin) were transglycosylated more effectively than those containing neohesperidose (naringin and neohesperidin).
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  • Sachiko Satoh, Chie Moritani, Toshitaka Ohhashi, Kaori Konishi, Mikiko ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 521-525
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    ATPases were isolated from chloroplasts of the unicellular marine alga Acetabularia acetabulum. Two preparations of ATPase, a chloroplast-enriched fraction and an αβγ-complex were compared. The αβγ-complex was released into an EDTA solution and purified by anion-exchange chromatography, hydrophobic chromatography, and gel permeation chromatography. The subunit composition of this enzyme appeared to be 52-53(α), 51(β), and 40(γ)kDa from SDS-PAGE. ATPase activity was enriched about 260-fold to a specific activity of approximate 4. 1 U·mg protein -1. The catalytic properties of the αβγ-complex were as follows : pH optimum at 7. 5 ; substrate specificity, ATP > ITP, GTP > UTP = CTP (Km for ATP 0. 2 mM) ; divalent cation requirement, Mg2+ = Mn<2+> = Co2+ > Zn2+ > Ni2+ > Ca2+ ; ATPase activity was inhibited by monovalent anions (NO-3, SCN-), while monovalent cations had neither inhibitory nor stimulatory effects. Orthovanadate had no inhibitory effect on the enzyme activity of αβγ-complex. Azide was the most effective inhibitor of the αβγ-complex. N-Terminal amino acid sequences of the α and βsubunits were not obtained and appeared to be blocked. The γ subunit gave a sequence of AGLKEMKD-XIGSVXNTKKI, which showed 60% similarity to the γ subunits of spinach and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CF1-ATPase and EF1-ATPase.
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  • Yasushi Kondo, Atsushi Toyoda, Hideaki Fukushi, Hideshi Yanase, Kenzo ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 526-530
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    A 1. 7-kb DNA fragment cloned from Zymomonas mobilis genomic DNA complemented the inability to grow on sucrose of a Suc- mutant of Z. mobilis that was deficient in the production of both extracellular levansucrase and invertase. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the fragment found two open reading frames (ORFs), both of which did not correspond to the structural gene for the levansucrase or the invertase. By subcloning each ORF into two different Suc- mutants of Z. mobilis, it has been found that the first ORF (gene zliE) activates the production of the extracellular levansucrase and invertase, and the second ORF (gene zliS) stimulates the secretion of the two enzymes. Gene zliS might contribute to the secretion of proteins having no signal peptide. The expression of zliE and zliS seemed to be under the control of the same promoter.
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  • Hiroshi Kanzaki, Hiroto Toyoshima, Akio Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi Kawazu
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 531-534
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    A rapid and quantitative bioassay method for inhibitors of plant transformation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens with an intron-GUS binary vector was devised as an alternative method to the time-consuming potato tuber disk assay. Among several host plants tested, tobacco BY-2 suspension cells were the most preferable for this GUS expression assay. Furthermore, as the phytotoxicity of the test material, if any, is apparent from the growth inhibition of BY-2 suspension cells, this method can exclude phytotoxic com pounds.
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  • Hiroshi Murakami, Takashi Kato, Akio Mimura, Yoshimasa Takahara
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 535-538
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    Three new indole derivatives having anti-photo-oxidative activity were isolated from the seaweed, Martensia denticulata. The gross structures of these new compounds were identified as [4-[[N[2-(trim-ethylammonio)-3-phenylpropionyl]tryptophyl]oxymethyl]phenyl]sulfate, [4-[[N-[2-(methylammonio)-4-methylhexanoyl]tryptophyl]oxymethyl]phenyl]sulfate, and [4-[[N[2-(dimethylammonio)-4-methylhex-anoyl]tryptophyl]oxymethyl]phenyl]sulfate, which are named Denticin A, B, and C, respectively.
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  • Keisuke Matsuyama, Kenji Mori
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 539-543
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    13, 25- and 11, 23-Dimethylheptatriacontane, the major components of the cuticular hydrocarbons of the tsetse fly, Glossina tachinoides, as well as 11, 2 1-dimethylheptatriacontane, the minor component, were synthesized as stereoisomeric mixtures by synthetic routes in which the molecular symmetry of the target hydrocarbons was taken advantage of.
