Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Online ISSN : 1347-6947
Print ISSN : 0916-8451
Volume 75 , Issue 2
Showing 1-42 articles out of 42 articles from the selected issue
Award Reviews
  • Tatsuo KURIHARA
    2011 Volume 75 Issue 2 Pages 189-198
    Published: February 23, 2011
    Released: February 23, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: February 07, 2011
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    Enzymes that catalyze the conversion of organohalogen compounds have been attracting a great deal of attention, partly because of their possible applications in environmental technology and the chemical industry. We have studied the mechanisms of enzymatic degradation of various organic halo acids. In the reaction of L-2-haloacid dehalogenase and fluoroacetate dehalogenase, the carboxylate group of the catalytic aspartate residue nucleophilically attacked the α-carbon atom of the substrates to displace the halogen atom. In the reaction catalyzed by DL-2-haloacid dehalogenase, a water molecule directly attacked the substrate to displace the halogen atom. In the course of studies on the metabolism of 2-chloroacrylate, we discovered two new enzymes. 2-Haloacrylate reductase catalyzed the asymmetric reduction of 2-haloacrylate to produce L-2-haloalkanoic acid in an NADPH-dependent manner. 2-Haloacrylate hydratase catalyzed the hydration of 2-haloacrylate to produce pyruvate. The enzyme is unique in that it catalyzes the non-redox reaction in an FADH2-dependent manner.
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  • Takashi KITAYAMA
    2011 Volume 75 Issue 2 Pages 199-207
    Published: February 23, 2011
    Released: February 23, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: February 07, 2011
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    Zerumbone is a cyclic seaquiterpene and, a potential resource for natural materials-related diversity-oriented synthesis (NMRDOS). Zerumbone, the main component of the essential oil of a wild ginger, Zingiber zerumbet Smith, showed strong reactivity with good chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivity. To build the foundations for the industrial use of zerumbone, we examined conjugate addition, transannular reactions, ring cleavage, ring expansion, and asymmetric induction. The biological activity of zerumbone derivatives was also studied.
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  • Ken-ichi TAKEYAMA, Shigeaki KATO
    2011 Volume 75 Issue 2 Pages 208-213
    Published: February 23, 2011
    Released: February 23, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: February 07, 2011
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    Vitamin D has a pivotal role in a many biological processes, including the maintenance of calcium homeostasis, cell differentiation and proliferation. Most of these actions are mediated by transcriptional regulation of target genes through vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily. Thus, it is important to understand vitamin D biosynthesis into an active form that regulates VDR transcriptional functions. The active form of vitamin D, 1α,25(OH)2D3, derived by vitamin D3 1alpha hydroxylase, 1α(OH)ase in renal proximal tubule cells is a ligand for VDR. We have identified the 1α(OH)ase gene, which uses a novel expression cloning method derived from VDR deficient mice that have excess amounts of active vitamin D3 in the serum. Identification of 1α(OH)ase gene had lead us to understand not only the biological significance of active vitamin D3 synthesis, but also a novel mechanism of VDR-mediated transcriptional regulation. The gene expression of 1α(OH)ase is positively and negatively regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and active vitamin D3 respectively. In this review, we describe switching between positive and negative transcriptional modulation by the VDR, together with recent findings on the mechanisms of VDR-mediated epigenetic regulation in the 1α(OH)ase gene.
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Organic Chemistry Regular Paper
  • Takumi KATSUMATA, Jutarou FUKAZAWA, Hiroshi MAGOME, Yusuke JIKUMARU, Y ...
    2011 Volume 75 Issue 2 Pages 331-336
    Published: February 23, 2011
    Released: February 23, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material
    CYP78 is a plant-specific family of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, some members of which regulate the plastochron length and organ size in angiosperms. The CYP78 family appears to be highly conserved in land plants, but there have been no reports on the role of CYP78s in bryophytes. The moss, Physcomitrella patens, possesses two CYP78As, CYP78A27 and CYP78A28. We produced single and double mutants and overexpression lines for CYP78A27 and CYP78A28 by gene targeting to investigate the function of CYP78As in P. patens. Neither the cyp78a27 nor cyp78a28 single mutant showed any obvious phenotype, while the double mutant exhibited severely retarded protonemal growth and gametophore development. The endogenous levels of some plant hormones were also altered in the double mutant. Transgenic lines that overexpressed CYP78A27 or CYP78A28 showed delayed and reduced bud formation. Our results suggest that CYP78As participate in the synthesis of a critical growth regulator in P. patens.
