Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Online ISSN : 1347-6947
Print ISSN : 0916-8451
Volume 76 , Issue 12
Showing 1-38 articles out of 38 articles from the selected issue
Analytical Chemistry Regular Papers
  • Soo-Yun PARK, Woo Tae PARK, Young Chun PARK, Jung Il JU, Sang Un PARK, ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 12 Pages 2188-2194
    Published: December 23, 2012
    Released: December 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Lycium chinense has been used as a traditional medicine for centuries in Asia because of its positive effects on health. However, its functional components have not been elucidated. This study determines the levels of health-promoting lipophilic compounds, including carotenoids, tocopherols, and phytosterol, and those of 42 hydrophilic metabolites, including sugars, organic acids, alcohols, amines, and amino acids, in L. chinense fruit from 11 cultivars. The metabolite profiles were subjected to a principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlation analysis, and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). PCA showed the Cheongdang (LM-3) cultivar to be distinct from the others. The correlation results for a total of 55 compounds revealed strong correlations between the metabolites that participated on closely related pathways. The Cheongdang cultivar appears to be most suited for functional food production because of its high carotenoid, tocopherol, and phytosterol levels. These results indicate the usefulness of metabolite profiling as a tool for assessing the quality of food.
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  • Eloise PRIETO, Kohji HIZUME, Toshiro KOBORI, S. H. YOSHIMURA, Kunio TA ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 12 Pages 2261-2266
    Published: December 23, 2012
    Released: December 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Histones are highly conserved proteins among eukaryotes. However, yeast histones are more divergent in their sequences. In particular, the histone tail regions of the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, have fewer lysine residues, making their charges less positive than those of higher eukaryotes. In addition, the S. pombe chromatin lacks linker histones. How these factors affected yeast chromatin folding was analysed by biochemical reconstitution in combination with atomic force microscopy. Reconstitution of a nucleosome array showed that S. pombe chromatin has a more open structure similar to reconstituted human acetylated chromatin. The S. pombe nucleosomal array formed thinner fibers than those of the human nucleosomal array in the presence of mammalian linker histone H1. Such S. pombe fibers were more comparable to human acetylated fibers. These findings suggest that the core histone charges would determine the intrinsic characteristics of S. pombe chromatin and affect inter-nucleosomal interactions.
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Organic Chemistry Regular Paper
  • Dhirendra Nath BARMAN, Md. Azizul HAQUE, Tae Ho KANG, Min Keun KIM, Ju ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 12 Pages 2201-2207
    Published: December 23, 2012
    Released: December 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We evaluated the effect of dilute sodium hydroxide (NaOH) on wheat straw at boiling temperature for removing lignin and increasing the yield of reducing sugar. Various concentrations of NaOH (0.5% to 2%) were used for pretreating wheat straw at 105 °C for 10 min. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies revealed that the 2% NaOH-pretreated sample exposed more cellulose fiber. The maximum respective removal of lignin and hemicellulose was 70.3% and 68.2% from the 2% NaOH-pretreated liquor. The reducing sugar yield was 84.6% using an enzyme dose containing 20 FPU of cellulase, 40 IU of β-glucosidase and 4 FXU of xylanase/g of substrate. However, 2% NaOH-treated wheat straw had the lowest crystalline index of 52.5%, due to destructured cellulose fibers. The results indicate the effectiveness of producing the bioethanol precursor from wheat straw by using 2% NaOH at boiling temperature.
