Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Online ISSN : 1347-6947
Print ISSN : 0916-8451
Volume 71 , Issue 4
Showing 1-40 articles out of 40 articles from the selected issue
Organic Chemistry Regular Papers
  • Takehiro KASHIWAGI, Bin WU, Kyouko IYOTA, Xiao Hui CHEN, Shin-ich TEBA ...
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 966-970
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
    [Advance publication] Released: April 07, 2007
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    (1S,6R)-2,7(14),10-bisabolatrien-1-ol-4-one and (+)-7(14),10-bisaboladien-1-ol-4-one were isolated and identified from Cryptomeria japonica as antifeedants against Locusta migratoria L. which is well known as a serious pest to cereals throughout the world. These compounds strongly inhibited the feeding of L. migratoria only when they were combined, but each compound alone did not show any activity.
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  • Yuu AOKI, Masahiro YOSHIDA, Hiroshi KAWAIDE, Hiroshi ABE, Masahiro NAT ...
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 986-992
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
    [Advance publication] Released: April 07, 2007
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    The germination rate and activation conditions of spores were examined for four strains of Streptomyces sp., a phytopathogen causing root tumor of melon. An inhibitor was isolated from the agar-cultured material of strain CB-1-1 and then characterized. The inhibitor selectively acted on spore germination and did not affect hyphal growth, and inhibition was abolished by washing the spores in water. The inhibitor was produced by an agar culture, and most of the inhibitor existed in the spores. The IC50 value for the inhibitor was approximately 0.25 μg/ml.
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  • Koichi AKIYAMA, Satoshi YAMAUCHI, Tomofumi NAKATO, Masafumi MARUYAMA, ...
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 1028-1035
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
    [Advance publication] Released: April 07, 2007
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    Antifungal activities of the optically pure (>99%ee) (−)- and (+)-virgatusin, a tetra-substituted tetrahydrofuran lignan, were tested. (−)-Virgatusin, which is a natural product, showed highest antifungal activity against Colletotrichum lagenarium. Research on its structure-activity relationship was also performed. It was shown that two methoxy groups on 9 and 9′ positions and a 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl group on the 7 position of virgatusin were essential for high fungal growth inhibition. The part on 7′-phenyl group was not essential for activity. The 7′-(4-methoxyphenyl) derivative showed higher activity than that of (−)-virgatusin.
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  • Kazuto WASHIDA, Naoki ABE, Yasumasa SUGIYAMA, Akira HIROTA
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 1052-1057
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
    [Advance publication] Released: April 07, 2007
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    In our screening program for antioxidants with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-radical scavenging activity, two novel compounds, demethylbisorbibutenolide (1) and trichopyrone (2), were isolated from the fermentation broth of the fungus of USF-4860 strain isolated from a soil sample. The structures of these compounds were determined from spectroscopic evidence. The biosynthetic origin of the carbon atoms of 2 was unambiguously determined by feeding experiments using 13C-labeled precursors and elucidation of the 13C-NMR spectrum of 13C-labeled 2. These studies showed that 2 was derived from five acetates and a methyl group of methionine. In the DPPH-radical scavenging assay, 1 and 2 gave ED50 values of 149 and 167 μM after standing for 2.0 hr. Compound 2 reacted with the DPPH radical to form reaction product 3 which was determined to be 1-[4-(3,4-dihydro-3-methyl-6-{1,3-pentadienyl}-2,4-dioxo-2H-pyran-3-yl)-phenyl]-1-phenyl-2-picrylhydrazine from spectroscopic evidence.
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Organic Chemistry Notes
  • Masahiko YAMAMOTO, Changjin ZHU, Lui YI, Zheng RONG, Yoshie MIURA, Min ...
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 1078-1082
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
    [Advance publication] Released: April 07, 2007
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    Novel fatty acyl and phospholipid derivatives of pyrrole polyamide were synthesized. Their cytotoxicity against a cancer cell line of MT-4 cells and those infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was examined. Although no anti-HIV activity was found, their cytotoxicitty against the cancer cells was significantly enhanced by introducing a lipophilic group into the pyrrole polyamide.
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  • Jian-Xiao SHI, Zhi-Xuan LI, Teruhiko NITODA, Minoru IZUMI, Hiroshi KAN ...