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Organic Chemistry Notes
Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Regular Papers
  • Yasuhisa FUKUTA, Samik NANDA, Yasuo KATO, Hiroya YURIMOTO, Yasuyoshi S ...
    2011 Volume 75 Issue 2 Pages 214-220
    Published: February 23, 2011
    Released: February 23, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: February 07, 2011
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    PmHNL, a hydroxynitrile lyase from Japanese apricot ume (Prunus mume) seed was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate fractionation and chromatographic steps. The purified enzyme was a monomer with molecular mass of 58 kDa. It was a flavoprotein similar to other hydroxynitrile lyases of the Rosaceae family. It was active over a broad temperature, and pH range. The N-terminal amino acid sequence (20 amino acids) was identical with that of the enzyme from almond (Prunus dulcis). Based on the N-terminal sequence of the purified enzyme and the conserved amino acid sequences of the enzymes from Pr. dulcis, inverse PCR method was used for cloning of a putative PmHNL (PmHNL2) gene from a Pr. mume seedling. Then the cDNA for the enzyme was cloned. The deduced amino acid sequence was found to be highly similar (95%) to that of an enzyme from Pr. serotina, isozyme 2. The recombinant Pichia pastoris transformed with the PmHNL2 gene secreted an active enzyme in glycosylated form.
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  • Joon Seok SONG, Hyun Pyo KIM, Erin RUBIN
    2011 Volume 75 Issue 2 Pages 227-231
    Published: February 23, 2011
    Released: February 23, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: February 07, 2011
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    Supplementary material
    Telomerase is a particular reverse transcriptase that not only synthesizes and maintains the telomere but also promotes the proliferation of resting cells and prevents cellular senescence. The advantages of the Sleeping Beauty transposon system include prolonged transgene expression without eliciting an immunogenic response, no possibility of RCV and ease of construction. Tissue-specific therapeutic gene expression is extremely important in gene therapy, because non-specific expression can cause an immune response of the transduced cells that can severely limit the stability of the transgene. The SB system containing the telomerase gene controlled by two chimeric transthyretin (TTR) gene promoters/enhancers, the human alcohol dehydrogenase gene promoter (ADHp), and the SV40 viral enhancer (SV40VE) was constructed in order to activate hepatocyte cell growth. The higher expression was achieved using these elements and FACS analysis showed that this system was effective in hepatocyte targeted gene therapy. Our new SB mediated telomerase delivery system for hepatocytes can be used in human gene therapy applications.
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  • Qiuyu YIN, Yigang TENG, Yanhong LI, Ming DING, Fukun ZHAO
    2011 Volume 75 Issue 2 Pages 240-246
    Published: February 23, 2011
    Released: February 23, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: February 07, 2011
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    Three endoglucanase cDNAs, eg65a, eg65b, and eg65c, were cloned from the mollusk Ampullaria crossean in previous work. To characterize the full-length enzymes as well as their individual functional modules via heterologous expression analysis, the three full-length putative endoglucanases (rEG65a, rEG65b, and rEG65c) and the corresponding catalytic modules (EG65a-CM, EG65b-CM, and EG65c-CM) were expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115, and the three corresponding carbohydrate-binding modules (EG65a-CBM, EG65b-CBM, and EG65c-CBM) were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The properties of recombinant rEG65b, EG65a-CM, EG65b-CM, and EG65c-CM were characterized. Binding assays of CBMs with insoluble polysaccharides indicated that both EG65b-CBM and EG65c-CBM bound to phosphoric-acid swollen cellulose (PASC), Avicel, and oat-spelt xylan, while EG65a-CBM did not. The relative equilibrium constants (Kr) of EG65b-CBM and EG65c-CBM were determined by absorption isotherm measurements. In this study, the CBMs of animal cellulases were expressed and characterized for the first time.
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  • Jingyuan SONG, Kiriko ABE, Hiroyuki IMANAKA, Koreyoshi IMAMURA, Masash ...