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  • Atsushi Ishikawa, Teruhiko Yoshihara, Kenzo Nakamura
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 544-547
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    Expression of genes coding for wound-inducible cathepsin D inhibitor (CDI) and proteinase inhibitor II (PI-II) of potato were induced in leaves upon treatment with methyl jasmonate (MJA) with similar time and concentration dependences. The response of CDI and PI-II genes to various compounds structurally related to MJA were also similar to each other. For the induction of expression of these proteinase inhibitor genes, an acetyl side chain, whether or not it is methylated, at the C-1 position, an n-pentenyl side chain at the C-2 position, and a keto group at the C-3 position of the cyclopentane ring of JA were all important for its activity. These structural requirements of MJA-related compounds for the induction of proteinase inhibitor genes seemed to be ditferent from those for the induction of potato tuber formation, the promotion of leaf senescence, and the inhibition of seedling growth.
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  • Nobukazu Tanaka, Takayuki Ikeda, Atsuhiro Oka
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 548-551
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    The rolgenes of root-inducing plasmids (pRi) are essential for tumorigenesis on various dicotyledonous plants. The nucleotide sequences of the rol genes together with their flanking regions from the mikimopine-type pRi1724 were analyzed and compared with the corresponding portions of the agropine-type pRiA4 and the mannopine-type pRi8196 that were previously reported [Slightom et al., J. Biol. Chem., 261 108-1210(1986) ; Hansen et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 88, 7763-7767 (1991)]. The sequenced region of 8967bp contained seven ORFs, five on the upper strand and two on the lower one. These ORFs resembled the ORFs 8, 10 (rolA), 11 (rolB), 12 (rolC), 13, 13a, and 14 of pRiA4 and pRi8196. However, the similarity of the rolA BC genes, particularly rolA, among the three plasmids, was considerably lower than that of other ORFs. The spacer regions between the ORFs were also conserved, but to a smaller extent than ORFs, among the three plasmids.
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  • Shinya Notsu, Norihiko Saito, Hideto Kosaki, Hiroshi Inui, Shigehiro H ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 552-553
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    By treatment of rice callus with chitin, chitosan, or their derivatives, phenyl alanine ammonia-lyase activity was stimulated up to 2. 0 fold that of the control within 24h, chitinase activity up to 3. 5fold within 48h, and lignification up to 1. 7 fold within 72h. The elicitor activity was little affected by the chemical structure of the Nfatty acyl group (C2-C5) in chitosan.
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  • Kenji Mizutani, Takashi Kuramoto, Yukiyoshi Tamura, Nobuhiro Ohtake, D ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 554-555
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    Research Laboratories, Maruzen Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd. Research Laboratories, Maruzen Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd. To improve the taste profile of glycyrrhizin (1, the saponin of licorice root, relative sweetness to sucrose : x 170), a variety of 3-O-glycosides of glycyrrhetic acid were prepared and their sweetness evaluated. It was found that a signiticant enhancement of sweetness was observed for the 3-O-β-D-xyloside and the 3-O-β-D-glucuronide (MGGR). Especially, MGGR had a high sweetness relative to sucrose ; x941, and would appear to be a new potent sweetener.
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  • Fumio Watanabe, Hisako Saido, Shigeki Toyoshima, Yoshiyuki Tamura, Yos ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 556-557
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    Vitamin B12-deticient rats were used to study the effects of feeding vitamin B12 on hepatic methylmalonyl-CoA mutase activity, which was decreased by the deficiency. A significant and rapid increase in the specitic activity of the enzyme was caused by feeding vitamin B 12, suggesting that the rate of synthesis of the enzyme protein is accelerated by the feeding.
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  • Nobuo Nagai, Fumiya Kitauchi, Kimiko Okamoto, Takahisa Kanda, Makoto S ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 558-559
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    In tobacco cell culture (Nicotiana tabacum L. "Bright Yellow"T-13), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity was induced in response to an exogenously added kinetin. RNA blot hybridization analysis showed that a single species of PAL transcript 2. 9-kb in size was detected using the PAL cDNA cloned from kinetin-treated cells. The cellular content of this transcript increased transiently (2. 5-fold) 4h after the addition of kinetin followed by an increase in PAL enzyme activity at 16h.