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 1086-1089
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
    [Advance publication] Released: April 07, 2007
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    Three compounds, 20-O-acetyl-[3-O-(2′E,4′Z)-decadienoyl]-ingenol (1), 20-O-acetyl-[5-O-(2′E,4′Z)-decadienoyl]-ingenol (2) and 3-O-(2′E,4′Z)-decadienoylingenol (3), were isolated from Euphorbia kansui under the bioassay-guided method. Each compound showed the same antinematodal activity against the nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, at a minimum effective dose (MED) of 5 μg/cotton ball.
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Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Regular Papers
  • Masanori HORIE, Kôichi FUKUI, Minjue XIE, Yoshitaka KAGEYAMA, Ka ...
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 855-865
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
    [Advance publication] Released: April 07, 2007
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    This paper reports the biochemical properties of two types of recombinant flap endonuclease-1 (FEN-1) proteins obtained from the thermophilic crenarchaeon, Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7. One of the two FEN-1 proteins is a product of the gene with AUG as the translational start codon (StoS-FEN-1), which is originally assigned in the database. The other is a product of the gene with a new AUG start codon (StoL-FEN-1), which is inserted at 153 bases upstream of the original AUG codon. Although StoL-FEN-1 showed activity and thermostability, StoS-FEN-1 showed neither activity nor thermostability. The N-terminal region in StoL-FEN-1 was also conserved in all of the FEN-1 homologs deduced from genes from newly isolated Sulfolobus spp. These results strongly suggest that the actual start codon of the fen-1 gene from S. tokodaii is not the originally assigned AUG, but rather is located at about 100 bases upstream of this codon.
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  • Yoshinori HAMAJI, Minoru FUJIMORI, Takayuki SASAKI, Hitomi MATSUHASHI, ...
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 874-883
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
    [Advance publication] Released: April 07, 2007
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    In our previous studies, a strain of the nonpathogenic, anaerobic, intestinal bacterium, Bifidobacterium longum (B. longum), was found to be localized selectively and to proliferate within solid tumors after systemic administration. In addition, B. longum transformed with the shuttle-plasmid encoding the cytosine deaminase (CD) gene expressed active CD, which deaminated the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to the anticancer agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). We also reported antitumor efficacy with the same plasmid in several animal experiments. In this study, we constructed a novel shuttle-plasmid, pAV001-HU-eCD-M968, which included the mutant CD gene with a mutation at the active site to increase the enzymatic activity.
    In addition, the plasmid-transformed B. longum produces mutant CD and strongly increased (by 10-fold) its 5-FC to 5-FU enzymatic activity. The use of B. longum harboring the new shuttle-plasmid increases the effectiveness of our enzyme/prodrug strategy.
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  • Hirosuke TATSUMI, Hajime KATANO, Tokuji IKEDA
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 946-950
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
    [Advance publication] Released: April 07, 2007
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    The kinetics of glucoamylase-catalyzed hydrolysis of starch granules from six different botanical sources (rice, wheat, maize, cassava, sweet potato, and potato) was studied by the use of an electrochemical glucose sensor. A higher rate of hydrolysis was obtained as a smaller size of starch granules was used. The adsorbed amount of glucoamylase on the granule surface per unit area did not vary very much with the type of starch granules examined, while the catalytic constants of the adsorbed enzyme (k0) were determined to be 23.3±4.4, 14.8±6.0, 6.2±1.8, 7.1±4.1, 4.6±3.0, and 1.6±0.6 s−1 for rice, wheat, maize, cassava, sweet potato, and potato respectively, showing that k0 was largely influenced by the type of starch granules. A comparison of the k0-values in relation to the crystalline structure of the starch granules suggested that k0 increases as the crystalline structure becomes dense.
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  • Takumi IWASAKI, Hisashi TAKEDA, Keisuke MIYAUCHI, Tadakazu YAMADA, Eij ...
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 993-1002
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
    [Advance publication] Released: April 07, 2007
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    Rhodococcus sp. RHA1 induces two biphenyl dioxygenases, the BphA and EtbA/EbdA dioxygenases, during growth on biphenyl. Their subunit genes were expressed in R. erythropolis IAM1399 to investigate the involvement of each subunit gene in their activity and their substrate preferences. The recombinant expressing ebdA1A2A3etbA4 and that expressing bphA1A2A3A4 exhibited 4-chlorobiphenyl (4-CB) transformation activity, suggesting that these gene sets are responsible for the EtbA/EbdA and BphA dioxygenases respectively. When bphA4 and etbA4 were swapped to construct the recombinants expressing ebdA1A2A3bphA4 and bphA1A2A3etbA4 respectively, compatibility between BphA4 and EtbA4 was suggested by their 4-CB transformation activities. When bphA3 and ebdA3 were swapped, incompatibility between BphA3 and EbdA3 was suggested. BphA and EtbA/EbdA dioxygenases exhibited the highest transformation activity toward biphenyl and naphthalene respectively, and also attacked dibenzofuran and dibenzo-p-dioxin. The wide substrate preference of EtbA/EbdA dioxygenase suggested that it plays a more important role in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degradation than does BphA dioxygenase.
