Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Online ISSN : 1347-6947
Print ISSN : 0916-8451
Volume 77 , Issue 11
Showing 1-33 articles out of 33 articles from the selected issue
Analytical Chemistry Regular Paper
  • Yasushi NAGATOMI, Toshiaki YOSHIOKA, Mayumi YANAGISAWA, Atsuo UYAMA, N ...
    2013 Volume 77 Issue 11 Pages 2218-2221
    Published: November 23, 2013
    Released: November 23, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: November 07, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Glyphosate and glufosinate are non-selective herbicides that have been extensively used worldwide. Their ionic and water-soluble characteristics often make it difficult to analyze them, especially in food components. A method was developed in this study for the simultaneous analysis of glyphosate, glufosinate, and three metabolic products in beer, barley tea, and their ingredients (malt and corn). The analytical samples were extracted with H2O, purified with a strong anion-exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge, and then analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with an anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column. This method enabled a rapid and sensitive analysis [limit of quantification (LOQ) = 10 µg/kg] of the herbicides to be achieved.
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Organic Chemistry Regular Papers
  • Qiulong HU, Xiaojun SU, Lin TAN, Xianghua LIU, Anjun WU, Dingding SU, ...
    2013 Volume 77 Issue 11 Pages 2181-2187
    Published: November 23, 2013
    Released: November 23, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: November 07, 2013
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    Reed lignocellulose was subjected to a steam explosion pretreatment to obtain a high conversion rate of sugar after subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis using a commercial cellulase mixture. Under conditions of differing temperature (200 °C, 220 °C and 240 °C) and residence time (2, 5, and 8 min), the effect of the pretreatment on the sugar yield from enzymatic hydrolysis was studied. The highest respective reducing sugar and glucose yields were 36.14% and 15.35% after 60-h enzymatic hydrolysis of reed straw that had been pretreated with a steam explosion at 220 °C for 5 min. Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used in this study to comprehensively investigate the steam explosion-induced changes in the organizational structure and morphological properties of reed straw to analyze the reason for the increased sugar yield from enzymatic hydrolysis after the steam explosion.
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  • Junichi SHINOZAKI, Masaaki SHIBUYA, Yutaka EBIZUKA, Kazuo MASUDA
    2013 Volume 77 Issue 11 Pages 2278-2282
    Published: November 23, 2013
    Released: November 23, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: November 07, 2013
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    Aleuritopteris ferns produce triterpenes and sesterterpenes with tricyclic cheilanthane and tetracyclic 18-episcalarane skeletons. The structural and mechanistic similarities between both classes of fern terpene suggest that their biosynthetic enzymes may be closely related. We investigate here whether a triterpene synthase is capable of recognizing geranylfarnesols as a substrate, and is able to convert them to cyclic sesterterpenes. We found that a bacterial triterpene synthase converted all-E-geranylfarnesol (1b) into three scalarane sesterterpenes with 18αH stereochemistry (5, 7 and 8), as well as mono- and tricyclic sesterterpenes (6 and 9). In addition, 2Z-geranylfarnesol (4) was converted into an 18-episcalarane derivative (10), whose skeleton can be found in sesterterpenes isolated from Aleuritopteris ferns. These results provide insight into sesterterpene biosynthesis in Aleuritopteris ferns.
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Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Regular Papers
  • Xiang TAO, Ying-Hong GU, Yu-Song JIANG, Yi-Zheng ZHANG, Hai-Yan WANG
    2013 Volume 77 Issue 11 Pages 2169-2174
    Published: November 23, 2013
    Released: November 23, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: November 07, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material
    Sweet potato flowers were collected for a transcriptome analysis to identify the putative floral-specific and flowering regulatory-related genes by using the RNA-sequencing technique. Pair-end short reads were de novo assembled by an integrated strategy, and then the floral transcriptome was carefully compared with several published vegetative transcriptomes. A total of 2595 putative floral-specific and 2928 putative vegetative-specific transcripts were detected. We also identified a large number of transcripts similar to the key genes in the flowering regulation network of Arabidopsis thaliana.
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  • Keito NISHIZAWA, Susumu HIRAGA, Hiroshi YASUE, Mitsuru CHIBA, Makoto T ...
