Social and Economic Systems Studies: The Journal of the Japan Association for Social and Economic Systems Studies
Online ISSN : 2432-6550
Print ISSN : 0913-5472
Volume 27
Showing 1-23 articles out of 23 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Index
    2006 Volume 27 Pages Toc1-
    Published: October 14, 2006
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Yuko TANAKA
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 27 Pages 1-13
    Published: October 14, 2006
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 27 Pages 15-
    Published: October 14, 2006
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 27 Pages 16-19
    Published: October 14, 2006
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 27 Pages 19-23
    Published: October 14, 2006
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 27 Pages 23-25
    Published: October 14, 2006
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 27 Pages 26-30
    Published: October 14, 2006
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 27 Pages 30-34
    Published: October 14, 2006
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Naonori TSUDA
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 27 Pages 35-40
    Published: October 14, 2006
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    The following problems are discussed in the article. 1) One of the tragedies of the modern society is the lacking of harmony between material and spiritual civilization. The central cause of the contradiction is rooted in the system of competition and the mode of money-oriented thinking. 2) Non-profit values are the concept devised as a proxy variable for analyzing and fostering spiritual civilization. The concept has extent and depth and contains several values such as public interest, group interest, moral, and hart and soul. 3) Obstacles and necessarily factors for realizing non-profit values are needed to analyze. The main problems are the trade-off relations between efficiency and non-profit values and, the evaluation-improvement problems concerning public interest, ethics, and moral. 4) As the power of the nation is gradually transferred from the government to the third sector, we need to study this tendency from the point of non-profit values.
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  • Seiji TSUGAWA
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 27 Pages 41-49
    Published: October 14, 2006
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    From concentration of power to decentralization of the power, from growth to maturity, a big conversion period takes places in Japan. It is important for each citizen to think, discuss, and form an agreement about how communities should be and their future images. And the actions of the government must reflect the opinions and proposals of citizens, NPOs, volunteers, etc. Information and communication-based improvements are also progressing and the ICT (Information Communications Technology), like BBS (Bulletin Board System), Online Survey System, E-mail to mayor and governor has been the most effective tool in all processes. In Hyogo Prefectural Government, we experienced for ICT based methods. As a result, the characteristic of these methods turned out and the effectiveness of ICT based methods was proved. And I survey BBS of all local government office in Japan. As a result, BBS of most cities, towns, and villages is at the stage of the Placation and BBS of only a few cities are the stage of the Partnership. We must construct the methodology concerning the use of ICT and use ICT systems capable of primarily solving problems peculiar to each region and work towards getting maximum results from minimum budgets. And most of all we must construct the consideration of public domain and ethics.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 27 Pages 51-
    Published: October 14, 2006
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 27 Pages 52-54
    Published: October 14, 2006
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 27 Pages 54-56
    Published: October 14, 2006
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 27 Pages 56-60
    Published: October 14, 2006
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 27 Pages 60-69
    Published: October 14, 2006
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Hiroshi HAMADA
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 27 Pages 71-84
    Published: October 14, 2006
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    In general, wellbeing has two distinguishable aspects. There are subjective and objective wellbeing. Subjective well being is a total evaluation on one's life. Objective wellbeing can be divided into physically and socially good conditions. We, as social scientists, are interested in objective wellbeing in the latter sense. Defining health, income and education as indicators of objective wellbeing inevitably includes normative proposition that these resources can make our lives better. Subjective wellbeing and objective wellbeing are inconsistent with each other sometime. However statistical data show a fact that an improvement in objective condition increases subjective wellbeing efficiently in a society with absolute lack of resources. Therefore a society without objective wellbeing should aim to secure resources. On the other hand a society that already achieved certain revel of objective wellbeing should aim to increase subjective wellbeing and reduce discrepancy between subjective and objective wellbeing.
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  • Takeshi DAIMON
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 27 Pages 85-89
    Published: October 14, 2006
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    This paper examines a thesis of whether an economic assistance of its cancellation or withdrawal, or economic sanction at large, has a capacity to change a regime, taking an example from a repressive country Myanmar. Recently a massive aid has been extended to fragile countries in order to support their democratization efforts. However, despite what has been claimed or expected by policy-makers, it is unknown whether an economic assistance could have such an enforcing institutional power. A foreign aid could make a fragile system even more vulnerable to various uncertainties. This paper looks various forces surrounding Myanmar and makes a case for an effective policy intervention for Japan.