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  • Isao MOMOSE, Masatomi IIJIMA, Manabu KAWADA, Daishiro IKEDA
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 1036-1043
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
    [Advance publication] Released: April 07, 2007
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    Proteasome inhibitors are useful in the treatment of cancer. Recently, we found a new proteasome inhibitor, TP-110, derived from tyropeptin A produced by Kitasatospora sp. Here we report that TP-110 induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. TP-110 showed strong cytotoxicity to PC-3 cells (IC50=0.05 μM). It increased the number of cells in the G2-M phase and increased the accumulated amounts of the p21 and p27 proteins, which are negative regulators of cell cycle progression. Furthermore, it induced apoptosis along with chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation in PC-3 cells, and TP-110-induced apoptosis appeared to be associated with caspase activation. Additionally, TP-110 inhibited not only the degradation of IκB and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), but also the DNA binding activity of NF-κB. These results indicate that TP-110 shows a strong growth inhibition and apoptosis in PC-3 cells.
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  • Kenji HATTORI, Mio HIRAYAMA, Hiroko SUZUKI, Hiroshi HAMAMOTO, Kazuhisa ...
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 1044-1051
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
    [Advance publication] Released: April 07, 2007
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    We identified a cDNA encoding a putative cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT) by searching the expressed sequence tag database of Bombyx mori, and subsequently obtained the full-length cDNA for this gene via rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). We designated this gene bmST1, and showed by sequence analysis that it belongs to a novel SULT family. The tissue specificity of bmST1 mRNA expression was examined in fifth instar larvae by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and transcripts were detectable in the silk gland, gut, fat body, and Malpighian tube. A recombinant form of bmST1 was then expressed using a gluthathione S-transferase (GST) gene fusion system, and it was purified from Escherichia coli. Purified bmST1 did not exhibit sulfating activity toward SULT substrates such as 4-nitrophenol, vanillin, hydroxysteroids, or monoamines. Surprisingly, however, recombinant bmST1 showed considerable activity toward 4-nitrocatechol and also gallate esters, although the catechins are not sulfated by this enzyme.
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Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Notes
Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Communications
  • Morio ENDOH, Kensuke MIKI, Mohammad Nazir HOSSAIN, Michihiko FUJII, Da ...
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 1098-1102
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
    [Advance publication] Released: April 07, 2007
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    Ectopic genes transferred to cells are temporally expressed, although this phenomenon has not yet been well characterized. We found that 5-bromodeoxyuridine dramatically increased transient expression of ectopic genes in human cells. This effect was elicited by adding 5-bromodeoxyuridine prior to or after transfection. No promoter specificity was observed. Real time PCR analysis showed an approximately 2-fold increase in mRNA levels. Since 5-bromodeoxyuridine decondenses heterochromatin and changes the nuclear envelope, these changes might affect transcriptional and post-transcriptional events in the gene expression of plasmids.
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  • Takamitsu MARUYAMA, Shinya HATAKEYAMA, Takeshi MIWA, Katsuhiko NISHIMO ...
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 1103-1106
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
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    Tissue-specific gene deletion by the Cre-loxp system is a powerful tool to investigate the roles of specific genes. To determine the specificity and efficiency of the Cre-mediated recombination under the control of the human smooth muscle α-actin promoter, we mated SMαA-Cre mice and R26R reporter mice. Cre-mediated recombination was observed in visceral and vascular smooth muscle cells. Partial recombination was also found in heart and musculoskeletal connective tissues. Highly efficient recombination was found in cranial sutures. Hence, we propose that SMαA-Cre mice are good tool for conditionally deleting gene function in the cranial suture in addition to smooth muscle cells.
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  • Masaya MURAKAMI, Yasuhiro TAGO, Takafumi YAMASHINO, Takeshi MIZUNO
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 1107-1110
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
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    Members of the small family of Arabidopsis PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATORS (PRR1/TOC1, PRR3, PRR5, PRR7, and PRR9) play roles close to the circadian clock in Arabidopsis thaliana. We have reported that the rice (Oryza sativa) genome also encodes a set of PRR counterparts (designated OsPRR1, OsPRR37, OsPRR59, OsPRR73, and OsPRR95 respectively). To gain new insight into the molecular functions of OsPRRs, we carried out genetic complementation analyses by introducing two representative rice genes, OsPRR1 and OsPRR37, into the corresponding Arabidopsis loss-of-function mutants (toc1 and prr7 respectively). The results showed that these OsPRR and AtPRR genes are genetically interchangeable at least in part, suggesting the conserved clock-associated function of these OsPRRs.
