Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Online ISSN : 1347-6947
Print ISSN : 0916-8451
Volume 74 , Issue 10
Showing 1-41 articles out of 41 articles from the selected issue
Analytical Chemistry Note
Organic Chemistry Regular Papers
  • Jing LI, Ryu WAKUI, Shin-ichi TEBAYASHI, Chul-Sa KIM
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 10 Pages 1987-1990
    Published: October 23, 2010
    Released: October 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: October 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Floral scent has been shown to elicit behavioral responses by butterflies which forage for flowers after receiving appropriate signals. In comparison with investigations about the role of floral scent, those of foliar odor are, however, very few. In this study, the foliar volatiles of Cinnamomum camphora (Lauraceae), which had been collected by air entrainment, exhibited activities toward Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Papilionidae) in both electrophysiological and behavioral tests. The volatiles were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography with electro-antennographic detection (GC-EAD). Two electrophysiological active compounds were found which were determined as nonanal and decanal by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Female butterflies generally tend to show a greater EAG response than males to the headspace volatiles and EAG-active aldehydes. Two EAG-active aldehydes were found in attractant tests to be attractive to both sexes of the butterfly when treated individually. Although the difference between the sexes was not significant, the female butterflies’ preference tended to be more active than that of the males.
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  • Ryo KATSUTA, Arata YAJIMA, Ken ISHIGAMI, Tomoo NUKADA, Hidenori WATANA ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 10 Pages 2056-2059
    Published: October 23, 2010
    Released: October 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: October 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Short-step syntheses of (2RS,8R,10R)-YM-193221 (1) and tyroscherin (2), which are biologically active compounds isolated from Pseudallescheria sp., were accomplished in six and eight steps from L-tyrosine. The relative stereochemistry of natural YM-193221 was determined to be 8R*,10R*.
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  • Kenta MASUDA, Hisashi NISHIWAKI, Koichi AKIYAMA, Satoshi YAMAUCHI, Mas ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 10 Pages 2071-2076
    Published: October 23, 2010
    Released: October 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: October 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The relationship between the structure of naturally occurring (7R,7′R,8R,8′R)-morinol B and its antifungal activity was examined. 3-Demethoxy morinol B showed much higher activity than the natural compound. The activity of the 4-butoxy-3-demethoxy derivative was higher than that of 3-demethoxy morinol B.
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  • Masahiro OKADA, Syuusuke EGOSHI, Minoru UEDA
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 10 Pages 2092-2095
    Published: October 23, 2010
    Released: October 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: October 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We report on the development of azide-coronatine as a useful platform for azide alkyne cycloaddition (“click chemistry”)-mediated synthesis of molecular probes. (+)-Azido-coronatine was synthesized in 10 steps with 11% yield using improved synthesis of coronafacic acid, in which the highly exo-selective Diels-Alder reaction (endo:exo > 1:25) is the key step. Azido coronatine was as effective as the original coronatine in a stomatal opening assay, and was easily modified to a fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled probe with high yield.
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Organic Chemistry Notes
  • Tatsuo YAJIMA, Serina ICHIMURA, Shirabe HORII, Tadashi SHIRAIWA
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 10 Pages 2106-2109
    Published: October 23, 2010
    Released: October 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: October 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A simple procedure is described to obtain D- and L-allothreonine (D- and L-aThr). A mixture of N-acetyl-D-allothreonine (Ac-D-aThr) and N-acetyl-L-threonine (Ac-L-Thr) was converted to a mixture of their ammonium salts and then treated with ethanol to precipitate ammonium N-acetyl-L-threoninate (Ac-L-Thr·NH3) as the less-soluble diastereoisomeric salt. After separating Ac-L-Thr·NH3 by filtration, Ac-D-aThr obtained from the filtrate was hydrolyzed in hydrochloric acid to give D-aThr of 80% de, recrystallized from water to give D-aThr of >99% de. L-aThr was obtained from a mixture of the ammonium salts of Ac-L-aThr and Ac-D-Thr in a similar manner.