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Organic Chemistry Note
Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Regular Papers
  • Yeon-Jung KIM, Keon-Jea PARK, Joong-Ki SONG, Tae-Jin SHIM, Kazi N ISLA ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 12 Pages 2181-2187
    Published: December 23, 2012
    Released: December 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases, including ischemic heart disease and heart failure. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonist improves insulin sensitivity and limits tissue inflammation and cellular apoptosis, but there are few data on the relationship between the PPARγ agonist, rosiglitazone (RSG), and the thioredoxin (TRx) system in oxidatively stressed cardiomyocytes (CMCs). Here we provide evidence that the PPARγ agonist RSG protects rat CMCs from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis by TRx overexpression. The expression levels of pAkt/Akt, pErk/Erk, survivin, Bcl-2/Bax-α, and manganese-superoxide dismutase were increased by RSG pretreatment in H2O2-injured rat CMCs. On the contrary, the expression levels of caspase-3 and p53 were decreased by RSG pretreatment. These effects of RSG were reversed by chemical inhibitors of TRx and the PPARγ antagonist. This suggests that RSG protects rCMCs from H2O2-induced oxidative stress through TRx overexpression and a PPARγ-dependent mechanism.
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  • Kiyofumi TAKAHASHI, Masahiro OTOMO, Noboru YAMAGUCHI, Hideki NAKASHIMA ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 12 Pages 2195-2200
    Published: December 23, 2012
    Released: December 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Dynamin plays an important role in membrane fission during endocytosis, and its middle domain is involved in the formation of functional oligomers. In this study, we found that replacement of Arg-386 with Gly in the middle domain region of dynamin 1 did not affect the intermolecular interactions of dynamin 1 in the presence of phosphatidylserine-liposomes. But, unexpectedly, this variant showed lower guanosine 5′-triphosphatase activity in the absence of phosphatidylserine-liposomes and enhanced monomer formation from oligomers. Our results indicate that GTPase activity in the absence of lipids is important in the dissociation of oligomer complexes, i.e., reduced basal dynamin 1 GTPase activity is associated with instability of dynamin oligomers.
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  • Toshiki NAKANO, Mitsuharu MASUDA, Toshinori SUZUKI, Hiroshi OHSHIMA
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 12 Pages 2208-2213
    Published: December 23, 2012
    Released: December 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) produced by myeloperoxidase (MPO) of activated neutrophils can react with nucleic acid bases to form chlorinated nucleosides such as 8-chloroguanosine (Cl-Guo). Chlorination is enhanced by nicotine. We investigated the effects of various natural antioxidants including polyphenolic phytochemicals on the formation of Cl-Guo by HOCl in the presence and the absence of nicotine. Polyphenols, including catechins, curcumin, resveratrol, silibinin, and sulfurous compound α-lipoic acid, were found to inhibit both HOCl- and human MPO-induced Cl-Guo formation dose-dependently. Among the test compounds, (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) showed the strongest inhibitory effect. Cl-Guo formation, mediated by activated human neutrophils in the presence of nicotine, was inhibited by EGCG, silibinin, and α-lipoic acid. These results suggest that polyphenols and sulfurous compounds have the potential to inhibit the induction of nucleobase damage mediated by chlorination, with possible application to reducing DNA damage associated with inflammation and cigarette-smoke inhalation.
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  • Shogo ENOKIBARA
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 12 Pages 2219-2224
    Published: December 23, 2012
    Released: December 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A novel choline oxidase found in a fungus, Fusarium oxysporum strain V2, was purified to homogeneity as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme has a molecular mass of 128 kDa and consists of two identical subunits. The purified enzyme showed adsorption peaks at 340 nm and 450 nm. It showed alkaliphilic pH characteristics: its optimum pH was 9.0–10.0, and it was stable at pH 8.0–10.2. The Michaelis constant (Km) values for choline and betaine aldehyde were 0.28 mM and 0.39 mM respectively. Trimethylamino-alcohols, dimethylamino-alcohols, and diethylaminoethanol were substrates for the enzyme, but the Km values for them increased with decreasing numbers of methyl groups on the ammonium headgroup. A marked decrease in the maximum velocity (Vmax) and Vmax/Km values was observed when N-replaced choline analogs were used as substrate instead of choline. The enzyme had a remarkably higher affinity for choline and betaine aldehyde than do previously reported enzymes. The enzyme oxidized these two substrates more quickly than a choline oxidase from Arthrobacter globiformis, and oxidation by the V2 enzyme was accompanied by an increase in the stoichometric amount of hydrogen peroxide.