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  • Kazutoshi Ogawa, Jun-Ichi Nishikori, Tomoaki Ino, Kazuo Matsuda
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 560-562
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    Partial acid hydrolysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan gave2-O-α-D-NIanp-D-Man (1), 3-O-α-D-Manp-D-Man (2), 6-O-α-D-Manp-D-Man (3), O-α-D-Manp-(1→2)-O-α-D-Manp-(1→2)-D-Man (4), O-α-D-Manp-(1→2)-O-α-D-Manp-(1→6)-D-Man (5), O-α-D-Manp-(1→6)-O-α-D-Manp-(1→6)-D-Man (6), O-α-D-Manp-(1→2)-O-α-D-Manp-(1→2)-O-α-D-Manp-(1→6)-D-Man (7), O-α-D-Manp-(1→2)-O-α-D-Manp-(1→6)-O-α-D-Manp-(1→6)-D-Man (8), and O-α-D-Manp-(1→6)-O-[α-D-Manp-(1→2)]-O-α-D-Manp-(1→6)-D-Man (9).
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  • Eiko Arai, Michiko Watanabe
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 563-564
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    When old rice grains were treated with actinase, the resultinghydrolysate contained a peptide fraction with high surface hydrophobicity. This fraction adsorbed the old rice flavor, and the flavor was decreased by washing the actinase-treated grains withwater.
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  • Masayasu Tanaka, Junko Ohra, Yasuko Tsujino, Yasuyuki Sawaji, Takane F ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 565-566
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    A phytotoxic substance isolated from the weed pathogen Nimbyascirpicola was identified as depudecin by spectral data analyses. It was found that depudecin had phytotoxic activity toward the hostplant of this fungus, kuroguwai, and toward other tested plants, and inhibited the root elongation of lettuce seedlings.
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  • Jun-Ichi Toyota, Kaoru Omichi, Koichi Fukase, Shoichi Kusumoto, Sumihi ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 567-569
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    Oligosaccharides in human urine were converted to pyridylamino(PA)-derivatives. From the PA-oligosaccharides, a saccharide thatwas chromatographically identical with a synthetic standard, Xyl-α1→3Xylα1→3Glc-PA, was isolated by gel filtration and HPLC. Structure analysis showed that the saccharide was Xylα1→3Xyl-α1→3Glc-PA. It is likely that Xylα1→3Xylα1→3Glc originated from such glycoconjugates as blood coagulation factors VII and IX, and protein Z.
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  • Fumio Kayamori, Kiharu Igarashi
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 570-571
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    The effects of nasunin, a major anthocyanin in eggplant, and itsaglycone, delphinidin, on the serum cholesterol concentration were determined in rats fed with a cholesterol-enriched diet. The serum total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations tended to be decreased and increased, respectively, by feeding nasunin and delphinidin, while the fecal excretion of both cholesterol and bile acids tended to be increased by feeding with the anthocyanins. There was no difference between the nasunin and delphinidin activity to decrease serum total cholesterol, nor to increase serum HDL-cholesterol or the fecal excretion of cholesterol and bile acids. These results suggest that the slightly lower serum total cholesterol concentration in rats fed with nasunin and delphinidin may in part be due to inhibition of the intestinal absorption of both cholesterol and bile acids by these anthocyanins, and that the delphinidin moiety of nasunin mainly contributes to this activity.
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  • Takaaki Nishijima, Masaji Koshioka, Hiroko Yamazaki
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 572-573
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    The use of several gibberellin-biosynthesis inhibitors in the sensitized rice (Oryza sativa L. ) seedling bioassays was investigated. Paclobutrazol at 3. 4 mM and ancymidol at 0. 7 mM made riceseedlings almost as sensitive to gibbrellins as 80 μM uniconazole did. Use of these two chemicals will be practicable in gibberellin bioassays as well as uniconazole.
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  • Makoto Ueda, Reiko Sashida, Yuuki Morimoto, Haruyuki Ohkishi
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 574-575
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    An extracellular enzyme that produces di-D-fructofuranose-2', 1 ; 2, 1' dianhydride from inulin was purified from the culture broth of Arthrobacter sp. MCI2493. The molecular weight of the enzyme was 40, 000 by gel filtration and SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme had maximum activity at pH 6. 0 and 50°C. Using this purified enzyme, 100g/liter inulin was converted into 60 g/liter of DFA I, nystose, and 1-F-fructofuranosyl-nystose after incubation for 30h.
