The influence of human activities on vegetation is sometimes so great. However, the history of vegetation and the human impact on it is not so clear. Here the relation between the vegetation of the first half of Meiji era and human activities has been inferred from some good materials such as topographical maps, photographs and literatures which have much more information about vegetation and related human activities than those before the era. Studied areas are the suburbs of Kyoto and the rural areas of Kanto region. As the result, it was found that there was deep relation between the vegetation and the human activities in Meiji era. It was also found that some types of vegetation seemed to have been deeply influenced by the human activities before. Dwarf pine tree areas and few vegetation parts of the hills around Kyoto at that time were examples of such vegetation types.
This reseach aims at investigating about vegetation changes and topographic feature in the delta of Obitsu estuary, while comparing this time (2001) and the past vegetation maps (1974, 1995, 1984). The change of geographical feature using the vegetation maps in 1974, 1984, 1995 and 2001 was found that in north sandbar, the creek connected with seaside in 1974, but it was closed a part by deposition of sand in 2001. In south sandbar, the distribution of Pinus thunbergii community was confirmedon the south in 1974, but a part of Pinus thunbergii community was eroded in 2001. The sandbank was expanded from 1974 to 2001. Compared with vegetation maps in 1974, 1984, 1995 and 2001, the area of the back marsh vegetation was expanded from 1974 to 2001. In regard to the area of each vegetation type in 1974, 1984, 1995 and 2001, the salt swamp plant community of covered water type at high tide, such as Phragmites australis community, Carex pumila corrununity, Calystegia soldanella community were reduced, and that of uncovered water type at high tide, such as Phacelurus latifolus community was expanded. Sand dune community, grassland plant community and woody plant community were reduced. Ruderal plant community such as Pueraria lobata community, Solidago altissima community was expanded.
We studied ecology of P. major with focusing on the effect of percentage of tree cover on their breeding performance in urban area. We selected two study sites, Expo 70 memorial park (A) and University in Osaka Prefecture (B). The percentage of tree cover of site A (76.6%) was higer than site B (31.5%). Percentage of nest box used for breeding and number of pairs per 1ha of A (41.4%, 1.82/ha) were higher than those of B (33.3%, 0.23/ha). Mean brood size was similar between two sites (A : 7.8, B : 8.0).The percentage of fledglings leave the nest of A (56.1%) was lower than B (95.8%). In site A, fledglings in one nest box was predated by a snake. Mean home range size of site B (4.70ha) was larger than A (0.76ha). P major breeding in the site B where the percentage tree cover was lower than A, probably needed larger home range to feed their fledglings. Mean feeding frequency per hour was similar between sites (A was 13.5, B was 10.4). P. major of site A showed similar feeding frequency with B with small home range, so feeding efficiency of A may higher than B. Feeding frequency increased as chicks grow and also by larger blood size. Both of two sites, P major foraged almost from broadleaved trees. As other foraging sites than trees, parents of A foraged from ground or forest floor, and those of B foraged from windows or walls of buildings.