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  • Kenro UTSUNOMIYA, Kanako OWAKI, Yuushi OKUMURA, Momoko YANO, Takahiro ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 12 Pages 2225-2229
    Published: December 23, 2012
    Released: December 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Osteoactivin is a type I transmembrane protein upregulated by unloading stresses, including denervation, prolonged bed rest, and space flight, but the regulatory mechanisms of its expression and activation under these conditions remain undefined. Here we report that osteoactivin protein exists in two forms: an intact transmembrane form and a secreted form. The secreted form, the extracellular fragment of osteoactivin, was produced by ectodomain shedding and was released into a culture medium. Amino acid sequence analysis of the carboxy-terminal fragment of osteoactivin (OA-CTF) revealed that cleavage of osteoactivin by proteases occurred both at the cell surface and within the cell membrane. Localization analysis demonstrated translocalization of OA-CTF to the nucleus and the endoplasmic reticulum. Moreover, RNA binding proteins, which regulate pre-mRNA splicing, were identified as OA-CTF binding proteins. These results suggest that OA-CTF formed by ectodomain shedding is involved in the regulation of pre-mRNA splicing.
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  • Sachiko YAMAMOTO, Toru KIMURA, Takashi TACHIKI, Naohiko ANZAI, Takuya ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 12 Pages 2230-2235
    Published: December 23, 2012
    Released: December 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    L-Theanine has favorable physiological effects in terms of human health, but the mechanisms that transport it to its target organs or cells are not completely defined. To identify the major transport mechanisms of L-theanine, we screened for candidate transporters of L-3H-theanine in several mammal cell lines that intrinsically express multiple transporters with various specificities. All of the cells tested, T24, HepG2, COS1, 293A, Neuro2a, and HuH7, absorbed L-3H-theanine. Uptake was significantly inhibited by the addition of L-leucine and by a specific inhibitor of the system L transport system, 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH). L-3H-Theanine uptake occurred mostly independently of Na+. These results indicate that L-theanine was taken up via a system L like transport system in all of the cells tested. Additionally, in experiments using cells stably expressing two system L isoforms, LAT1 and LAT2, we found that the two isoforms mediated L-theanine transport to similar extents. Taken together, our results indicate that L-theanine is transported mostly via the system L transport pathway and its isoforms.
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  • Daisuke ITO, Takahiro KATO, Takanori MARUTA, Masahiro TAMOI, Kazuya YO ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 12 Pages 2236-2241
    Published: December 23, 2012
    Released: December 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Not only in bacteria but also in plant cells, guanosine-3′,5′-tetraphosphate (ppGpp) is an important signaling molecule, that affects various cellular processes. In this study, we identified nucleoside diphosphates linked to some moiety X (Nudix) hydrolases, AtNUDX11, 15, 25, and 26, having ppGpp pyrophosphohydrolase activity from Arabidopsis plants. Among these, AtNUDX26 localized in chloroplasts had the highest Vmax and kcat values, leading to high catalytic efficiency, kcat/Km. The activity of AtNUDX26 required Mg2+ or Mn2+ ions as cofactor and was optimal at pH 9.0 and 50 °C. The expression of AtNUDX26 and of ppGpp metabolism-associated genes was regulated by various types of stress, suggesting that AtNUDX26 regulates cellular ppGpp levels in response to stress and impacts gene expression in chloroplasts. This is the first report on the molecular properties of ppGpp pyrophosphohydrolases in plants.
