Social and Economic Systems Studies: The Journal of the Japan Association for Social and Economic Systems Studies
Online ISSN : 2432-6550
Print ISSN : 0913-5472
Volume 13
Showing 1-30 articles out of 30 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Index
    1994 Volume 13 Pages Toc1-
    Published: October 29, 1994
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Tsutomu SHIOBARA
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 13 Pages 1-5
    Published: October 29, 1994
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Secularization is one of various trends of modernization. According to secularization theory, this trend consists of three major processes;1)functional-structual differentiation of religious subsystem, 2)rationalization, and 3)privatization. Although Japanese society has some particular religious features, it has certainly been under those processes. In the 1970's, when Japan successfully caught up the Western advanced societies, desecularization as a counter-trend began to appear dialectically. It has three major processes;1)extension of religious functions into marginal areas, 2)derationalization, and 3)quest for moral communities with social bonds of network type. Now Japanese religious system is going to turn to postmodern direction through the complicated interactions between those conflicting trends. Japanese religious system has its own structure consisting of four strata; 1)institutionally established religion, 2)organized religion, 3)new venture religion, and 4)folk religion. Through modernization, this stratified structure had shaped a system of vertically discriminative differentiation. However, the present activations of lower strata 3) and 4) through desecularization will transform this structure into the system of horizontal and conflictual complimentarity.
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1994 Volume 13 Pages 6-
    Published: October 29, 1994
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Yasuo SAKAMOTO
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 13 Pages 7-19
    Published: October 29, 1994
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    The purpose of this paper is to point out the direction of the undergoing restructuring process of postwar world-system from the standpoint of trichotomy approach to social systems, whose working hypothesis is that any social system can be characterized in terms of the constituting principles used, on the assumption that the available ones are limited to the individualistic, the hierarchistic, or the communalistic. Upon the observation that the communalistic principle is increasingly being used in various fields of the contemporary individualisitic society, e.g., in the welfare state, in the collective security treaty, in the subcontracting among the firms, in the industrial policy, in the foreign aids, etc., and upon the recognition that the contemporary worldwide problems concerning environment, population, resources, etc., can not be resolved without using the communalistic principle fully, it is asserted that the world is now proceeding to the fundamentally new world-system constituted by the communalistic principle, and that the increase of the cross-linking networks in various fields must pave the way toward it.
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  • Yoshinori SHIOZAWA
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 13 Pages 20-25
    Published: October 29, 1994
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    In 1989, a series of democratic revolutions swept East European countries. In 1991, the Soviet Union was desolved. Through these events, those countries abondoned the socialism together with planned economy. The events of from 1989 to 1991 changed very much the conception of the people and in particular of the Marxist economists vis-a-vis the market. It is no more the target of abolition. Instead, the Marxist economists now start to reformulate their understanding of the capitalism and the market economy. This paper examines the traditional Marxists understanding of the property rights and tries to clarify where and why the historical materialism went wrong. According to the classical formula of historical materialism, the ownership of means of productions is the very condition which determines the variety of production relations. But, if we take the slave system or the feudal system, crutial conditions which assure the reproduction of the material production of the society is not the types of ownership. In the slave system, the wars against aliens provided a source of slaves. In the feudal system, despite of the common usage of the expression "feudal rent", it was rather tributes of serves which enssured the management of the manor. Marx mis-understood that the ownership of means of productions is the basis of any production relations and assumed that the precondition of the socialism is the change of ownership of means of productions. The socialism should be pursued, not through the abolition of private ownership, but through the dissolution of unfavorable effects of private ownership and market.
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1994 Volume 13 Pages 26-
    Published: October 29, 1994
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Wataru FUKUDA
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 13 Pages 27-32
    Published: October 29, 1994
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    This paper addresses behavioral characterstics of the representative agents in Soviet-type economies(hereafter, STEs)in an attempt to explain some causes of the collapse of STEs from the viewpoint of the theory of economic systems. We single out three representative agents in STEs, i.e., central planning bureau(hereafter, CPB), firms and households. It is shown that three agents have the following characteristics peculiar to STEs, respectively. First, CPB: (1)faulty and unsuccessful planning, (2)planning from the achieved level, (3)priority sectors and a narrow range of options, (4)emphasis on volume and fixed price, (5)strong preference for autarky. Second firms: (1)slack plan and hoarding of materials and labor, (2)self-supply bias, (3)"storming"(shturmovshchina), (4)change aversion, (5)unsatiable demand for new investment. Third, households: (1)consumers suffering most from the system, (2)workers taking advantage of the system in their favor. Finally, some implications for the transition to a market economy are derived.