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  • Takuo IROKAWA
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 27 Pages 91-97
    Published: October 14, 2006
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    This paper examines the causal relationships between marriage and subjective well-being in detail in a longitudinal data set spanning 12 years. We get the following ; 1) when there are wives with children at the time of first marriage, they should not be so happy. In other words, childless single women who will get married are happier than single women with children who will get married. In Japan, at least, we find that there is an order model for marriage. 2) Single women who will marry are not much different subjective well-being than those who will not marry in 4 year ago at the time of first marriage. Single women gain subjective well-being by marrying. 3 ) Wives with small differences in their level of education between spouses don't gain, on average, much different subjective well-being from marriage than wives with large differences. For Japanese wives, differences in their level of education between spouses have no effect on their subjective well-being from marriage. 4) Social stratification like income, education status of their household has some effect on their subjective well-being from marriage. In conclusion, as for the wives, all gain subjective well-being from marriage. But, it is slightly different between their social stratification
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  • Naoko EGAWA
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 27 Pages 99-105
    Published: October 14, 2006
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    This paper examines Amartya Sen's "human functionings" and "capability". I also discuss the function of Talcott Parsons' "living systems" and his concept of "capability", my purpose is to show that capability in both Sen and Parsons is similar. Asserting that it is impossible to judge "well-being" through an analysis of wealth and its properties alone, Sen advocates considering human functionings. Sen writes : "A functioning is the achievement of a person : what he or she manages to do or to be." Furthermore, what Sen calls "capability" is the total complex of the various combinations of things that a person achieves. Capabilities Sen calls are concretely GNP per person, average life expectancy and literacy adopted as HDI (Human Development Index) by UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). Parsons makes a study of action theory in human throughout. And, he proposes the idea of "generalized symbolic media in interaction". I think that this is an analysis what Pareto calls "residue". Parsons describes the expression of meaningful symbol that constitutes residue as "capability". Then he writes that this capability is the best single criterion of a value element as distinguished from the factors of heredity and environment (Parsons 1937, The Structure of Social Action : 271). Both Sen and Parsons study to start from the theorem of Pareto. I think that Sen deals with capability in concrete, practical manner, while Parsons' capability is an analytical and abstract. Nevertheless, to both of them capability is a criterion for human happiness.
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  • Takashi SUMIDA
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 27 Pages 107-115
    Published: October 14, 2006
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    This study suggests a new direction for how a consumer behavior is described on a brand community as the Internet community. The brand community is a specialized, nongeographically bound community, based on a structured set of social relations among admires of a brand. The concept of brand community consists of three aspects : shared consciousness, rituals and traditions, and a sense of moral responsibility. In this paper, the brand community is classified into two types. One is the enterprise based brand community and the other is the consumer based brand community. The former is building for the profit by enterprises ; on the other hand the later is building for the nonprofit by consumers. Each type is characterized in order to clarify the orientation of consumers. Then the other applicable measurement which is shown by the degree of consumer involvement is applied for establishing a matrix of two dimensions. One coordinate axis is named a type of brand community, the other one is a degree of consumer involvement. Finally, the types of consumers on the brand community are extracted four categories as type A, type B, type C, and, type D. Type A is on the enterprise based brand community and on the high consumer involvement. Type B is on the consumer based brand community and on the high consumer involvement. Type C is on the enterprise based brand community and on the low consumer involvement. Type D is on the consumer based brand community and on the low consumer involvement. The finding is that type B has a remarkable process to build the consumers attitude on the brand community.
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  • Shungo SAKAKI
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 27 Pages 117-126
    Published: October 14, 2006
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    For sustainable economic growth, over the long term, the products of technological innovation prescribing the economic system as a whole must be disseminated throughout the entire national economy, while at the same time, we must manage the evolution of technological innovation to limit any "locking into" existing forms of technology or knowledge (stagnation of technical innovation) and to trigger all - new technological innovation for the next generation. The problem associated with this kind of resource allocation is one that is relevant on a both the micro- and macro-economic levels in terms of R&D in companies and science and technology policies for the national economy. The primary objective of this paper is to argue the conditions for innovation and economic growth over time and the results of innovation management in the Japanese and the US economy. A several results could be suggested by computer simulation and an empirical examination as follows. Depreciation rate management can maintain sustainable growth with technological change over the long term. And Japan's asset securities reports and the US annual reports demonstrate that their listed manufacturing companies have satisfied the conditions for managing sustainable growth as suggested by the simulation results. Moreover marginal productivities have been dark clouds in both Japan and US. But depreciation rate management has been more insufficient while rapid in Japan.