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  • Yoshinobu KIMURA, Sho SAKAMURA, Takayuki USHIJIMA, Yoichiro HAMA, Hiro ...
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 1111-1114
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
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    In a previous study (Y. Kimura et al., Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 70, 2583–2587, 2006), we found that new complex type N-glycans harboring Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (Galβ1-3GalNAc) unit occur on royal jelly glycoproteins, suggesting the involvement of a new β1-3galactosyltransferase in the synthesis of the unusual complex type N-glycans. So far, such β1-3galactosyltransferase activity, which can transfer galactosyl residues with the β1-3 linkage to β1-4 GalNAc residues in N-glycan, has not been found among any eucaryotic cells. But using GalNAc2GlcNAc2Man3GlcNAc2-PA as acceptor N-glycan, we detected the β1-3 galactosyltransferase activity in membrane fraction prepared from honeybee cephalic portions. This result indicates that honeybee expresses a unique β1-3 galactosyltransferase involved in biosynthesis of the unusual N-glycan containing a tumor related antigen in the hypopharyngeal gland.
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Food & Nutrition Science Regular Papers
  • Keiko ISHIDA-FUJII, Rieko SATO, Shingo GOTO, Xiao-Ping YANG, Hiroshi K ...
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 866-873
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
    [Advance publication] Released: April 07, 2007
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    Lactobacillus casei I-5 isolated from an alcohol fermentation broth enhanced immunity and prevented pathogenic infection as a probiotic. Mice fed with I-5 cells for 11 days prior to an intraperitoneal challenge with pathogenic Escherichia coli Juhl exhibited a high survival rate compared with the control group. Rats fed with I-5 cells for 10 days significantly increased the phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages. In a cell culture system employing peritoneal macrophages from rats, the I-5 administration activated NF-κB stimulated by LPS. It also enhanced LPS-stimulated IL-12 and TNF-α production, but not IL-6 production. These results show that L. casei I-5 effectively prevented infection by pathogenic E. coli possibly through the activation of peritoneal macrophages. The strain would be useful to prevent pathogenic microbial infections in humans and farm animals.
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  • Mayumi IKEUCHI, Tomoyuki KOYAMA, Jiro TAKAHASHI, Kazunaga YAZAWA
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 893-899
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
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    Astaxanthin is a natural antioxidant carotenoid that occurs in a wide variety of living organisms. We investigated the effects of astaxanthin supplementation in obese mice fed a high-fat diet. Astaxanthin inhibited the increases in body weight and weight of adipose tissue that result from feeding a high-fat diet. In addition, astaxanthin reduced liver weight, liver triglyceride, plasma triglyceride, and total cholesterol. These results suggest that astaxanthin might be of value in reducing the likelihood of obesity and metabolic syndrome in affluent societies.
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  • Yasuto YOSHIDA, Eiichiro NAITO, Kenji OHISHI, Takekazu OKUMURA, Masahi ...
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 900-905
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
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    The hypocholesterolemic effects of Kluyveromyces marxianus YIT 8292 crude cell wall (KM-CW) were examined. In pilot studies, KM-CW tablets were administered to mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects at doses of 8.0, 4.0, 2.0, or 1.0 g/d for 4 weeks. Total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased at doses above 2.0 and 4.0 g/d, respectively. Further, we examined the effect of intake of yogurt containing 3.0 or 4.0 g of KM-CW/d for 8 weeks in normal and hypercholesterolemic subjects in a double-blind placebo-controlled study. The intake of either of the KM-CW-containing yogurts was associated with significantly improved TC and LDL-C in hypercholesterolemic subjects, but had no effect on these levels in normal subjects. TC was significantly lower at week 8 in the hypercholesterolemic subjects who ingested yogurt containing 3.0 or 4.0 g of KM-CW than in those who consumed placebo yogurt. Intake of KM-CW might contribute to the prevention of hypercholesterolemia.