    2013 Volume 77 Issue 11 Pages 2205-2209
    Published: November 23, 2013
    Released: November 23, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: November 07, 2013
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    Cytosolic ascorbate peroxidases (cAPXs) of soybean have been found by proteome analysis to be downregulated in submerged seedlings. To elucidate the physiological meaning of this downregulation, soybean cAPXs were characterized in this study. Vigorous synthesis was detected in germinating seeds and seedlings. Expression of the corresponding genes was detected clearly in tissues that actively underwent cell division. The gene expression was suppressed by flooding stress, but not by salinity, cold or drought stress. The expression recovered 1 d after release from flooding stress, accompanied by growth resurgence.
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  • Umihito NAKAGAWA, Kazuo KAMEMURA, Aya IMAMURA
    2013 Volume 77 Issue 11 Pages 2228-2233
    Published: November 23, 2013
    Released: November 23, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: November 07, 2013
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    Recently, we confirmed the widespread occurrence of α-tubulin acetylation on Lys40 in angiosperms. In the present study, we found that α-tubulin acetylation is regulated in a growth stage- and organ development-dependent manner in the rapid cycling Brassica rapa, also known as Fast Plants. Organ distribution analysis showed that the proportion of acetylated α-tubulin is high in the cotyledons of young plants and in the true leaves and flowers of mature plants. A correlation between the increase in the levels of α-tubulin acetylation and the maturation of true leaves was observed. In the mature leaves, the acetylated α-tubulin showed an uneven distribution pattern, and the cells in the region of the leaf margins contained a high proportion of acetylated α-tubulin. These results indicate that α-tubulin acetylation is dynamically regulated in plant organs during development, and that it might play an important role in microtubule functioning throughout the angiosperm's life cycle.
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  • Naohisa SUGIMOTO, Yasuaki TAKAKURA, Kentaro SHIRAKI, Shinya HONDA, Nao ...
    2013 Volume 77 Issue 11 Pages 2234-2241
    Published: November 23, 2013
    Released: November 23, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: November 07, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material
    To obtain a selection marker gene functional in a thermophilic bacterium, Thermus thermophilus, an in vivo-directed evolutionary strategy was conducted on a hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene (hyg) from Streptomyces hygroscopicus. The expression of wild-type hyg in T. thermophilus provided hygromycin B (HygB) resistance up to 60 °C. Through selection of mutants showing HygB resistance at higher temperatures, eight amino acid substitutions and the duplication of three amino acids were identified. A variant containing seven substitutions and the duplication (HYG10) showed HygB resistance at a highest temperature of 74 °C. Biochemical and biophysical analyses of recombinant HYG and HYG10 revealed that HYG10 was in fact thermostabilized. Modeling of the three-dimensional structure of HYG10 suggests the possible roles of the various substitutions and the duplication on thermostabilization, of which three substitutions and the duplication located at the enzyme surface suggested that these mutations made the enzyme more hydrophilic and provided increased stability in aqueous solution.
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  • Yuko KUWANO, Kazunari YONEDA, Yuya KAWAGUCHI, Norie ARAKI, Tomohiro AR ...
    2013 Volume 77 Issue 11 Pages 2269-2277
    Published: November 23, 2013
    Released: November 23, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: November 07, 2013
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    To determine the structure and functional relationships of invertebrate lysozymes, we isolated a new invertebrate (i)-type lysozyme from the common orient clam (Meretrix lusoria) and determined the complete amino acid sequence of two isozymes that differed by one amino acid. The determined sequence showed 65% similarity to a lysozyme from Venerupis philippinarum (Tapes japonica), and it was therefore classified as an i-type lysozyme. The lytic activities of this lysozyme were similar to those of previously reported bivalve i-type lysozymes, but unlike the V. philippinarum lysozyme, it did not exhibit an increase in activity in high ionic strength. Our data suggest that this lysozyme does not have a dimeric structure, due to the replacement of Lys108 which contributes to dimer formation in the V. philippinarum lysozyme. GlcNAc oligomer activities suggested an absence of transglycosylation activity and a higher number of subsites on this enzyme compared with hen egg lysozyme.