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  • Ryuichiro TANAKA, Takayasu HANASHIMA, Hironari YAMADA
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 10 Pages 2133-2136
    Published: October 23, 2010
    Released: October 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: October 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A correlation between the quantitative changes in L-methionine analogs, the ratio of D-serine/L-serine during the pupal stage, and metamorphosis was observed. The glycoside appearing at low blood sugar values during the pupal stage was isolated and characterized as D-glucosyl-L-tyrosine. 1H-NMR indicated the appearance and increase of this glycoside, and Mirrorcle Ray CV4 equipment was used to take X-ray pictures of the pupal bodies. The results indicate that γ-cyclic di-L-glutamate and L-methionine sulfone might be concerned with ammonia assimilation in the pupae, and that D-glucosyl-L-tyrosine served as a switch for the fatty acid (pupal oil) dissimilation hybrid system.
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Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Regular Papers
  • Eun-Young CHO, Sung-Jin LEE, Kung-Woo NAM, Jongheon SHIN, Ki-bong OH, ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 10 Pages 2029-2035
    Published: October 23, 2010
    Released: October 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: October 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Laurus nobilis chloroform fraction (LNCF) protects against cerebral ischemia neuronal damage. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and brain slices from rats were subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), followed by reoxgenation with and without LNCF. The viabilities of SH-SY5Y cells and brain slices from the rats were 58.5±4.9% and 79.7±5.9% in the group subjected to OGD, and 80.4±0.4% and 97.2±1.9% at 4 μg/ml of LNCF, respectively. LNCF also significantly inhibited death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) dephosphorylation. Pretreatment with LNCF at 4 mg/kg significantly decreased infarct size by 79% of vehicle control in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in vivo model. LNCF is a neuroprotective drug candidate against cerebral ischemia neuronal damage.
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  • Mst. Nasrin Akhter BANU, Md. Anamul HOQUE, Megumi WATANABE-SUGIMOTO, M ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 10 Pages 2043-2049
    Published: October 23, 2010
    Released: October 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: October 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Efficient detoxification of the reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide (NO) and methylglyoxal (MG), provides protection against NaCl-induced damage in plants. To elucidate the protective mechanisms of proline and glycinebetaine (betaine) against NaCl stress, intracellular levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide (O2), NO, and MG were investigated in tobacco Bright Yellow-2 cells. The Levels of H2O2, O2, NO and MG were higher in the short-term and long-term NaCl-stressed cells than in the non-stressed cells, whereas the O2 level was higher in the long-term stressed cells. Exogenous proline and betaine decreased the H2O2 level in both the short-term and the long-term NaCl-stressed cells and the MG level in the long-term NaCl-stressed cells, but did not change the O2 or NO levels. Under salt stress, both proline and betaine increased the transcription levels of glutathione peroxidase, which can contribute to the reduction of H2O2. In conclusion, proline and betaine mitigated salt stress via reduction of H2O2 accumulation during short-term incubation and via reduction of the accumulation of H2O2 and MG during long-term incubation.
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  • Wendy W. CAI, Lin WANG, Yuanxiu CHEN
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 10 Pages 2050-2055
    Published: October 23, 2010
    Released: October 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: October 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Aspartyl aminopeptidase (DAP), encoded by the DNPEP gene, is believed to be a cytosolic protein with high enzymatic activity in the neuroendocrine tissues. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the genomic segment spanning the DNPEP gene is evolutionarily conserved from Caenorhabditis elegans to humans. In the present study, we sought to determine whether the expression of DAP is associated with its clustered genes when expressed in pancreatic islet cells. Using anti-DAP specific antibody in immunofluorescent stainings, we found that DAP was specifically expressed in islet alpha cells but not in exocrine acinar cells. Moreover, using electron microscopy, we found that DAP was associated with a lysosomal-like structure and secretory granules, suggesting that it plays an important role in post-translational processing and the secretion of hormones in islet cells. The identification and characterization of DNPEP syntenic genes confirm that conserved clustered genes can preferentially be expressed in the same signaling pathway.
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  • Tsubasa OHASHI, Sumito TESHIMA, Masafumi HIDAKA, Takafumi UCHIDA
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 10 Pages 2067-2070
    Published: October 23, 2010
    Released: October 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: October 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The phenotypes of mice lacking peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1 (Pin1−⁄−) indicated that deficient Pin1 might be related to a variety of diseases. We created TAT-Pin1, a fusion protein of human immunodeficiency virus 1 trans-activator of transcription factor with Pin1. Treatment of HeLa cells with TAT-Pin1 increased the ratio of the S phase. Moreover, TAT-Pin1 restored the proliferating function of Pin1−⁄− mouse embryonic fibroblasts which cannot restart proliferation after G0 arrest. These results indicate that TAT-Pin1 is useful in studying the functions of Pin1 and can be developed as a macromolecular drug for diseases related to Pin1 loss.