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  • Shinya SHIBATA, Kazuhito HAYAKAWA, Yukari EGASHIRA, Hiroo SANADA
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 916-925
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
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    Chlorella powder (CP) has a hypocholesterolemic effect and high bile acid-binding capacity; however, its effects on hepatic cholesterol metabolism are still unclear. In the present study, male Wistar rats were divided into four groups and fed a high sucrose + 10% lard diet (H), an H + 10% CP diet (H+CP), an H + 0.5% cholesterol + 0.25% sodium cholate diet (C), or a C + 10% CP diet (C+CP) for 2 weeks. CP decreased serum and liver cholesterol levels significantly in rats fed C-based diets, but did not affect these parameters in rats fed H-based diets. CP increased the hepatic mRNA level and activity of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1). CP increased hepatic HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) activity in the rats fed H-based diets, but not in rats fed C-based diets. CP did not affect hepatic mRNA levels of sterol 27-hydroxylase, HMGR, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, scavenger receptor class B1, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) A1, ABCG5, or ABCB11. Furthermore, the effect of a 3.08% Chlorella indigestible fraction (CIF, corresponding to 10% CP) on hepatic cholesterol metabolism was determined using the same animal models. CIF also decreased serum and liver cholesterol levels significantly in rats fed C-based diets. CIF increased hepatic CYP7A1 mRNA levels. These results suggest that the hypocholesterolemic effect of CP involves enhancement of cholesterol catabolism through up-regulation of hepatic CYP7A1 expression and that CIF contributes to the hypocholesterolemic effect.
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  • Ai EGUCHI, Yuki KANEKO, Akira MURAKAMI, Hajime OHIGASHI
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 935-945
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
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    Unregulated uptake of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL) via macrophage scavenger receptors (SRs), such as lectin-like ox-LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), is a key event in atherosclerosis. In the present study, we used differentiated Caco-2 cells as a model of the human small intestine to evaluate the suppressive effects of 16 traditional food items selected from Okinawa on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced LOX-1 mRNA expression in THP-1 human monocyte-like cells. Three Zingiberaceae plants, Curcuma aromatica Salisbury, Curcuma longa L., and Zingiber zerumbet Smith, markedly suppressed that expression. When added to the apical sides of Caco-2 monolayers, zerumbone, a sesquiterpene from Z. zerumbet Smith, was found to permeate into the basolateral medium as an intact structure in a time-dependent manner. α-Humulene, a structural analog of zerumbone lacking the α,β-unsaturated carbonyl group, did not suppress LOX-1 mRNA expression, indicating that its electrophilic moiety might play pivotal roles in its activities. Further, zerumbone attenuated the expression of SR-A, SR-PSOX, and CD36, but not that of CD68 or CLA-1, leading to a blockade of DiI-acLDL uptake, while it also inhibited the transcriptional activities of activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-κB. Together, our results indicate that zerumbone is a potential phytochemical for regulating atherosclerosis with reasonable action mechanisms.
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  • Hanae IZU, Kazuhisa HIZUME, Kuniyasu GOTO, Masato HIROTSUNE
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 951-957
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
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    We investigated the hepatoprotective effects of a concentrate of sake (CS) and its components against D-galactosamine (GalN)-induced liver injury by measuring the plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities in mice. CS significantly suppressed the GalN-induced elevation of ALT and AST activities. Each of four concentrated fractions extracted from sake (respectively consisting mainly of basic amino acids, neutral and acidic amino acids, organic acids and sugars) suppressed the GalN-induced elevation of ALT and AST activities. We focused on the sugar fraction containing glucose and ethyl α-D-glucoside (α-EG), which is a sake-specific sugar, as the major components and demonstrated that only α-EG showed significant suppression of the GalN-induced elevation of ALT and AST activities. We compared the effects of the α-EG analogues, methyl α-D-glucoside and ethyl β-D-glucoside, on GalN-induced liver injury and confirmed that only α-EG significantly suppressed both the ALT and AST activities. Moreover, CS and α-EG suppressed the GalN-induced production of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and liver DNA fragmentation. Together these results show that CS and its component, α-EG, suppressed GalN-induced liver injury by inhibiting IL-6 production.
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  • Kazuya KOYAMA, Nami GOTO-YAMAMOTO, Katsumi HASHIZUME
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 958-965
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
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    The extraction of phenolics from berry skins and seeds of the grape, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, during red wine maceration and the influence of different temperature conditions (cold soak and/or heating at the end of maceration) were examined. Phenolics contained mainly in berry skins, viz., anthocyanin, flavonol, and epigallocatechin units within proanthocyanidins, were extracted during the early stage of maceration, whereas those in seeds, viz., gallic acid, flavan-3-ol monomers, and epicatechin-gallate units within proanthocyanidins, were gradually extracted. In addition to their localization, the molecular size and composition of the proanthocyanidins possibly influenced the kinetics of their extraction. Cold soak reduced the extraction of phenolics from the seeds. Heating at the end of maceration decreased the concentration of proanthocyanidins. Thus, modification of the temperature condition during maceration affected the progress of the concentration of phenolics, resulting in an alteration of their make-up in the finished wine.