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  • He LI, Zhi-Xin WANG, Jia-Wei WU
    2013 Volume 77 Issue 11 Pages 2283-2287
    Published: November 23, 2013
    Released: November 23, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: November 07, 2013
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    HIN (hematopoietic interferon-inducible nuclear antigens with a 200-amino-acid repeat) domains are found in all AIM2-like receptors (ALRs) and mediate protein/DNA interactions to regulate innate immunity. We cloned, expressed, and purified the human interferon-inducible protein p202 (Ifi202) HINb domain and the murine Ifi203 HIN domain using Escherichia coli JM109 (DE3) host cells. The Ifi203 HIN domain is a monomer in solution, and it has the ability to bind both double-stranded DNA and RNA. In contrast, the Ifi202 HINb domain is a dimer in solution, and no interaction with double-stranded DNA or RNA was detected. A complex of the Ifi203 HIN domain and double-stranded DNA was prepared, and crystals of the complex were obtained. To analyze further the dimeric interface of the Ifi202 HINb domain and the DNA binding site of the Ifi203 HIN domain, models of both proteins were developed. This work provides a basis for understanding the structure and function of HIN domains.
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Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Notes
Food & Nutrition Science Regular Papers
  • Shin-ichi ADACHI, Yuki ENDO, Takafumi MIZUSHIGE, Satoshi TSUZUKI, Shig ...
    2013 Volume 77 Issue 11 Pages 2175-2180
    Published: November 23, 2013
    Released: November 23, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: November 07, 2013
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    Changes in the extracellular concentration of dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and the basolateral amygdala (BLA) resulting from the voluntary ingestion of either corn oil, mineral oil, or 1% linoleic acid diluted with mineral oil as a vehicle were measured in rats by using in vivo microdialysis after they had been trained to establish a preference for corn oil. Ingesting the mineral oil caused no significant change in DA level in the NAc shell, whereas corn oil ingestion significantly increased the DA level during 0–15 min of the test session, reaching the maximum level of 129.8 ± 6.2% compared with the baseline after 10 min. Ingesting linoleic acid also resulted in a significant increase in DA level during 0–20 min, reaching 125.9 ± 9.0% after 10 min. Similar results were obtained in the BLA. Despite its very low calorie content, a low concentration of non-esterified fatty acid increased the DA levels equivalent to those resulting from corn oil in the brain's reward system.
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  • Kazue HONMA, Kazuki MOCHIZUKI, Toshinao GODA
    2013 Volume 77 Issue 11 Pages 2188-2191
    Published: November 23, 2013
    Released: November 23, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: November 07, 2013
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    It has been reported that fructose force-feeding rapidly induced jejunal Slc2a5 gene expression in rodents. We demonstrate in this study that acetylation at lysine (K) 9 of histone H3 and acetylation at K5 and K16 of histone H4 were more enhanced in the promoter/enhancer to transcribed regions of the Slc2a5 gene in fructose force-fed mice than in glucose force-fed mice. However, fructose force-feeding did not induce acetylation at K14 of histone H3, or at K8 and K12 of histone H4 around the Slc2a5 gene. These results suggest that fructose force-feeding induced selective histone acetylation, particularly of H3 and H4, around the jejunal Slc2a5 gene in mice.
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  • Kyung Eun LEE, Sang Mi LEE, Yong Ho CHOI, Byung Serk HURH, Young-Suk K ...
    2013 Volume 77 Issue 11 Pages 2192-2200
    Published: November 23, 2013
    Released: November 23, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: November 07, 2013
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    We compared the volatile profiles in soy sauce according to inoculation with Tetragenococcus halophilus and/or Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Totals of 107 and 81 volatiles were respectively identified by using solid-phase microextraction and solvent extraction. The various volatile compounds identified included acids, aldehydes, esters, ketones, furans and furan derivatives, and phenols. The major volatiles in the samples treated with T. halophilus were acetic acid, formic acid, benzaldehyde, methyl acetate, ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate, 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, while those in the samples inoculated with Z. rouxii were mainly ethanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl propanoate, 2/3-methylbutanol, 1-butanol, 2-phenylethanol, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, and 4-hydroxy-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone. The results indicate that T. halophilus produced significant acid compounds and could affect the Z. rouxii activity, supporting the notion that yeasts and lactic acid bacteria respectively have different metabolic pathways of alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid fermentation, and produce different dominant volatile compounds in soy sauce.