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  • Takayuki KURIHARA, Yasuhiro TAKADA
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 12 Pages 2242-2248
    Published: December 23, 2012
    Released: December 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Cold-adapted monomeric isocitrate dehydrogenase of a psychrophilic bacterium, Colwellia maris, (CmIDH) showed a high degree of amino acid sequential identity (69.5%) to a mesophilic nitrogen-fixing bacterium, Azotobacter vinelandii, (AvIDH). In this study, three Ala residues of CmIDH and the corresponding Pro residues of AvIDH were exchanged by site-directed mutagenesis, and several properties of single, double, and triple mutants of the two enzymes were investigated. The mutated CmIDHs, which replaced Ala719 with Pro, showed increased activity and elevation of the optimum temperature and thermostability for activity. In contrast, mutants of AvIDH, in which Pro717 was replaced by Ala, decreased the thermostability for activity. These results indicate that Ala719 of CmIDH and Pro717 of AvIDH are involved in thermostability. On the other hand, mutated CmIDH, in which Ala710 was replaced by Pro, and the corresponding AvIDH mutant, which replaced Pro708 with Ala, showed higher and lower specific activity than the corresponding wild-type enzymes, suggesting that Pro708 of AvIDH is involved in its high catalytic ability. Furthermore, the exchange mutations between Ala740 in CmIDH and the corresponding Pro738 in AvIDH resulted in decreased and increased thermostability for CmIDH and AvIDH activity respectively, suggesting that the native Ala740 and Pro738 residues make the enzymes thermostable and thermolabile.
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  • Wipa SUGINTA, Natchanok SRITHO
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 12 Pages 2275-2281
    Published: December 23, 2012
    Released: December 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Three acidic residues in the DXDXE sequence motif are suggested to play a concerted role in the catalysis of Vibrio harveyi ChiA. An increase in the optimum pH of 0.8 units in mutant D313A/N indicates that Asp313 influences the pKa of the ionizing groups around the cleavage site. D313A showed greatly reduced kcat/Km and increased KD, suggesting that Asp313 participates in catalysis and ligand binding. Investigation of the enzyme-substrate interactions of V. harveyi ChiA and Serratia marcescens ChiB revealed two conformations of Asp313 and (−1)GlcNAc. The first conformation, likely to be the initial conformation, showed that the β-COOH of Asp313 only interacted with the –C=O of the N-acetyl group in the distorted sugar. The second conformation, formed from the first by concerted bond rotations, demonstrated hydrogen bonds between the Asp313 side chain and the –NH of the N-acetyl group and the γ-COOH of Glu315. Here we propose a further refinement of the catalytic cycle of chitin hydrolysis by family-18 chitinases that involves four steps: Step 1: Pre-priming. An acidic pair is formed between Asp311 and Asp313. Step 2: Substrate binding. The Asp313 side chain detaches from Asp311 and rotates to form a H-bond with the C=O of the 2-acetamido group of −1GlcNAc. Step 3: Bond cleavage. The side chain of Asp313 and the 2-acetamido group simultaneously rotate, permitting Asp313 to interact with the side chain of Glu315 and facilitating bond cleavage. Step 4: Formation of reaction intermediate. The transient (−1) C1-GlcNAc cation readily reacts with the 2-acetamido group, forming an oxazolinium ion intermediate. Further attack by a neighboring water results in retention of β-configuration of the degradation products.
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  • Maiko TOMIOKA, Yoshinobu TODA, Junko KURISU, Yasuhisa KIMURA, Mineko K ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 12 Pages 2289-2293
    Published: December 23, 2012
    Released: December 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Rare coding variants of ATP-binding cassette protein A13 (ABCA13) contribute to the risk of neurological disorders, but little is known about the physiological function of ABCA13 and how single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affect it. Here, we examined the effects of neurological disorder–related SNPs ABCA13, T4031A and R4843C in the context of ABCA1, and found that the former SNP (T1088A in ABCA1) severely impaired the ABCA1 functions of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) binding and cholesterol efflux. The antibody against mouse ABCA13 reacted with neurons in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. These results suggest that the T4031A replacement affects the function of ABCA13 in the brain.