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  • Yoshiko TOYODA-ONO, Makiko YOSHIMURA, Masaaki NAKAI, Yuko FUKUI, Sumio ...
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 971-976
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
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    Oolong tea-polymerized polyphenols (OTPP) are characterized polyphenols produced from semi-fermented tea (oolong tea). In the present study, we evaluated the suppressive effects of oolong tea extract and OTPP on postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in rats and mice. Lymphatic recovery of triglycerides in rats cannulated in the thoracic duct was delayed by the administration of oolong tea extract at 100 and 200 mg per head, and more effectively than with green tea extract. OTPP delayed lymphatic triglyceride absorption at 20 mg/head, though (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) did not do so at the same dose. OTPP also suppressed postprandial hypertriglyceridemia after administration of olive oil in mice. The area under the curve (AUC) of plasma triglycerides was significantly decreased, by 53% and 76%, in the 500 and 1,000 mg/kg OTPP groups respectively, as compared with the control group. These results suggest that OTPP is responsible for the suppression of hypertriglyceridemia by ingestion of oolong tea.
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  • Hitomi KUMAGAI, Akihiro SUDA, Hidetoshi SAKURAI, Hitoshi KUMAGAI, Soic ...
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 977-985
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
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    Wheat gliadin was deamidated by using a cation-exchange resin in the presence or absence of added cysteine, with the change in digestibility being measured. The allergenicity of the gliadin was evaluated by using sera from patients RAST-positive to wheat. Gliadin-specific IgE was measured after the gliadin had been orally administered to rats. The addition of cysteine before the treatment with a cation exchanger effectively increased the deamidation level of gliadin. Deamidated gliadin showed higher solubility than the undeamidated form. There was no difference in the peptic digestibility of the gliadin, whereas deamidation enhanced the pancreatic digestibility in vitro and the digestibility in the mouse stomach in vivo. Deamidation of gliadin reduced its reactivity toward the sera of patients with wheat allergy. Rats administered with deamidated gliadin showed suppressed elevation of the gliadin-specific IgE level.
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Food & Nutrition Science Notes
  • Mi Jeong KIM, Soo Jung CHOI, Seung-Taik LIM, Hye Kyung KIM, Ho Jin HEO ...
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 1063-1068
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
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    This study’s objective was to clarify the ameliorative effects ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) has against cognitive deficits and ChAT activation in trimethyltin (TMT) induced, memory injured mice following a 28-d ferulic acid treatment. After administering TMT for 3 d, each mouse performed Y-maze and passive avoidance tests to check immediate working memory performance and cognitive function. The results showed that ferulic acid administration attenuated TMT-induced memory injury and a decline in ChAT activity in the mice. This suggests that ferulic acid might be useful for preventing cognitive dysfunction as well as for boosting the activation of ChAT in dementia.
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  • Tatsuya SUGAWARA, Kyoko YAMASHITA, Shota SAKAI, Akira ASAI, Akihiko NA ...
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 1069-1072
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
    [Advance publication] Released: April 07, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Peridinin, which is uniquely present in dinoflagellates, is one of the most abundant carotenoids found in nature. We evaluated the apoptotic effect of peridinin on DLD-1 human colorectal cancer cells. Peridinin significantly reduced the cell viability in a dose-dependent manner (0–20 μM) and induced apoptosis by activating both caspase-8 and caspase-9. Our findings could be important for the high-performance utilization of marine bioproducts.
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Microbiology & Fermentation Technology Regular Papers
  • Guo-qiang LI, Ting MA, Shan-shan LI, Hong LI, Feng-lai LIANG, Ru-lin L ...
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 849-854
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
    [Advance publication] Released: April 07, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Dibenzothiophene (DBT) and its derivatives can be microbially desulfurized by Dsz enzymes. We investigated the expressional characteristics of the dsz operon. The result revealed that the ratio of mRNA quantity of dszA, dszB, and dszC was 11:3.3:1; however, western blot analysis indicated that the expression level of dszB is far lower than that of dszC. Gene analysis revealed that the termination codon of dszA and the initiation codon of dszB overlapped, whereas there was a 13-bp gap between dszB and dszC. In order to get a better, steady expression of DszB, we removed this structure by overlap polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and expressed the redesigned dsz operon in Rhodococcus erythropolis. The desulfurization activity of resting cells prepared from R. erythropolis DR-2, which held the redesigned dsz operon, was about five-fold higher than that of R. erythropolis DR-1, which held the original dsz operon.