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  • Ai EGUSA SAIGA, Toshihide NISHIMURA
    2013 Volume 77 Issue 11 Pages 2201-2204
    Published: November 23, 2013
    Released: November 23, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: November 07, 2013
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    The porcine myofibrillar protein hydrolysate obtained by a papain treatment showed antioxidative activity in a system of linolenic acid peroxidation induced by Fe2+. The five peptides, DSGVT, IEAEGE, DAQEKLE, EELDNALN, and VPSIDDQEELM, have been characterized as antioxidative peptides (Saiga et al., J. Agric. Food Chem., 51, 3661–3667 (2003)). These peptides were synthesized and their antioxidative activity evaluated. The antioxidative activity of four peptides, excluding DSGVT, was confirmed by their addition at 0.1% to the peroxidation system. To clarify the mechanism for the antioxidative activity of these peptides, their short peptides with amino acid deletions at the C- or N-termini were synthesized. The antioxidative activity gradually decreased with decreasing peptide length. Replacing the charged amino acids in these peptide sequences with Ala also affected their antioxidative activity. We hypothesize that the anions from acidic amino acids and the cations from iron interacted with each other and inactivated the pro-oxidant, Fe (II).
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  • Shoko KOBAYASHI, Miki SHINOHARA, Toshitada NAGAI, Yutaka KONISHI
    2013 Volume 77 Issue 11 Pages 2210-2217
    Published: November 23, 2013
    Released: November 23, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: November 07, 2013
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    Isoflavone data concerning the metabolism and permeability on intestinal epithelial cells are scarce, particularly for microbial isoflavone metabolites. This study evaluates the absorption mechanisms for the isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, and their microbial metabolites, dihydrogenistein (DHG) and dihydrodaidzein (DHD). The permeability characteristics of isoflavones were compared by using the Caco-2 human colon adenocarcinoma cell line for a parallel artificial membrane permeability assay, and comparing their physicochemical properties. The data suggest that genistein, DHG and DHD were efficiently transported by passive diffusion according to the pH-partition hypothesis. Genistein was conjugated by phase II metabolizing enzymes and acted as a substrate of the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Daidzein was not conjugated but did act as a substrate for BCRP, multidrug resistance-associated proteins, and P-glycoprotein. In contrast, DHG and DHD were markedly more permeable than their parent isoflavones; they were therefore difficult to transport by the efflux effect, and glucuronidation/sulfation was limited by the flux time.
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  • Shiwei HU, Yaoguang CHANG, Jingfeng WANG, Changhu XUE, Zhaojie LI, Yum ...
    2013 Volume 77 Issue 11 Pages 2263-2268
    Published: November 23, 2013
    Released: November 23, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: November 07, 2013
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    This study investigated the effects of a combination of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (CHS) and rosiglitazone (RSG) on glucose metabolism in the liver of insulin-resistant C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet for 19 weeks. The results showed that the combination (CHS/RSG) synergistically improved body weight gain, liver weight, fasting blood glucose levels, glucose tolerance on an oral glucose tolerance test, serum insulin levels, homeostasis model assessment indexes, and hepatic glycogen content. In liver tissue, CHS/RSG significantly normalized the activities of hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, and glucose-6-phosphatase. In additionally, it increased the mRNA expression of insulin receptors, insulin receptor substrate 2, phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (PKB), and glycogen synthase, and inhibited glycogen synthase kinase 3β(GSK-3β) mRNA expression in the liver. This suggests that CHS/RSG treatment improves glucose metabolism by modulating metabolic enzymes and strengthening the PI3K/PKB/GSK-3β signal pathway mediated by insulin at the transcriptional level.
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  • Haruya TAKAHASHI, Hideyuki SUZUKI, Kunihiro SUDA, Yota YAMAZAKI, Akihi ...
    2013 Volume 77 Issue 11 Pages 2288-2293
    Published: November 23, 2013
    Released: November 23, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: November 07, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material
    A change in the free fatty acid (FFA) profile reflects an alteration in the lipid metabolism of peripheral tissue. A high-throughput quantitative analysis method for individual FFAs therefore needs to be established. We report here an optimized LC-MS assay for a high-throughput and high-sensitivity analysis of the 10 major long-chain FFAs in mouse plasma and liver. This assay enables quantification of individual FFAs by using trace amounts of samples (2 µL of plasma and 10 mg of liver tissue). We apply this method to analyze the FFA profile of plasma and liver samples from an obese mouse model treated with bezafibrate, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist, and show a change in the FFA profile, particularly in the palmitoleic and oleic acid contents. This assay is useful for quantifying individual FFAs and helpful for monitoring the condition of lipid metabolism.