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  • Miyuki KUSAJIMA, Soonil KWON, Masami NAKAJIMA, Tatsuo SATO, Takashi YA ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 12 Pages 2301-2306
    Published: December 23, 2012
    Released: December 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a potent innate immunity system in plants and has been used in rice fields. Development of SAR, involving priming, is achieved by activation of salicylic acid (SA)-mediated pathway. To determine whether heat shock (HS) treatment can induce SAR, we analyzed the effects of HS on Arabidopsis. HS treatment induced disease resistance, expression of SAR marker genes, and SA accumulation in wild-type but not in SA-deficient sid2 and NahG plants, indicating induction of SAR. Time course analysis of the effects of HS indicated that SAR was activated transiently, differently from biological induction, with a peak at 2–3 d after HS, and that it ceased in several days. Production of reactive oxygen species was observed before SA biosynthesis, which might be a trigger for SAR activation. The data presented here suggest that HS can induce SAR, but there exist unknown regulation mechanisms for the maintenance of SAR.
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Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Notes
Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Communication
Food & Nutrition Science Regular Papers
  • Aya TABARA, Chihiro YAMANE, Masaharu SEGUCHI
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 12 Pages 2173-2180
    Published: December 23, 2012
    Released: December 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We baked low-calorie bread by mixing charred cellulose granules with wheat flour, using the charred cellulose granules to eliminate toxic xanthene food dyes contained in processed foods from the alimentary canal. The size of the charred cellulose granules played an important role in determining good breadmaking properties in respect of the bread height (mm) and specific volume (SV, cm3/g). Charred cellulose granules with a diameter above 270 μm were blended with wheat flour at 10% to obtain bread with a lower caloric content (1020 kcal/gram of bread) than the control bread (1126 kcal) made solely from wheat flour. The charred cellulose granules taken out from the bread adsorbed toxic xanthene food dyes at around pH 6.5, such that toxic food dyes taken into the alimentary canal were excreted in the feces with the non-digestible cellulose granules.
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  • Xiao-Qian HU, Jie XU, Yong XUE, Zhao-Jie LI, Jing-Feng WANG, Jia-Hui W ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 12 Pages 2214-2218
    Published: December 23, 2012
    Released: December 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Several studies had indicated that the whole body of sea cucumber had beneficial effects on lipid metabolism. However, little information has been known on the individual functions of its bioactive components, and this study was undertaken to compare the different effects on improving lipid metabolism. The rats were assigned to seven groups: control, whole sea cucumber, saponins, polysaccharides, collagen peptides, dregs and non-saponin residues. After 28 d of feeding, the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and hepatic lipid concentrations were examined. The results indicated that a dietary saponin supplement significantly suppressed adipose accumulation, and reduced serum and hepatic lipids. Saponin proved to be more effective than the other isolated components, so is considered to be the main lipid-lowering component in sea cucumber. The possible mechanism by which saponins improved lipid metabolism was also investigated. The saponins of sea cucumber suppressed and delayed TG and TC absorption which could be related to the pancreatic lipase inhibiting effect of saponins. This may be an important mechanism to explain its lipid-lowering effect on rats.
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  • Takefumi KIKUSUI, Aki SHIMOZAWA, Aya KITAGAWA, Miho NAGASAWA, Kazutaka ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 12 Pages 2249-2254
    Published: December 23, 2012
    Released: December 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Sialic acids may modulate cell proliferation and gene expression, particularly in neural cells in vitro. However, the function of sialic acids in the central nervous system has not previously been examined. We examined whether N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) could improve object recognition and hippocampal cell proliferations in middle-aged mice. C56BL/6J mice aged 52 weeks were treated with ManNAc for 4 weeks. Their cognitive-ability was assessed with a place and object recognition test. ManNAc, but not N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylneuraminic acid, improved the index score in the place recognition task at a dosage of 5.0 mg/mL in drinking water. Additionally, ManNAc enhanced the hippocampal cell proliferation, which was evaluated by a bromodeoxyuridine assay and the number of Ki67-immunoreactive cells. We could demonstrate that ManNAc had positive effects on the age-related brain dysfunction. These findings suggest that the use of ManNAc or related compounds may be a new approach for the treatment of human dementia.