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  • Toshihiko KUMAZAWA, Atsushi MASAYAMA, Satoshi FUKUOKA, Shio MAKINO, To ...
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 884-892
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
    [Advance publication] Released: April 07, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The hydrolysis of the bacterial spore peptidoglycan (cortex) is a crucial event in spore germination. It has been suggested that SleC and SleM, which are conserved among clostridia, are to be considered putative cortex-lytic enzymes in Clostridium perfringens. However, little is known about the details of the hydrolytic process by these enzymes during germination, except that SleM functions as a muramidase. Muropeptides derived from SleC-digested decoated spores of a Bacillus subtilis mutant that lacks the enzymes, SleB, YaaH and CwlJ, related to cortex hydrolysis were identified by amino acid analysis and mass spectrometry. The results suggest that SleC is most likely a bifunctional enzyme possessing lytic transglycosylase activity and N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase activity confined to cross-linked tetrapeptide-tetrapeptide moieties of the cortex structure. Furthermore, it appears that during germination of Clostridium perfringens spores, SleC causes merely small and local changes in the cortex structure, which are necessary before SleM can function.
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  • Naoya SHINZATO, Mizuho MURAMATSU, Toru MATSUI, Yoshio WATANABE
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 906-915
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
    [Advance publication] Released: April 07, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We constructed a bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone library from the gut microbial community of O. formosanus and phylogenetically analyzed it in order to contribute to the evolutional study of digestive symbiosis and method development for termite control. After screening by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, 56 out of 280 clones with unique RFLP patterns were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. The representative phylotypes were affiliated to four phylogenetic groups, Firmicutes, the Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi group, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria of the domain Bacteira. No one clone affiliated with the phylum Spirochaetes was identified, in contrast to the case of wood-feeding termites. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that nearly half of the representative clones (25 phylotypes) formed monophyletic clusters with clones obtained from other termite species, especially with the sequences retrieved from fungus-growing termites. These results indicate that the presence of termite-specific bacterial lineages implies a coevolutional relationship of gut microbes and host termites.
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  • Koichi TAMANO, Yuki SATOH, Tomoko ISHII, Yasunobu TERABAYASHI, Shinsak ...
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 926-934
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
    [Advance publication] Released: April 07, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The biological role of ExgA (Exg1), a secretory β-1,3-exoglucanase of Aspergillus oryzae, and the expression pattern of the exgA (exg1) gene were analyzed. The exgA disruptant and the exgA-overexpressing mutant were constructed, and phenotypes of both mutants were compared. Higher mycelial growth rate and conidiation efficiency were observed for the exgA-overexpressing mutant than for the exgA disruptant when β-1,3-glucan was supplied as sole carbon source. On the other hand, no difference in phenotype was observed between them in the presence or absence of the inhibitors of cell wall β-glucan remodeling when grown with glucose. exgA Expression was induced in growth on solid surfaces such as filter membrane and onion inner skin. A combination of poor nutrition and mycelial attachment to a hydrophobic solid surface appears to be an inducing factor for exgA expression. These data suggest that ExgA plays a role in β-glucan utilization, but is not much involved in cell wall β-glucan remodeling.
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  • Daisuke HAGIWARA, Yoshihiro ASANO, Junichiro MARUI, Kentaro FURUKAWA, ...
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 1003-1014
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
    [Advance publication] Released: April 07, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Histidine-to-Aspartate (His-Asp) phosphorelay (or two-component) systems are common signal transduction mechanisms implicated in a wide variety of cellular responses to environmental stimuli in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. For a model filamentous fungi, Aspergillus nidulans, in this study we first compiled a complete list of His-Asp phosphorelay components, including 15 genes for His-kinase (HK), four genes for response regulator (RR), and only one for histidine-containing phosphotransfer intermediate (HPt). For these RR genes, a set of deletion mutants was constructed so as to create a null allele for each. When examined these mutant strains under various conditions stressful for hyphal growth and asexual spore development, two of them (designated ΔsskA and ΔsrrA) showed a marked phenotype of hypersensitivity to oxidative stresses (particularly, to hydrogen peroxide). In this respect, expression of the vegetative-stage specific catB catalase gene was severely impaired in both mutants. Furthermore, conidia from ΔsskA were hypersensitive not only to treatment with H2O2, but also to treatment at aberrantly low (4 °C) and high (50 °C) temperatures, resulting in reduced germination efficiency. In this respect, not only the catA catalase gene specific for asexual development, but also a set of genes encoding the enzymes for synthesis of certain stress tolerant compatible solutes, such as trehalose and glycerol, were markedly downregulated in conidia from ΔsskA. These results together are indicative of the physiological importance of the His-Asp phosphorelay signaling network involving the SskA and SrrA response regulators.