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  • Hiroshi DEGUCHI
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 13 Pages 33-39
    Published: October 29, 1994
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Our Industrial societies are now changing rapidly after cold war under the influence of information technological revolution. It is partly characterized by network and information oriented change of industrial structure or needs oriented change of market structure. The change is not restricted in the area of industrial structure. It has a strong influence on modern humanity, the structure of various organizations and world political and economic systems. The change is characterized by the qualitative transition of world system from material oriented one to semantic one. We analyze the change through the concept of information sharing and its right.
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  • Masahito SUZUKI
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 13 Pages 40-45
    Published: October 29, 1994
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    What changes have the principles organizing Japanese social systems gone through ? No Less than twenty years having passed after the high growth of Japanese economy ended, we now might sum up this period. According to Imada's theory of "Self-organization", Japanese society has become so enriched that her principal task now is not to aim at more richness by pushing on her system better to function, but to realize various needs of daily-life world even if Japanese society at large loses her richness. In other words, these needs are a driving power to steer our system towards the post-modern society. But at the basis of these needs lies what is called "Me-ism" which has led our system to disorganization rather than to reconstruction. In fact, Japanese society has instigated it in the process of transition from "Urbanizing society" to "Urbanized society", and lost sight of timehonored institutions like daily-life communities and "culture of poverty". Some people who are dissatisfied with this situation have had recourse to "pseud-communities and mock cultures" like "relay dial" or "chat", but such substitutes have no real power of regaining what is lost.
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  • Muneo AZEGAMI
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 13 Pages 46-51
    Published: October 29, 1994
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    "Democaracy & International Peace", the principle of Japan's post-war social system after the World War II, has reached the final 6th stage of its life-cycle, and has been faced by a serious turning-point. 1st Stage: Introduction of the New Principle The principle of democracy and international peace had been introduced by GHQ. 2nd Stage: Conversion of The Principle into Function Democratization and reconstruction after the war, were successfully deployed by the prewar bureaucracy supported by GHQ. 3rd Stage: Conversion of The Principle into Structure Industrial structure were modernized by means of fundamental technology transfer from Europe and the U.S. 4th Stage: Operation by Principle Japanese society successfully achieved remarkable economic growth by its characteristics in which her people are forced to be homogenious, to compete with each other. 5th Stage: Structural Improvement of The Principle Japanese society overcame the crisis of the Oil Shock(1973) and environmental pollution by partially improving its social system. 6th Stage: Functional Reengineering of The Principle The social system expanded toward overseas and fluidized toward inside with collapse of the cold-war structure. The above mentioned post-war social system is deeply rooted in its traditional "Coreless Social Structure" which is described as the following threefold layers consisting of (1)The outer layer; it handles the Metabolism with outer world cultures, and is also economically ever self-proliferating toward them. (2)The inner layer(Coreless Core); in which historically-formed principles of social system plurally coexist, mix, and react each other. (3)The middle the layer(cell); its complicated structure brackets the coreless core from the outer layer, to protect the cultural rule by outer world. I predict the Japanese post-war social system, in its turning point, will soon be replaced by another system with maintaining its traditional "Coreless Social Structure".
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1994 Volume 13 Pages 52-53
    Published: October 29, 1994
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Koichiro HIOKI
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 13 Pages 54-60
    Published: October 29, 1994
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    At the bigginings of this century, mass-production system has established. Mass-production system was designed for single large lot production. In second half of this century production seems to be required as multi-products small lot production. Multiple product lines that demannded by consumers are needed for competition. Production system has changed from mass production to alternative system, known as lean production system or Toyotism or Japanese Management. This transformation has occured earlest in Japan. Mass-production system accompanies mass-distribution and mass-consumption. Socio-economical conditions leads to multi-products small lot production system. Components of mass-production system reorganize and man-machine interface has developed(known as Kaizen).
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1994 Volume 13 Pages 61-
    Published: October 29, 1994
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Naonori TSUDA
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 13 Pages 62-67
    Published: October 29, 1994
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    The distinctive feature of industrial democracy in the second half of the twentieth century is that is developing in a new stage of quality and scale. Today, industrial democracy has extended from weak participation to strong participation or self-management. It is now strongly supported by government policies in various countries and has diversified in its forms of participation in decision making, profit sharing, and ownership. Although the importance of democratic organizations such as self-management firms or cooperatives is increasing, from a theoretical point of view, the self-management system has several drawbacks for growth in capital intensive industries. In these capital intensive industries, the capital-labour partnership is a preferred system in that it can overcome the above drawbacks. The capital-labour partnership is a system in which capital and labor equally share risk, make decision, and distribute profit. This system can provide a balance between democracy and efficiency.
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  • Sakae OKUDA
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 13 Pages 68-73
    Published: October 29, 1994
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    We are experiencing great transformations. Firstly, as market is saturated by proliferation of products, Japan is reproached for expanding trade surplus. Secondly, Europe and America refuse to guide Japan especially in the field of Research and Development(R&D). Now is the time for us to examine what R&D system should be in coming societies. This paper shows quantitatively that the Japanese economy is supported by manufacturing industries and that the Japanese R&D system is suitable for process innovation or gradual improvements of technologies invented by Europeans or Americans. The letter is closely related to the lifelong employment system. In our coming societies, such a feature can't be hold anymore. Becuase the coming societies have to make allowance for finiteness of the world. This means that we should attach much importance to maintenance than production.