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  • Minoru GOTO
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 27 Pages 127-139
    Published: October 14, 2006
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    We have been interested in the pursuit of happiness for long time. In this paper, we are concerned with the reasons of the value shift on happiness, focusing the well-being and with the social way of becoming a well-being in liberal democracy. To begin with, we inqire into the arguments of well-being. Inglehart finds out a long time shift from survival values to well-being values which emphasize the individual choice of lifestyles and self-expression in advanced industrial society,comparing the materialist and postmaterialist. Sen, by contrast, shows a new concept of well-being related to the functional sets of doings and beings. The concept enables us to analyze the capabilty of each individual in different conditions of the societies. It seems reasonable to suppose that reflexivity of late modernity has changed the individual and institutional value orientation. Referring these considerations, we propose a concept of post-material society where people seek their own well-being according to each social circumstances. As the post-material society is plurastic in values and social constitutive collectivity, it confronts the disagreement between subjective well-being and objective social welfare. Then, we consider the democratic way of making agreement from disagreement in plural complex society. We illustrate that communication of knowledge forms the themes and social environmemt about personal and social choices. Although the debate systems make collective decisions on becoming a well-being, to be sure, this is neither the exact collective well-being nor objective welfare. But we assume these agreements as a social consensus to promote social performance. Agreements on well-being ,which include different meanings actually, enhance the capabilty of individuals and produce a shared basis. Thus we see that it is possible in individual and institutional process of reflexivity.
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  • Satoshi KANEKO
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 27 Pages 141-153
    Published: October 14, 2006
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    The purpose of this thesis is to examine a theoretical problem of "Multiculturism" concept that importance has risen in various fields in recent years. Especially, I want to present the unarrangement of conceptual definition as a theoretical problem in "Multiculturism". The main discourse attempts the specification of a center point under the discussion of "Multiculturism" by examining Taylor, Kymlicka and Hollinger. For the purpose I showed the outline of Taylor and Kymlicka's "Multiculturism" theories and Hollinger's Criticism on "Multiculturism". It is as follows. Firstly Taylor supports "Multiculturism" with the frame of "The politics of recognition". Taylor argues that modernity and modern nation-state as its product had institutionalized social inequality by unequal and alienating identity, "Multiculturism" is exactly the one that the ethnic minority and other move to resolte it. Next, Kymlicka shows common recognition with Taylor on modern nation-state. But he especially proposes "Multicultural citizenship" for national minority's right. The feature in the point to make cultural community national minority' perpetuity, especially "Autonomy right" becomes a focus. Finally, Hollinger criticizes "Multiculturism" in shape of evaluation of the movement actually done in the United States. Hollinger emphasizes that the property of ethnic minority as the rightful subject in "Multiculturism" has a "Construction" side with social policy, therefore insists to form civil identity beyond the minority's individual identity and the social fairness with it. Well, a conceptual characteristic of "Multiculturism" that becomes clear from these outlines is the following respect. First of all I made clear that the cause of difficulty of the generalization of "Multiculturism". To speak plaintly, it is a disagreement of recognition to the position of "Culture" in the formation of the minority that becomes a focus by the frame of "Multiculturism". Next, as a more positive meaning of this paper, if discussions instituted under "Multiculturism" investigate it thoroughly, it will be converged problem of an existing nation-state system. And, on this point, we confirmed the important difference on nationstates theories. That is, on the one hand Hollinger has tried to ground social fairness on civil identity, on the other hand Kymlicka and Taylor have insisted that recomposition of social goods and service through national or ethnic identity. Exactly, this tension of nation states theories is at the center of "Multiculturism" theory. Therefore, final recognition of this paper is that "Multiculturism" will be able to become a possible concept of the direction of the reality of the present nation-states by getting over the description that specializes in the minority side and not by "Dismantlement" of nation-states but theorizing this "Reorganization".
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