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  • Yuji IWATA, Tsuneyo NISHINO, Seiji TAKAYAMA, Nozomu KOIZUMI
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 10 Pages 2087-2091
    Published: October 23, 2010
    Released: October 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: October 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We have conducted transcriptome analysis and have identified a number of genes that are upregulated by treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer tunicamycin. Here we focused on one particular gene of unknown function. This gene, designated tunicamycin induced 1 (TIN1), encodes an open reading frame consisting of 424 amino acids with a putative signal peptide. TIN1 orthologs are present in several plant species, including poplar, rice, and moss, but not in other organisms, including yeast and animals. Transcriptional induction of TIN1 by ER stress was regulated in part by AtbZIP60, a membrane-bound transcription factor activating many ER stress-responsive genes. In agreement with increases of TIN1 transcripts, the TIN1 protein accumulated in response to tunicamycin treatment. It was localized at the ER when fused with a fluorescent protein. These results represent a first step toward elucidating the molecular function of TIN1.
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Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Notes
Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Communications
  • Takeshi GOTOH, Hiroki ONO, Ken-Ichi KIKUCHI, Satoru NIRASAWA, Saori TA ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 10 Pages 2154-2157
    Published: October 23, 2010
    Released: October 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: October 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An aspartic protease that is significantly produced by baculovirus-infected Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cells was purified to homogeneity from a growth medium. To monitor aspartic protease activity, an internally quenched fluoresce (IQF) substrate specific to cathepsin D was used. The purified aspartic protease showed a single protein band on SDS–PAGE with an apparent molecular mass of 40 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme had a high homology to a Bombyx mori aspartic protease. The enzyme showed greatest affinity for the IQF substrate at pH 3.0 with a Km of 0.85 μM. The kcat and kcatKm values were 13 s−1 and 15 s−1 μM−1 respectively. Pepstatin A proved to be a potent competitive inhibitor with inhibitor constant, Ki, of 25 pM.
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  • Yoko NAKANO, Hiroshi FUJII, Masanobu KOJIMA
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 10 Pages 2160-2165
    Published: October 23, 2010
    Released: October 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: October 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material
    Using the characteristics of light-emitting diodes, we studied the effects of light quality, light intensity, and repeated light-dark cycles on the growth of oyster mushroom mycelia. Blue-light stimulation suppressed growth in oyster mushroom mycelia, and this effect was remarkably dependent on light intensity. Random amplified polymorphic DNA differential display analysis enabled the identification for the first time of 15 upregulated and 13 downregulated genes induced by blue-light stimulation. On the basis of a homologous search using BLASTX and the Interpro database, the transcription products were analyzed to identify the putative proteins. In addition, by real-time PCR analysis, the time courses of the expression levels of eight of the genes identified were found to include intrinsic induction time.
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Food & Nutrition Science Regular Papers
  • Keiko YAMAGUCHI, Tatsuo KATO, Seiji NOMA, Noriyuki IGURA, Mitsuya SHIM ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 10 Pages 1981-1986
    Published: October 23, 2010
    Released: October 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: October 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) was applied to grated ginger in order to inactivate quality-degrading enzymes in a non-thermal manner. The effects of HHP treatment on the flavor and the color of the grated ginger were investigated just after treatment and during storage. After HHP treatment (400 MPa, 5 min), geraniol dehydrogenase (GeDH) was inactivated to less than 5%, but the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was reduced only to 37%. Heat treatment (100 °C, 10 min) inactivated GeDH to 43% and PPO to about 10%. In storage, the reduction of geranial, neral, and citronellal to the corresponding alcohols was observed in the untreated and the heat-treated ginger, while it was not in the HHP-treated grated ginger. In the HHP-treated sample, terpene aldehydes almost disappeared without the formation of the corresponding alcohols. Browning was not observed immediately after HHP treatment, while it was complete in the heat-treated sample. The color change during storage appeared to reflect the residual activity of PPO.