    2011 Volume 75 Issue 2 Pages 268-278
    Published: February 23, 2011
    Released: February 23, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: February 07, 2011
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    The presence of multiple types of β-galactosidases in a commercial enzyme preparation from Bacillus circulans ATCC 31382 and differences in their transgalactosylation activity were investigated. Four β-galactosidases, β-Gal-A, β-Gal-B, β-Gal-C, and β-Gal-D, which were immunologically homologous, were isolated and characterized. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of all of the enzymes were identical and biochemical characteristics were similar, except for galactooligosaccharide production. β-Gal-B, β-Gal-C, and β-Gal-D produced mainly tri- and tetra saccharides at maximum yields of 20–30 and 9–12%, while β-Gal-A produced trisaccharide with 7% with 5% lactose as substrate. The Lineweaver-Burk plots for all of the enzymes, except for β-Gal-A, showed biphasic behavior. β-Gal-A was truncated to yield multiple β-galactosidases by treatment with protease isolated from the culture broth of B. circulans. Treatment of β-Gal-A with trypsin yielded an active 91-kDa protein composed of 21-kDa and 70-kDa proteins with characteristics similar to those for β-Gal-D.
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  • Yukiko MIWA, Hokuto OHTSUKA, Chikako NAITO, Hiroshi MURAKAMI, Hirofumi ...
    2011 Volume 75 Issue 2 Pages 279-283
    Published: February 23, 2011
    Released: February 23, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: February 07, 2011
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    In fission yeast, ecl1+ was identified as a novel factor that extends chronological lifespan when overexpressed. Ecl1 is a small protein consisting of 80 amino acids localized mainly in the nucleus. However, the mechanism by which it affects chronological lifespan has not been elucidated clearly. Here we analyzed the expression profile of Ecl1, especially as to cell cycle and growth phase, and found that it is induced upon nitrogen starvation. Then we analyzed the relevance of factors, Atf1, Ste11, and Tor1, which are known to be involved in the signaling of nitrogen starvation. Though the nitrogen starvation-induced expression of Ecl1 did not change in the atf1Δ mutant, induction in both the ste11Δ mutant and the tor1Δ mutant showed a delay. Based on these observations, the regulation of Ecl1 is discussed.
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  • Kohta YAMAMOTO, Etsu TASHIRO, Masaya IMOTO
    2011 Volume 75 Issue 2 Pages 284-288
    Published: February 23, 2011
    Released: February 23, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: February 07, 2011
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    Supplementary material
    Quinotrierixin was isolated from microbes as an inhibitor of ER stress-induced XBP1 mRNA splicing, but its mode of action was unclear. We found that quinotrierixin is an inhibitor of protein synthesis, and that the required dose range of quinotrierixin to inhibit ER stress-induced XBP1 mRNA splicing was similar to that to inhibit protein synthesis. Furthermore, we also found that quinotrierixin inhibited the ER stress-induced increases of unfolded protein response-related genes such as GRP78, CHOP, EDEM, ERdj4, and p58IPK. Thus, we showed that quinotrierixin inhibited the ER stress-induced unfolded protein response, possibly due to its inhibitory activity of protein synthesis.
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  • Dong-Wook KIM, Kee-Beom KIM, Ji-Young KIM, Sang-Beom SEO
    2011 Volume 75 Issue 2 Pages 289-294
    Published: February 23, 2011
    Released: February 23, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: February 07, 2011
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    Post-translational modifications of histones have been demonstrated to play important roles in the regulation of chromatin structure and transcriptional regulation. In histone modification, methylated lysine has an important role in transcriptional regulation. The evolutionarily conserved SET domain was first identified in Drosophila proteins: Suppressor of variegation (Su(var)3-9), Enhancer of zeste (E(z)), and Trithorax. SET domain-containing proteins have histone methyltransferase (HMTase) activity via the SET domain. Using a bioinformatics approach, we identified and cloned zebrafish setd3 containing SET and Rubis-subs-bind domains. In this study, we report that setd3 had lysine specificity toward histone H3K36. Methylation of histone H3K36 is known as one of the transcriptional activation markers. It transiently transfected setd3 activated general transcription in reporter assays. Overexpression of setd3 decreased cell viability and activated caspase-3, indicating possible roles in apoptotic cell death and cell cycle regulation.