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1994 Volume 13 Pages 74-
    Published: October 29, 1994
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Yoshihide HORIUCHI
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 13 Pages 75-80
    Published: October 29, 1994
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Ethical Accounting Statement (EAS) has been developed by Peter Pruzan, Ole Thyssen, and others at the Copenhagen Business School and has been successfully applied to various public and private institutions in Denmark, such as the City of Naestved Central Hospital, and Sparekassen Nordjylland Bank. The research task in this paper is to examine the possibility of adapting EAS to non-Scandinavian setting of Japanese management systems. The paper first examines the concept, theoretical backgrounds, and application procedeures of EAS. Then, two possible contributions of EAS to the advancement of Japanese management systems are examined: (1) As a means to making the Japanese management system a more open system; and (2) Help mutual understanding and mutual interactions between Japanese and other management systems with EAS as a common procedure for ethical decision-making. For adapting EAS to Japanese management systems, two possible suggestions were offered by the Commentator and the Chairperson at the Conference: (1) Preparation of simplified examples and/or illustrations of EAS applications; and (2) As the first step to attract interests of Japanese institutions, prepare simplified, purposive-system EAS as an information-gathering system of stakeholders' core values, before presenting the full-scale, interactive, dialogue-culture EAS to Japanese institutions, which needs several years of intensive involvement of a institution and the stakeholders for adapting EAS. As the first step toward adaptation of EAS to Japanese management systems, the English version of the EAS telephone-interview computer-analysis program developed by the Sparekassen Nordjylland, will be translated into Japanese.
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1994 Volume 13 Pages 81-
    Published: October 29, 1994
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Atsushi NAOI
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 13 Pages 82-87
    Published: October 29, 1994
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Recently, the reconstructurings of the Japanese economy have expanded to the area of managerial and clerical employees. On this paper, we examine the changes of managerial and clerical employees from the points of social stratification and psychological functionings. The results show that managerial employees have the high presitige status and lower anxieties, but usual clerical employees have lower economic status and the highest psychological anxieties. The social status of white collar is now declining.
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1994 Volume 13 Pages 88-
    Published: October 29, 1994
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Kyota INUZUKA
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 13 Pages 89-95
    Published: October 29, 1994
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    This paper attempts to follow the process of formation of the "post-war family system" in Japan by overviewing the trend of change in Japanese families mainly since the end of World War II, and to search the future direction of transmutation of contemporary Japanese family system, confirming availability of conceptual framework of the structural-functional approach in family sociology, based on the system theory. The post-war family system in Japan had been formed through the period of the rapid economic development(from 1955 to 1975), with the decrease of the pre-war family system as a type of extended family. It was characterized by the form of nuclear family based on fixed gender-role differentiation and had two main family functions; the stabilization of adults' personalities and the basic socialization of children. In contemporary Japan, however, this family system has been changing in all aspects of family form, family role structure and family function with progress of the social diversification. I propose that these changes are meanings of not the expression of "the crisis or fall of the family, " but the creation of the "post" post-war family system, that has so flexible structure and various functions in response of numerous changes in the social environment.
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1994 Volume 13 Pages 96-
    Published: October 29, 1994
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Satoshi CHIKAMI, Takaaki NIREN
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 13 Pages 97-102
    Published: October 29, 1994
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Deterioration of environmental resources in South-East Asia, such as deforestation that is mainly caused by commercial logging, shifting cultivation and forest fire, is deeply related with the economical gaps between developed countries and developing ones. Therefore in order to construct the sustainable utilization systems of environmental resources and to improve quality of life, integrating of environmental conservation, regional development and social development is indispensable. LAO PDR, mainly located within the watershed of the Mekong River, is a landlocked country and the GDP per capita is only about US$ 220 in 1992. The forest converage, which is estimated about 47% in 1981, has decreased more than 20% during these fifty years. This paper mentioned (1) total framework of environmental resources management and utilization systems, (2) feasible strategic subsystems for sustainable development, (3) bottom-up participatory approaches of local farmers for regional management.
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1994 Volume 13 Pages 103-
    Published: October 29, 1994
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Syunpei KUMON
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 13 Pages 104-
    Published: October 29, 1994
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 13 Pages 104-106
    Published: October 29, 1994
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 13 Pages 106-107
    Published: October 29, 1994
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 13 Pages 108-109
    Published: October 29, 1994
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 13 Pages 109-111
    Published: October 29, 1994
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1994 Volume 13 Pages 111-120
    Published: October 29, 1994
    Released: July 28, 2017
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