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  • Kumar SAPKOTA, Seung KIM, Myung-Kon KIM, Sung-Jun KIM
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 10 Pages 1997-2004
    Published: October 23, 2010
    Released: October 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: October 07, 2010
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    Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) has traditionally been used as a food supplement and a traditional herbal medicine for centuries in Korea. This study attempted to evaluate the effects of RVS on the expression of Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in SH-SY5Y cells and the rat brain. The results indicated that RVS is a potent inducer of Neurotrophic factor (NTF) production both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with 10 μg/ml and 10 mg/kg RVS for 4 h of SH-SY5Y cells and rats yielded significant increases in BDNF and GDNF protein levels. We also detected BDNF and GDNF immunoreactive neurons in the rat brain. Both BDNF and GDNF-immunohistochemical staining was markedly enhanced in the animals treated with RVS. These results suggest that RVS serves as an ideal adjuvant in regard to regulating NTF expression, and can contribute to neuroprotection in neurodegenerative diseases.
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  • Aya KAGEYAMA, Hiroyuki SAKAKIBARA, Wenjun ZHOU, Miyuki YOSHIOKA, Miho ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 10 Pages 2005-2010
    Published: October 23, 2010
    Released: October 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: October 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The mortality of individuals suffering from depression has been increasing, especially post-menopausal women; therefore, their care and treatment are important to maintain a high quality of life. In the present study, we evaluated the antidepressant-like effects of a major isoflavonoid, genistein (4′,5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone), using a behavioral model of depression, the forced swimming test (FST), in ovariectomized rats. Daily administration of genistein to ovariectomized rats at a dosage of 10 mg/kg of body weight/d for 14 d significantly reduced the immobility time during the FST without changing motor dysfunction. On the other hand, a higher dosage, 100 mg/kg/d, did not have any effects on the immobility time compared with the vehicle control. Repeated administration of genistein at 10 mg/kg of body weight did not affect serotonergic activities in the hippocampus compared to the vehicle control in ovariectomized rats. A 5-min FST trial stimulated these activities. On the other hand, repeated pretreatment with genistein protected against changes in activity during the FST trial. These results suggest that daily consumption of genistein 10 mg/kg/d might have antidepressant-like effect on ovariectomized rats by regulating changes in serotonergic metabolism in the hippocampus under stressful conditions.
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  • Hanxu YAN, Huaize TIAN, Tomoya KINJO, Takeki HAMASAKI, Kosuke TOMIMATS ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 10 Pages 2011-2015
    Published: October 23, 2010
    Released: October 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: October 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) has attracted much attention because of its therapeutic effects. In the present study, a new culture medium, which we designated Water medium, was developed to elucidate the effects of ERW on the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. Wild-type C. elegans had a significantly shorter lifespan in Water medium than in conventional S medium. However, worms cultured in ERW-Water medium exhibited a significantly extended lifespan (from 11% to 41%) compared with worms cultured in ultrapure water-Water medium. There was no difference between the lifespans of worms cultured in ERW-S medium and ultrapure water-S medium. Nematodes cultured in ultrapure water-Water medium showed significantly higher levels of reactive oxygen species than those cultured in ultrapure water-S medium. Moreover, ERW-Water medium significantly reduced the ROS accumulation induced in the worms by paraquat, suggesting that ERW-Water medium extends the longevity of nematodes at least partly by scavenging ROS.
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  • Sampo J. LAHTINEN, Ken KNOBLOCK, Alexandra DRAKOULARAKOU, Mary JACOB, ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 10 Pages 2016-2021
    Published: October 23, 2010
    Released: October 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: October 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Polydextrose is a randomly linked complex glucose oligomer that is widely used as a sugar replacer, bulking agent, dietary fiber and prebiotic. Polydextrose is poorly utilized by the host and, during gastrointestinal transit, it is slowly degraded by intestinal microbes, although it is not known which parts of the complex molecule are preferred by the microbes. The microbial degradation of polydextrose was assessed by using a simulated model of colonic fermentation. The degradation products and their glycosidic linkages were measured by combined gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and compared to those of intact polydextrose. Fermentation resulted in an increase in the relative abundance of non-branched molecules with a concomitant decrease in single-branched glucose molecules and a reduced total number of branching points. A detailed analysis showed a preponderance of 1,6 pyranose linkages. The results of this study demonstrate how intestinal microbes selectively degrade polydextrose, and provide an insight into the preferences of gut microbiota in the presence of different glycosidic linkages.