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  • Madoka KITAMI, Tomoyuki KADOTANI, Kazuko NAKANISHI, Shogo ATSUMI, Sato ...
    2011 Volume 75 Issue 2 Pages 305-312
    Published: February 23, 2011
    Released: February 23, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: February 07, 2011
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    Cry toxins have been reported to bind not only to receptors on insect cells but also to several unrelated proteins. In this study, we investigated the binding properties of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins, focusing on domain III, a Cry toxin region with a structure that of the galactose-binding domain-like. Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, and Cry8Ca specifically bound to several proteins unrelated to insect midgut cells. Cry1Aa binding to Cry toxin-binding proteins was inhibited by a monoclonal antibody, 2C2, indicating that Cry1Aa binds to these Cry toxin-binding proteins through domain III. Cry1Aa binding to Bombyx mori aminopeptidase N and other Cry toxin-binding proteins was inhibited by carbonic anhydrase, a Cry toxin-binding protein. The binding regions of carbonic anhydrase and Bombyx mori aminopeptidase N were narrowed to regions of less than 20 amino acids that did not have any similarity, suggesting that Cry toxin domain III has a binding pocket for multiple proteins.
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  • Mitsuaki SANADA, Kouichi KURODA, Mitsuyoshi UEDA
    2011 Volume 75 Issue 2 Pages 323-330
    Published: February 23, 2011
    Released: February 23, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: February 07, 2011
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    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene GTS1 is pleiotropic. GTS1 induction produces a variety of biological phenomena represented by heat tolerance. To clarify the interaction partners of Gts1p, tandem affinity purification and immunoprecipitation were performed. Ssa1p and Ssa2p, members of the 70-kDa heat-shock protein family, were identified. Co-expression of SSA1 or SSA2 inhibited Gts1p nuclear import. As compared to the wild type, the SSA1 and SSA2 double-deletion mutant showed enhancement of Gts1p-mediated heat tolerance in the stationary phase, although neither of the single deletions affected heat tolerance, irrespective of GTS1 induction. These results indicate that the heat tolerance function of Gts1p is regulated by Ssa1p and Ssa2p. Furthermore, time-dependent production of Ssa1p and Ssa2p revealed that Gts1p controls the production of Ssa1p and Ssa2p, and that the total amounts of Ssa1p and Ssa2p are important in inhibiting the unique function of Gts1p.
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  • Hiroyuki NAGAI, Shogo EBISU, Ryoji ABE, Tsuyoshi GOTO, Nobuyuki TAKAHA ...
    2011 Volume 75 Issue 2 Pages 337-341
    Published: February 23, 2011
    Released: February 23, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: February 07, 2011
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    The activation of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), which plays a central role in adipocyte differentiation, depends on ligand-dependent co-activator recruitment. In this study, we developed a novel method of PPARγ ligand screening by measuring the increase in fluorescent polarization accompanied by the interaction of a fluorescent co-activator and PPARγ. Sterol receptor co-activator-1 (SRC-1), a major PPARγ co-activator, was probed by fluorescent TAMRA by the Amber codon fluorescence probe method. Polarization was increased by adding PPARγ ligands to a solution containing labeled SRC-1 (designated TAMRA-SRC-S) and PPARγ. The disassociation constants (Kd) of the PPARγ synthesized ligands, pioglitazone (221 nM), troglitazone (83.0 nM), and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-ΔPGJ2) (156 nM), were determined by this method. Farnesol (2.89 μM) and bixin (21.1 μM), which we have reported to be PPARγ ligands, increased the fluorescent polarization. Their Kd values were in agreement with the ED50 values obtained in the luciferase assay. The results indicate that the method is valuable for screening natural PPARγ ligands.
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Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Notes
Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Communication
  • Jun NOJIMA, Rika ISHII-KATSUNO, Eugene FUTAI, Noboru SASAGAWA, Yuichir ...