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  • Hiromi NISHIDA, Issay NARUMI
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 1015-1020
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
    [Advance publication] Released: April 07, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The extremely radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is evolutionarily closely related to the extremely thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus. These bacteria have a single gene encoding an aspartate kinase (AK) that catalyzes the phosphorylation of L-aspartate. T. thermophilus has an aminoadipate pathway for lysine biosynthesis that does not use AK for lysine biosynthesis. Phylogenetic analysis in this study indicated that D. radiodurans AK has a different protein structure and a different evolutionary history from T. thermophilus AK. Disruption analysis of D. radiodurans AK indicated that D. radiodurans AK was not used for lysine biosynthesis but for threonine and methionine biosyntheses. A D. radiodurans AK disruption mutant exhibited a phenotype similar to a T. thermophilus AK disruption mutant, which indicates that these two AKs have different evolutionary origins, though their functions are not different.
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  • Masumi SATO, Hikaru YAMAHATA, Satoru WATANABE, Kaori NIMURA-MATSUNE, H ...
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 1021-1027
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
    [Advance publication] Released: April 07, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The genome of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 contains four dnaJ homologs, which are classified into three types based on domain structure. Among these, dnaJ1, dnaJ2, and dnaJ3 are essential for normal growth, and hence we analyzed them with a view to characterizing their specificity. Expression analysis indicated that dnaJ2, which encodes type II DnaJ protein, exhibited typical responses to heat and high-light stresses. Their localization and ability to prevent aggregation of luciferase were also diverse, suggesting a possible functional differentiation of these proteins. Since the expression of dnaJ1, which belongs to conserved type I DnaJ, down-regulated under heat stress, the unique structure of DnaJ2 may be involved in stress responses of S. elongatus. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the diverse dnaJ family was assumed to have evolved its own specific functions in each cyanobacterial species.
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Microbiology & Fermentation Technology Note
  • Yasuhiko SUEZAWA, Motofumi SUZUKI
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 1058-1062
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
    [Advance publication] Released: April 07, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In order to examine the genesis of the characteristic flavors of soy sauce and miso, seven novel halotolerant yeast strains of two types, which showed convertibility of ferulic acid (FA) to 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG) and to 4-ethylguaiacol (4-EG), were isolated from miso-koji and miso pastes. Two of these strains were identified as Candida guilliermondii (anamorph of Pichia guilliermondii), and Candida fermentati (anamorph of Pichia caribbica), based on sequence analyses of a partial 26S ribosomal RNA gene and the region of internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, and the 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene. Moreover, we also found three Candida etchellsii strains which showed convertibility of FA to 4-VG, but not to 4-EG, and two atypical strains of Candida versatilis which showed no convertibility of FA to 4-VG, but did show convertibility of 4-VG to 4-EG from soy sauce mashes. The bioconversion pathway from FA to 4-EG via 4-VG in halotolerant yeasts and bacteria is discussed.
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Microbiology & Fermentation Technology Communication
  • Hirokuni TAJIMA, Yoshiaki NAKAMOTO, Akira TAKETO
    2007 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 1094-1097
    Published: April 23, 2007
    Released: April 23, 2007
    [Advance publication] Released: April 07, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The Effect of hydroxy isothiocyanates on a bacterial virus and M13 DNA was examined. Hydroxy-substituted phenyl and phenyl alkyl isothiocyanates, especially 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl isothiocyanate(IT-Dop) synthesized from dopamine, showed antiviral activity on φK. In transfection experiments with M13 mp DNA species, IT-Dop inhibited the single-stranded (SS) molecule more effectively than the double stranded replicative form (RF) DNA. These effects were dependent on reaction time, and on IT-Dop concentration. An additional experiment indicated that treatment with IT-Dop suppressed annealing (reassociation) of denatured DNA. These results indicate that IT-Dop reacts mildly with virus and SS DNA.
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