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  • Keun Ho RYU, Hae In RHEE, Joo Hyon KIM, Hunseung YOO, Bong Yong LEE, K ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 10 Pages 2022-2028
    Published: October 23, 2010
    Released: October 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: October 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The parenteral route has many merits over the oral route, including greater predictability, reproducibility of absorption, and rapid drug action, but injectable phytomedicines are uncommon due to protein precipitating tannin and hemolytic saponin components. In this study, in an effort to develop a safe injectable analgesic phytomedicine, we prepared a tannin and saponin-free Lonicera japonica extract, SKLJI, through fractionation and column purification, and evaluated its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in in vivo experimental models of inflammation and pain. The removal of tannin and saponin resulted in loganin and sweroside-enriched SKLJI and it showed reduced hemolysis and protein precipitation. In efficacy tests, SKLJI inhibited croton oil- and arachidonic acid-induced ear edema, acetic acid-induced writhing, and carrageenan-induced rat hind paw hyperalgesia. Inhibition of cylcooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and 5-lipoxyfenase (5-LO) activities by SKLJI appeared to be the mechanism underlying anti-inflammatory and analgesic efficacy. Loganin and sweroside also showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, suggesting that they might be active principles in the efficacy of SKLJI. These results suggest that SKLJI is a viable candidate for a new anti-inflammatory and analgesic phytomedicine that can be administered by the parenteral route.
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  • Norio YAMAMOTO, Manabu UEDA, Kyuichi KAWABATA, Takuya SATO, Kengo KAWA ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 10 Pages 2036-2042
    Published: October 23, 2010
    Released: October 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: October 07, 2010
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    Artemisia princeps is a familiar plant as a food substance and medicinal herb. In this study, we evaluated the effects of an ethanol extract of A. princeps (APE) on glucose uptake in differentiated L6 muscle cells. Treatment with APE elevated deoxyglucose uptake, and translocation of the insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane in L6 myotubes occurred. The PI3K inhibitor LY294002 attenuated glucose uptake induced by APE. Phosphorylation of the Ser473 residue of Akt was not observed, but phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt (Thr308), and atypical PKC was. In addition, APE stimulated phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) at a level similar to 5′-amino-5-imidazolecarboxamide-riboside (AICAR). These results indicate that APE stimulates glucose uptake by inducing GLUT4 translocation, which is in part mediated by combination of the PI3K-dependent atypical PKC pathway and AMPK pathways.
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  • Tomokazu HASHIGUCHI, Sachie HORII, Hanae IZU, Shigetoshi SUDO
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 10 Pages 2060-2066
    Published: October 23, 2010
    Released: October 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: October 07, 2010
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    The ethyl carbamate concentration of commercial ume liqueur products was studied, and a method of reducing it was examined from the viewpoint of antioxidation. The average ethyl carbamate concentration across 38 ume liqueur products was 0.12 mg/l (0.02–0.33 mg/l). When potassium metabisulfite was added to a concentration of 0–1,000 ppm during production, the generation of ethyl carbamate was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner, but when the amount of potassium metabisulfite added was below the maximum level allowed under the Japanese Food Sanitation Act, the reduction was only 27%. When ume liqueurs were produced under deoxygenated conditions created using an oxygen absorber, the ethyl carbamate concentration was reduced by up to 47% as compared with the control group, probably due mainly to a reduction in free hydrogen cyanide. When ume liqueur was produced in an oxygen atmosphere, the ethyl carbamate concentration increased by up to 50% as compared with the control group. Thus, oxygen may be involved in the generation of ethyl carbamate in ume liqueur production.
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Food & Nutrition Science Notes
Food & Nutrition Science Communication
  • Maiko HATTORI, Tomoo KONDO, Mikiya KISHI, Keigo YAMAGAMI
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 10 Pages 2158-2159
    Published: October 23, 2010
    Released: October 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: October 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We have reported that acetic acid (AcOH) intake suppresses body fat mass and up-regulates the genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, but it is not clear whether the suppression of body fat mass by AcOH administration is due to an increase in energy expenditure (EE). In this study, we investigated to determine whether a single oral administration of AcOH would increase EE in C57BL/6J mice treated with 1.5% AcOH. The AcOH treatment group had significantly higher oxygen consumption (VO2), EE, and fat oxidation (FAT) than the water treatment group. These results suggest that a single administration of AcOH increases EE, resulting in suppression of body fat mass.