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  • Hideyuki Kobayashi, Kenichiro Oki, Akiko Noguchi, Isao Kusakabe, Kunih ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 576-577
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    A screening test for incorporation of [35S]-labeled sulfate into glycoprotein with the sulfotransferase system from Dictyosterium discoideum was done. [35S]-Labeled sulfate was incorporated effectively into the aspartic proteinase of Mucor miehei. The oligosaccharide chain of the aspartic proteinase was about 2kDa by Endo F digestion and sulfate was incorporated into the oligosac-charide chain of the enzyme.
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  • Hisaaki Tsumuki, Haruyoshi Konno
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 578-579
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    The entity of cell-free ice nuclei produced by a fungus, Fusarium sp. was attributed to protein, but not to sulfhydryl groups, lipids, and sugars, perhaps in their active regions. The activity was stable or sustainable from pH 1-12 and for 10min up to 50°C. These results suggest that the properties of ice nuclei of Fusarium sp. are more similar to those of lichen rather than bacteria.
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  • Shigeki Yoshida, Yasuyuki Kawabata, Satoshi Kaneko, Yumi Nagamoto, Isa ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 580-581
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    For the specific detection of α-L-arabinofuranosidase (α-L-AFase)activity in isoelectric focused gels, 6-bromo-2-naphthyl-α-L-arabino-furanoside (BN-α-L-Araf) was synthesized by the condensation of 2, 3, 5-tri-0-benzoyl-α-L-arabinofuranosyl bromide and 6-bromo. 2-naphthol. α-L-AFase activity had been detected in a gel after isoelectric focusing by using the synthesized BN-α-L-Araf as a substrate, and the detection for the enzyme activity was more sensitive than protein detection with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250.
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  • Kouki Ono, Kazutaka Miyatake, Hiroshi Inui, Shozaburo Kitaoka, Yoshihi ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 582-583
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    The effects of ethanol on the glyoxylate cycle-key enzymes of Euglena, malate synthase (EC 4. 1. 3. 2) and isocitrate lyase (EC 4. 1. 3. 1), were investigated. The addition of ethanol to Euglena cells increased malate synthase and isocitrate lyase activities. Immunoblot analysis with antibody raised against malate synthase showed that the increase in malate synthase activity was due to newly synthesized protein. The experimental results reported here demonstrate that ethanol is assimilated by the glyoxylate cycle including the alcohol metabolizing enzymes in Euglena.
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  • KongHua Lin, Sumio Maeda, Nobumitsu Koga, Takao Saito
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 584-585
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    RA down-regulated albumin and DNA synthesis of adult rat hepatocytes in a dose-dependent manner at dose ranges of 10-9-10-5 M. 10-5 M of RA decreased albumin synthesis as wellas growth factors EGF, aFGF, bFGF, and HGF-induced DNA synthesis to half of the control. These inhibitory effects of RA were not a consequence of the toxicity of RA to hepatocytes.
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  • Yasutaka Tahara, Masahiro Kawazu
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 586-587
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    A glucuronic acid-containing glycosphingolipid was isolated from Zymomonas mobilis and the structure was postulated to be N-2-palmitoyl(or N-2-myristoyl)-1, 3-dihydroxyhexadecane-1-glucuronic acid. Similar glycosphingolipids have been reported in the genus Sphingomonas but their ceramide moieties differ in molecular species from the Zymomonas lipid.
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  • Yasutaka Tahara, Shouichi Ishida
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 588-589
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    A mutant of Zymomonas mobilis with an increased content of tetrahydroxybacteriohopane (THBH) was isolated. From compar-isons of hopanoids of THBH, a glucosamine and an ether derivative of THBH between the parent strain, THBH-decreased and THBH-increased mutants, the biosynthetic Pathway of the side-chainof these hopanoids is discussed.
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  • Yuji Ishikawa, Chino Kumagai, Ryuichi Moriyama, Shio Makino
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 590-591
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    Besides the stimulating effect of trypsinized soybean glycinin acidicsubunit A1a on insulin-mediated antilipolysis, the trypsinized A1a was found to enhance insulin-mediated glucose transport and lipogenesis in the presence of cAMP stimulators such as isoproterenol and 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine in isolated rat adipocytes. Furthermore, it was indicated that insulin and the cAMP stimulators, which generally exert counter-regulatory effects, act synerigistically on the in vitro lipogenesis.