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Food & Nutrition Science Notes
Microbiology & Fermentation Technology Regular Papers
  • Dunjian REN, Hongyang LI, Yuewu PU, Lvyun YI
    2013 Volume 77 Issue 11 Pages 2242-2247
    Published: November 23, 2013
    Released: November 23, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: November 07, 2013
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    A novel compound bioflocculant, CBF-256, was obtained using three bacterial strains, Bacillus sp., Enterobacter sp., and Aeromonas sp., which were screened from activated sludge of a printing and dyeing wastewater treatment plant. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the fermentation medium dosage to improve the flocculation rate of CBF-256, which increased from 69.00% to 82.65%. In addition the yield of the compound bioflocculant increased from 2.31 g·L−1 to 2.84 g·L−1. The flocculating efficiency distribution of the components of the culture broth indicated that the supernatant was the most effective component in the flocculation process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyze the fermentation medium and composite bacteria. The compound flocculants were produced easily, and during the flocculation process, all the flocculation ingredients settled down in the remaining sludge along with the bacteria screened from the activated sludge, without causing secondary pollution.
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  • Saeed A. HAYEK, Aboghasem SHAHBAZI, Saddam S. AWAISHEH, Nagendra P. SH ...
    2013 Volume 77 Issue 11 Pages 2248-2254
    Published: November 23, 2013
    Released: November 23, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: November 07, 2013
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    A sweet potato medium (SPM) was formed with extract from baked sweet potatoes supplemented with 0, 4, or 8 g/L of each nitrogen source (beef extract, yeast extract, and proteose peptone #3) to form SPM1, SPM2, and SPM3 respectively. Lactobacilli MRS was used as control medium. Ten Lactobacillus strains containing an average of 2.34 ± 0.29 log CFU/mL were inoculated individually into batches of MRS, SPM1, SPM2, and SPM3. The growth patterns for the tested Lactobacillus strains growing in SPM2 and SPM3 were found to be similar to that in MRS. The average final population after 24 h of incubation in MRS, SPM2, and SPM3 reached 10.41 ± 0.35, 10.59 ± 0.27, and 10.72 ± 0.19 log CFU/mL respectively. SPM2 and SPM3 maintained higher pH values throughout the incubation period than MRS. These findings indicate that SPM2 can be a suitable medium for the growth of Lactobacillus and can provide an alternative at low-cost.
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  • Daisuke WATANABE, Naoya HASHIMOTO, Megumi MIZUNO, Yan ZHOU, Takeshi AK ...
    2013 Volume 77 Issue 11 Pages 2255-2262
    Published: November 23, 2013
    Released: November 23, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: November 07, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material
    Sake yeast strains maintain high fermentation rates, even after the stationary growth phase begins. To determine the molecular mechanisms underlying this advantageous brewing property, we compared the gene expression profiles of sake and laboratory yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the stationary growth phase. DNA microarray analysis revealed that the sake yeast strain examined had defects in expression of the genes related to glucose derepression mediated by transcription factors Adr1p and Cat8p. Furthermore, deletion of the ADR1 and CAT8 genes slightly but statistically significantly improved the fermentation rate of a laboratory yeast strain. We also identified two loss-of-function mutations in the ADR1 gene of existing sake yeast strains. Taken together, these results indicate that the gene expression program associated with glucose derepression for yeast acts as an impediment to effective alcoholic fermentation under glucose-rich fermentative conditions.
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Microbiology & Fermentation Technology Notes
Environmental Science Regular Paper
  • Koji SATSUMA, Minoru MASUDA, Kiyoshi SATO
    2013 Volume 77 Issue 11 Pages 2222-2227
    Published: November 23, 2013
    Released: November 23, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: November 07, 2013
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    We have reported that a leguminous bacterial strain, Bradyrhizobium sp. strain 17-4, isolated from river sediment, phylogenetically very close to Bradyrhizobium elkanii, degraded methoxychlor through O-demethylation and oxidative dechlorination. In the present investigation, we found that B. elkanii (USDA94), a standard species deposited in the Culture Collection, degraded methoxychlor. Furthermore, Bradyrhizobium sp. strain 4-1, also very close to B. elkanii, isolated from Japanese paddy field soil, degraded methoxychlor. These B. elkanii and closely related strains degraded methoxychlor through almost identical metabolic pathways, and cleaved the phenyl ring and mineralized. In contrast, another representative Bradyrhizobium species, B. japonicum (USDA110), did not degrade methoxychlor at all. Based on these findings, B. elkanii and closely related strains are likely to play an important role not only in providing the readily biodegradable substrates but also in completely degrading (mineralizing) methoxychlor by themselves in the soil and surface water environment.
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