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Microbiology & Fermentation Technology Regular Papers
  • Satoshi KAWACHI, Yoshio HARA, Toshiaki ARAO, Yoshihisa SUZUKI, Katsuhi ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 10 Pages 1991-1996
    Published: October 23, 2010
    Released: October 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: October 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The inhibitory action of compressed hydrocarbon gases on the growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated quantitatively by microcalorimetry. Both the 50% inhibitory pressure (IP50) and the minimum inhibitory pressure (MIP), which are regarded as indices of the toxicity of hydrocarbon gases, were determined from growth thermograms. Based on these values, the inhibitory potency of the hydrocarbon gases increased in the order methane << ethane < propane < i-butane < n-butane. The toxicity of these hydrocarbon gases correlated to their hydrophobicity, suggesting that hydrocarbon gases interact with some hydrophobic regions of the cell membrane. In support of this, we found that UV absorbing materials at 260 nm were released from yeast cells exposed to compressed hydrocarbon gases. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy indicated that morphological changes occurred in these cells.
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  • Makiko SAKKA, Masayuki GOTO, Tsuchiyoshi FUJINO, Emi FUJINO, Shuichi K ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 10 Pages 2077-2082
    Published: October 23, 2010
    Released: October 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: October 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A cellulase gene cluster of Clostridium josui was sequenced, and was found to encode 11 proteins responsible for cellulosome (cellulolytic complex) formation, viz., cipA, cel48A, cel8A, cel9A, cel9B, orfX, cel9C, cel9D, man5A, cel9E, and cel5B, in order from the upstream side. All the predicted enzymes had a dockerin module, suggesting that these proteins are members of the C. josui cellulosome. Among these genes, the man5A gene encoding β-mannanase was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant enzyme (rMan5A) was characterized. rMan5A showed strong activity toward carob galactomannan and low activity toward guar gum, suggesting that it prefers non-galactosylated mannan to galactomannan. This enzyme hydrolyzed ivory nut mannan to produce mainly mannotriose and larger mannooligosaccharides, and was not active toward mannotriose. An antiserum raised against the recombinant enzyme detected Man5A in the culture supernatants of C. josui, which was grown on either ball-milled cellulose or glucose as a carbon source.
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  • Sakihito KITAJIMA, Kaeko KAMEI, Maiko NISHITANI, Hiroyuki SATO
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 10 Pages 2083-2086
    Published: October 23, 2010
    Released: October 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: October 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material
    Clay wall (tsuchikabe in Japanese) material for Japanese traditional buildings is manufactured by fermenting a mixture of clay, sand, and rice straw. The aim of this study was to understand the fermentation process in order to gain insight into the ways waste biomass can be used to produce useful materials. In this study, in addition to Clostridium, we suggested that the family Nectriaceae and the Scutellinia sp. of fungi were important in degrading cell wall materials of rice straw, such as cellulose and/or lignin. The microorganisms in the clay wall material produced sulfur-containing inorganic compounds that may sulfurate minerals in clay particles, and polysaccharides that give viscosity to clay wall material, thus increasing workability for plastering, and possibly giving water-resistance to the dried clay wall.
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Microbiology & Fermentation Technology Communication
  • Naoko SUGIMOTO, Tomoko IWAKI, Soracom CHARDWIRIYAPREECHA, Masamitsu SH ...
    2010 Volume 74 Issue 10 Pages 2166-2169
    Published: October 23, 2010
    Released: October 23, 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: October 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material
    A recent study filling the gap in the genome sequence in the left arm of chromosome 2 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe revealed a homolog of budding yeast Vba2p, a vacuolar transporter of basic amino acids. GFP-tagged Vba2p in fission yeast was localized to the vacuolar membrane. Upon disruption of vba2, the uptake of several amino acids, including lysine, histidine, and arginine, was impaired. A transient increase in lysine uptake under nitrogen starvation was lowered by this mutation. These findings suggest that Vba2p is involved in basic amino acid transport in S. pombe under diverse conditions.
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