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  • Akio Kobayashi, Kikue Kubota, Yuki Joki, Eiko Wada, Motoko Wakabayashi
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 592-593
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    The glycoside fraction from fresh tea leaves was acetylated and separated by silica gel column chromatography. A crystalline product was identified as (Z)-3-hexenyl-(tetra-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside from spectrometric data which were identical with those of an authentic synthesized sample in allrespects. There are two possible processes for the formation of the greenish odor of plant materials, these being a biosynthetic process from the lipid and enzymatic hydrolysis of (Z)-3-hexenyl-β-D-glucoside.
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  • Ichiki Takemoto, Kaori Yamasaki
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 594-595
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    The selective synthesis of fluorophenol derivatives starting from tert-butylphenol derivatives and fluorinating reagents is described. tert-Butylfluorophenol derivatives were treated with an aluminum chloride catalyst in toluene to afford the fluorophenol derivatives.
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  • Mitsuru Abo, Makoto Tachibana, Akira Okubo, Sunao Yamazaki
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 596-597
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    DMSO reductase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides f. s. denitrificans was capable of reducing predominantly the (S)-sulfoxide in racemic methyl phenyl sulfoxide to its sultide. Stereoselective reduction of the sulfoxide by this enzyme is discussed.
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  • Makoto Kamezawa, Takao Raku, Hojun Tachibana, Takehiko Ohtani, Yoshino ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 598-599
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    The two enantiomers of 3-octanol (3), the pheromone of a number of species of ants, were synthesized with a high enantiomeric purity of almost 1OO% e. e. via an enzymatic two-step hydrolysis catalyzed by Pseudomonas cepacia lipase in an acetone-water solvent system.
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  • Kazuyoshi Kawahara, Ikuko Mizuta, Wakana Katabami, Megumi Koizumi, Sac ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 600-601
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    Sphingomonas strains were isolated in high frequency from ears of rice (Oryza sativa), Echinochloa crus-galli, and Setaria viridis. Isolates were identified by the rapid method of cellular fatty acid analysis. Isolated Sphingomonas strains have 2-hydroxymyristate as a sole hydroxy fatty acid, ubiquinone Q-10, and glycosphingolipid. This study demonstrated that sphingomonads are members of a natural flora of microorganisms in ears of rice and taxonomically related plants.
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  • Toshiko Ozawa, Jun Kaneko, Hirofumi Nariya, Kazuo Izaki, Yoshiyuki Kam ...
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 602-605
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    The Staphylococcal toxins leukocidin and γ-hemolysin consist of two protein components : F and S in leukocidin and HγI and HγII in γ-hemolysin. The two toxins share one component (F = HγI). We found that the HγII component was completely inactivated by the addition of monosialoganglioside GM1 at the molar ratio of 1 : 1. Disialogangliosides GD1 a and GD1b had little effect on the inactivation of HγII. The molar ratios of GD1a and GD1b to HγII needed for maximum inactivation were 30 : 1 and 100 : 1, respectively. Related glycolipids caused little if any inactivation. HγII bound to GM1 to form HγII-GM1 complexes. Analysis of the intrinsic aromatic amino acid fluorescence in HγII and HγII-GM1 with 280 nm as the excitation wavelength showed that GM1 in the complex reduced the fluorescence intensity of HγII by 12% without changing the wavelength of maximum emission (325 nm). We concluded that GM1 is a receptor of the HγII component on human erythrocytes and that HγII takes on a different conformation when it binds to GM1.
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  • Hiroshi Miyakawa, Katsue Anjitsu, Norio Ishibashi, Seiichi Shimamura
    1994 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 606-607
    Published: March 23, 1994
    Released: February 08, 2008
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    The effects of pressure on the enzyme activities of Lactobacillus helveticus LHE-511 were examined. Treatment at 400 MPa at 30°C for 10 min completely inhibited acid-producing activity, but the activities of aminopeptidase (AP) and X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (X-PDAP), which are important for acceleration of cheese ripening, increased. These results showed that pressure treatment of L. helveticus LHE-511 selectively inactivates its acid-producing activity.
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