    2011 Volume 75 Issue 2 Pages 396-400
    Published: February 23, 2011
    Released: February 23, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: February 07, 2011
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    The main signs of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are cognitive impairment and senile plaques composed of amyloid beta (Aβ) observed in patients’ brains. Therefore, therapy for AD focuses on the removal of Aβ. We developed an “edible vaccine” that employs intestinal immunity with little to no side effects. Rice was utilized as an edible vaccine. It expressed GFP-Aβ42. Aβ rice was administered orally to wild-type (WT) mice causing production of anti-Aβ antibodies. Since Aβ rice was mixed with the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), antibody against the rice seed protein was also produced. Then, mice were caused to develop immune tolerance against the rice seed protein by oral administration of Aβ rice mixed with CTB. The results indicated that only anti-Aβ antibodies were produced.
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Food & Nutrition Science Regular Papers
  • Yuri NOMI, Junko SAKAMOTO, Makiko TAKENAKA, Hiroshi ONO, Masatsune MUR ...
    2011 Volume 75 Issue 2 Pages 221-226
    Published: February 23, 2011
    Released: February 23, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: February 07, 2011
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    Foods derived from plants contain pentose in addition to hexose. It is well known that pentose contributes more to browning by the Maillard reaction than hexose does. We have recently found novel yellow compounds formed from xylose and lysine under weakly acidic conditions, named dilysyldipyrrolones (dilysyl-DPLs) A and B. We indicate in this study that dilysyl-DPLs were specifically formed under weakly acidic conditions from pentose, but not hexose. Moreover, we found novel DPL derivatives which were formed from xylose and such amino acids as alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, and valine in the presence of lysine.
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  • Kimio NISHIMURA, Miki MURAKOSHI, Shigeru KATAYAMA, Hiroki SAEKI
    2011 Volume 75 Issue 2 Pages 247-254
    Published: February 23, 2011
    Released: February 23, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: February 07, 2011
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    Myofibrillar protein prepared from chicken breast muscle was incubated with several concentrations of glucose or maltose for 6 h at 60 °C and 35% relative humidity in order to obtain glycosylated chicken protein. When the ratio of the weights of the myofibrillar protein and glucose or maltose had respectively reached 1:6 or 1:3–5, the solubility of each type of glycosylated chicken protein in a 0.1 M NaCl solution was exceeded by about 60%, although the myofibrillar protein was insoluble in a low ionic strength solution. Moreover, when the myofibril and maltose reaction (myofibril:maltose = 1:4) was extended to 36 h, the glycosylated protein did not undergo denaturation when held at 50 °C for 2 h, while it also exhibited an antioxidative function against superoxide anion radicals.
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  • Masanobu ONISHI, Michiko INOUE, Tetsuya ARAKI, Hisakatsu IWABUCHI, Yas ...
    2011 Volume 75 Issue 2 Pages 255-260
    Published: February 23, 2011
    Released: February 23, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: February 07, 2011
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    The effect of heating conditions on the crust color formation was investigated during the baking of white bread. The surface temperatures were monitored with thermocouples attached to the inside surface of the loaf pan cover. The trace of the surface color in the L*a*b* color coordinate system is defined as the characteristic coloring curve. The overall baking process was classified into the following four stages based on the characteristic coloring curve: i) pre-heating (surface temperature < 110 °C), ii) Maillard reaction (110–150 °C), iii) caramelization (150–200 °C), and iv) over-baking (surface temperature>200 °C). A linear relationship was observed between the L* decrease and the increase in weight loss of a sample at each oven air temperature. The L* value appeared to be suitable as an indicator to control the surface color by baking conditions.
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  • Masanobu ONISHI, Michiko INOUE, Tetsuya ARAKI, Hisakatsu IWABUCHI, Yas ...
    2011 Volume 75 Issue 2 Pages 261-267
    Published: February 23, 2011
    Released: February 23, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: February 07, 2011
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    The potent odorants in the crust and crumb of white bread were identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/olfactometry. The weight loss ratio of the samples baked at 220 °C was controlled in the range of 0–28%. The odorants were classified into 5 types by the transfer characteristics: i) All amounts of odorant transferred from the crust to external space (type-I). ii) All transferred from the crust to the crumb and external space (type-II). iii) Certain amount remaining in the crust and the rest transferred to the crumb and external space (type-III). iv) All transferred from the crumb to external space (type-IV). v) Certain amount remaining in the crumb and the rest transferred to the crust and external space (type-V). The odorants of type-IV were not apparent after the crust had formed. The results indicate that the crust could be a barrier to prevent the odorants from being transferred to external space.