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  • Masataka NARUKAWA, Tomoko TSUJITANI, Yusuke UENO, Kaori NAKANO-OOKA, N ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 12 Pages 2282-2288
    Published: December 23, 2012
    Released: December 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Gluconate is used as an additive in a wide range of processed foods. In this study, we investigated its utility as a taste-improving substance. To determine whether it has a suppressive effect on bitter taste, sensory evaluations were performed by human subjects. When gluconate was added to a quinine-HCl (QHCl) solution, the taste intensity decreased, but this effect was not observed when it was added to caffeine and to naringin solutions. Then we investigated the mechanism of suppression by performing behavioral and electrophysiological assays on mice. In mice, the addition of gluconate improved the taste preference for and reduced the gustatory nerve response to QHCl. In sum, gluconate had a suppressive effect on the bitter taste of QHCl, which might have been caused by depression of gustatory nerve activity.
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Food & Nutrition Science Notes
Microbiology & Fermentation Technology Regular Papers
  • Wen-qiao FAN, Hong-ning WANG, Yi ZHANG, Zhong-bin GUAN, Ting WANG, Cha ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 12 Pages 2255-2260
    Published: December 23, 2012
    Released: December 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Avian infectious bronchitis is an acute, highly contagious disease of chickens. To study the differences of dynamic distribution between nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains such as SAIBK and other strains (the M41 and H120 strains), relative quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was developed by housekeeping gene selection. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and Ubiquitin were chosen for normalization in this experimental set. Then nine tissues, the trachea, thymus, liver, spleen, lungs, kidney, pancreas, proventriculus, and bursa of Fabricius, were analyzed and compared to determine the tropism of IBV infection. In this research, the kidney and the lung were established of the most sensitive organs in IBV infection. The pancreas and the liver are candidates for antigen detection. The trachea and the spleen can be used as references for histological diagnosis, but they are not suitable for antigen detection; proventriculus might be an important target in IBV infection; the thymus and the bursa of Fabricius were not sensitive organs in IBV infection.
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  • Genki AKANUMA, Hideaki NANAMIYA, Yoshihiro MOURI, Morio ISHIZUKA, Yasu ...
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 12 Pages 2267-2274
    Published: December 23, 2012
    Released: December 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The Streptomyces griseus 70S ribosome fraction was analyzed by radical-free and highly reducing two-dimensional (RFHR 2D) gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Among the 60 putative ribosomal proteins that are encoded by the S. griseus genome, 48 were identified in the 70S ribosome fraction prepared from mycelia grown in liquid culture for 12, 36, and 48 h. Ribosomal protein S3 was detected at two different positions on the 2D gel, and the distribution changed completely in the course of the growth, suggesting that it was modified or processed. The SGR3624 protein was also identified in the 70S ribosome fraction, but detailed cellular fractionation analysis indicated that it localizes mainly at the membrane rather than the ribosome. An SGR3624-deleted mutant showed slow growth on solid media, indicating that SGR3624 has an important role in the growth of the substrate mycelium in solid culture.
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  • Jong Ho PARK, Younghoon KIM, Sae Hun KIM
    2012 Volume 76 Issue 12 Pages 2294-2300
    Published: December 23, 2012
    Released: December 23, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Here, the impact of an extract derived from green tea (Camellia sinensis) and fermentation with Lactobacilli fermentum strain OCS19 was explored with acute alcohol-induced liver damage. The study employed the HepG2 hepatic cell line and an in vivo murine model of liver damage. L. fermentum-fermented green tea extract (FGTE) was found to possess pronounced alcohol metabolizing enzyme activity. It significantly enhanced the cell viability of HepG2 cells following of them exposure, to ethanol (p<0.05) as compared with an extract derived from Hovenia dulcis, a positive control that is known for its action as an alcohol antagonist. Our in vivo studies indicated that prior administration of FGTE to alcohol-exposed mice significantly prevented subsequent increases in blood alcohol concentration (p<0.05), in addition to the induction of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and triglycerides (p<0.05). Furthermore, the activity of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and its mRNA expression level both increased in the livers of mice treated with FGTE, similarly to the H. dulcis-treated group. Taken together, these results may suggest that green tea extract coupled with L. fermentum fermentation attenuates the risk of ethanol-induced liver damage.
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Microbiology & Fermentation Technology Note
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