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  • Mamoru TANAKA, Takao NAGANO, Hiromi YANO, Tsukasa MATSUDA, Tatsuya M. ...
    2011 Volume 75 Issue 2 Pages 313-317
    Published: February 23, 2011
    Released: February 23, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: February 07, 2011
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    The effects of ω-5 gliadin on wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) were investigated by using a mouse model. The gliadin fraction was prepared as a 70% ethanol-soluble solution, and ω-5 gliadin was purified by chromatography. Purified ω-5 gliadin was run on SDS–PAGE gel to reveal three bands with a molecular mass of 53–60 kDa and had the characteristic N-terminal sequence of ω-5 gliadin. The mice were sensitized to the gliadin fraction, and the anaphylactic response was assessed by measuring the body temperature and voluntary physical activity. An oral administration of ω-5 gliadin evoked a significant drop in both the body temperature and voluntary physical activity, similar to the effects of the whole gliadin fraction. ELISA and immunoblotting analyses revealed that the IgE expression from sensitized mice reacted most strongly to ω-5 gliadin. Taken together, these results indicate ω-5 gliadin to be a major allergen responsible for stimulating WDEIA in mice, with the characteristic potential for stimulating IgE production.
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Food & Nutrition Science Notes
  • Somi LEE, Yanghee YOU, Ho-Geun YOON, Kyungmi KIM, Jeongjin PARK, Sunoh ...
    2011 Volume 75 Issue 2 Pages 349-351
    Published: February 23, 2011
    Released: February 23, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: February 07, 2011
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    The fatigue-alleviating effects on mice of Rubus coreanus were investigated by using an adjustable-current water pool. The mice were exhaustively exercised for 2 consecutive days, and those administered with the 80% ethanol extract (RCE) of R. coreanus displayed a lower reduction (20%) in swimming time on day 2 than the control group (41% reduction). RCE significantly prevented the depletion of hepatic antioxidants during exercise-induced fatigue. These results suggest that RCE alleviated fatigue by elevating the antioxidative potential.
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  • Takayuki IZUMO, Toshihiro MAEKAWA, Masayuki IDA, Atsuko KISHI, Kaoru A ...
    2011 Volume 75 Issue 2 Pages 370-372
    Published: February 23, 2011
    Released: February 23, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: February 07, 2011
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    We investigated the effect of ingesting Lactobacillus pentosus S-PT84 on the interferon-α (IFN-α) production from splenocytes and plasmacytoid dendritic cells by virus stimulation. IFN-α production by the Lactobacillus pentosus S-PT84 ingestion group was significantly greater under the virus-infected condition than that by the control group. Lactobacillus pentosus S-PT84 could enhance the production of IFN-α which is known as an important cytokine for preventing virus infection. It may therefore become a prophylactic tool against such virus infection.
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Food & Nutrition Science Communication
  • Masao GOTO, Yuko TAKANO-ISHIKAWA, Hiroshi SHINMOTO
    2011 Volume 75 Issue 2 Pages 393-395
    Published: February 23, 2011
    Released: February 23, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: February 07, 2011
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    Coffee is a globally consumed beverage with potential health benefits. However, there are few reports about the effects of coffee on immunological functions. We previously reported that in an allergic mouse model, coffee intake prevented allergy development through augmentation of interleukin (IL)-12p40. In order to investigate the anti-allergic activity of coffee, we examined the effect of coffee on antigen (Ag)-specific responses of immune cells in vitro. Coffee treatment suppressed proliferation and IL-2 secretion of mouse splenocytes in the same way as splenocytes from mice administered coffee orally. However, IL-12p40 secretion decreased significantly as a result of in vitro coffee treatment, which was contrary to the results obtained from experiments of mice administered coffee orally. Therefore, modification associated with oral administration might influence the anti-allergic activity of coffee.
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Microbiology & Fermentation Technology Regular Papers
  • Ukrit RATTANACHOMSRI, Pattanop KANOKRATANA, Lily EURWILAICHITR, Yasuo ...
    2011 Volume 75 Issue 2 Pages 232-239
    Published: February 23, 2011
    Released: February 23, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: February 07, 2011
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    Sugarcane bagasse is an important lignocellulosic by-product with potential for conversion to biofuels and chemicals in biorefinery. As a step towards an understanding of microbial diversity and the processes existing in bagasse collection sites, the microbial community in industrial bagasse feedstock piles was investigated. Molecular biodiversity analysis of 16S rDNA sequences revealed the presence of a complex bacterial community. A diverse group of mainly aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria was identified reflecting the aerobic and high temperature microenvironmental conditions under the pile surface. The major bacterial taxa present were identified as Firmicutes, Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. Analysis of the eukaryotic microbial assemblage based on an internal transcribed spacer revealed the predominance of diverse cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic ascomycota. A microbial interaction model is proposed, focusing on lignocellulose degradation and methane metabolism. The insights into the microbial community in this study provide a basis for efficient utilization of bagasse in lignocellulosic biomass-based industries.
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  • Akio TANI, Akiyuki TANAKA, Toshiyuki MINAMI, Kazuhide KIMBARA, Fusako ...
    2011 Volume 75 Issue 2 Pages 295-298
    Published: February 23, 2011
    Released: February 23, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: February 07, 2011
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    A cryptic plasmid, pSM103mini, was found in polyethylene-glycol degrading bacterium Sphingopyxis macrogoltabida, strain 103. The plasmid was 4,328-bp long and its GC content was 57.5%. It contained four open reading frames, but only two of them showed significant similarity to reported proteins. ORF3 and ORF4 were assumed to encode resolvase and replication protein (RepA) respectively. Downstream of ORF4 we found complex repeat sequences. These together with ORF3 and 4 were necessary and sufficient for plasmid maintenance in strain 103, as analyzed by constructing deletion plasmids. The pHSG398-fused plasmid (pHSG-SM103mini) functioned as a shuttle vector between strain 103 and Escherichia coli. The plasmid constructed was maintained in strain 103 and its close relative, S. macrogoltabida strain 203, but not efficiently in PEG-degrading S. terrae.
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  • Shigekazu YANO, Wasana SUYOTHA, Arata HONDA, Kazuyoshi TAKAGI, Nopakar ...
    2011 Volume 75 Issue 2 Pages 299-304
    Published: February 23, 2011
    Released: February 23, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: February 07, 2011
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    Chitinase I (CHI1) of Bacillus circulans KA-304 forms protoplasts from Schizophyllum commune mycelia when the enzyme is combined with α-1,3-glucanase of B. circulans KA-304. CHI1 consists of an N-terminal unknown region and a C-terminal catalytic region classified into the glycoside hydrolase family-19 type. An N-terminal region-truncated mutant of CHI 1 (CatCHI1), which was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami B (DE3), lost colloidal chitin- and powder chitin-binding activities. The colloidal chitin- and the powder chitin-hydrolyzing activities of CatCHI1 were lower than those of CHI1, and CatCHI1 was not effective in forming the protoplast. A fusion protein of the N-terminal region of CHI1 and green fluorescent protein (Nterm-GFP) was expressed in E. coli, and the fusion protein was adsorbed to colloidal chitin, powder chitin, and chitosan. Fluorescence microscopy analysis showed that Nterm-GFP bound to the S. commune cell-wall.
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  • Shigenobu KISHINO, Jun OGAWA, Kenzo YOKOZEKI, Sakayu SHIMIZU
    2011 Volume 75 Issue 2 Pages 318-322
    Published: February 23, 2011
    Released: February 23, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: February 07, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Linoleic acid isomerase in Lactobacillus plantarum was found to be a novel multi-component enzyme system widespread in membrane and soluble fractions. The isomerization reaction involved a hydration step, 10-hydroxy-12-octadecenoic acid production from linoleic acid, as part of the reaction, and the hydration reaction was catalyzed by the membrane fraction. Both membrane and soluble fractions were required for the whole isomerization reaction, i.e., conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) production from linoleic acid, and for CLA production from 10-hydroxy-12-octadecenoic acid, a reaction intermediate. The multi-component enzyme system was inhibited by o-phenanthroline, and divalent metal ions such as Ni2+ and Co2+ restored activity. Metal oxides such as VO43+, MoO42+, and MnO42+ enhanced activity. The multi-component enzyme systems required oxidoreduction cofactors such as NADH together with FAD or NADPH for total activity.
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Microbiology & Fermentation Technology Notes
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