Social and Economic Systems Studies: The Journal of the Japan Association for Social and Economic Systems Studies
Online ISSN : 2432-6550
Print ISSN : 0913-5472
Volume 25
Showing 1-24 articles out of 24 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Index
    2004 Volume 25 Pages Toc1-
    Published: October 30, 2004
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Masaru KANEKO
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 25 Pages 1-14
    Published: October 30, 2004
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 25 Pages 15-
    Published: October 30, 2004
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 25 Pages 15-19
    Published: October 30, 2004
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 25 Pages 19-23
    Published: October 30, 2004
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 25 Pages 23-39
    Published: October 30, 2004
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Hiroshi DEGUCHI
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 25 Pages 41-51
    Published: October 30, 2004
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    In this paper we focus on public spheres as open spheres of knowledge. Concept of public is discussed by the contrast between public good and private good under economic contexts or between public sphere and private sphere under sociological context. In this paper we try to change these conventional setting of issues to be solved. We try to clarify sytemic properties of open sphere. For the purpose we introduce the concept of platform, that provide the basic service on which many application services can be provided such as operating system. Open spheres as platforms might be locked in the competition among them. Crossover among communication platforms is essential for fare communicative competition. Traceability is also an important notion for analyzing open sphere. As a result we propose design concepts for the varieties of open spheres.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 25 Pages 53-
    Published: October 30, 2004
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 25 Pages 54-58
    Published: October 30, 2004
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 25 Pages 58-62
    Published: October 30, 2004
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 25 Pages 62-74
    Published: October 30, 2004
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Hideharu SAITO
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 25 Pages 75-86
    Published: October 30, 2004
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Intermediate organizations exist between state sector and market or private sector. They constitute public sphere that mediates between these two sectors. Civil society is composed of the ensemble of these organization. Nowadays, violent enlargement of these two sectors, consequently the role of a civil society that regulates both of state sector and market sector is increasing. But, at the same time, the trend to globalisation has brought the huge transformation to the public sphere. Because the modern civil society arose within the nation-state or national economy, but recently the growth of market relations across state borders has broken the restriction of nation state and national economy. Not only transnational market sector but also transnational public sphere have been appearing. As the result, with the growth of a new transnational public sphere, intermediate organizations act and function in transnational fields and they are forming divers global public spheres across nations. The transformation of intermediate organizations shows two main features in contrast with existing organizations. Firstly, they are becoming instable and fluid organizaitons. they were once very stable groups and were based on firm group identities. Secondly, intermediate organizations form complex groups and they are composed of divers definitions of global civil society. They compete each other around the definition of civil society and develop the struggle of hegemony on discours of civil society. These struggles determine the future modality of global civil society.
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  • Atsushi FUJII
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 25 Pages 87-93
    Published: October 30, 2004
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    In recent NPO theories, there are many theorists who consider NPOs as CSOs (Civil Society Organizations). They consider NPOs as important actors constructing civil society and civil public sphere, a priori. In this context, contemporary "civil society" concept means the sphere of voluntary associations and the network of voluntary associations, other than the state and the market. In understanding that civil society concept, many sociologists like K. Hasegawa and Y. Satou apply Habermas's civil society (Zivil gesellschaft) which form civil public sphere characterized by free and open communication and discussion. But, when we observe the actual NPOs in the present Japan, many NPOs suffer organizational isomorphism pressures which make NPOs become quasi-nongovermental organizations and normal business organizations, because of the increase of contracts from the state to NPOs and the increase of NPOs' commercial activities in the market. So Japanese NPOs are on the verge of the alienation from the role of civil society organizations. So we must question the concrete condition and the prosess of NPOs constructing the public sphere actually. Then in this paper, at first I will discuss the ownership of NPOs by reviewing the social enterprise theory of EMES network. European social enterprise theory have criticized American institutional choice theory which have been led by mainly H. Hansmann and regards multi-stakeholder organization as important. In the second, I will focus on volunteers as an important stakeholder who construct civil public sphere. Because volunteers have the potential to create the sphere of intimacy, then volunteers can touch the needs of people deeply. Then at last I argue that open governance structure and active and effective volunteers are very important in order to construct civil public sphere on the basis of NPOs.
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  • Sakae OKUDA
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 25 Pages 95-101
    Published: October 30, 2004
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Cyber ethics is a branch of so-called applied ethics. In this paper we discuss the question of whether Internet technology introduces any unique ethical issues or not. We start our discussion examining a difference between physical space and cyber space, then discuss how this difference is treated in Luhmann's theory of social system, in other words, what kind of difference in moral communication can be induced, and consider a difference between ethics in physical space and in cyber space. In physical space, we can do all of what is not forbidden by the law of nature. On the other hand, in cyber space we can do all of what is not forbidden by software constituting cyber space. Of course, we can rewrite software and regulate any undesirable act which was possible formerly. In this case, neither law nor ethic is necessary for such a cyber space. But, we cannot take all situations that can happen into account. Whenever a new act becomes possible, software needs revisions. There is no guarantee that revisions repeated many times do not contradict mutually. So, there will be room to exist ethical problems in cyber space.
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  • Kaname IIO
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 25 Pages 103-108
    Published: October 30, 2004
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    The term "public" has two possible concepts. One signifies a phenomenon which is "open to view" and pertains to a generalized body of persons. ("public" in a wide sense). Another one signifies the contexts which express the functions of public institutions. ("public" in a narrow sense). Applying these two concepts, we recognize three types of social behaviour:private behaviour, public behaviour in a wide sense, and public behaviour in a narrow sense. We introduce "identity of the supplier with the related users" as the fundamental organization rule for public institutions and some middle organizations. Through analyzing the patterns of interaction between the above mentioned social behaviour, we attained both comprehensive understanding of the characteristics of each economic sector in our society and the perspective of justifiable policies relating to "public".
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  • Hideyuki TANAKA
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 25 Pages 109-115
    Published: October 30, 2004
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    This paper shows that the functions of the intermediate organization in the evolution of the industrial system by focusing on Interuniversity MicroElectronics Center (IMEC, Belgium) that is an international non-profit research and development (R&D) center of the semiconductor industry IMEC performs three functions. First, the organization independently functions in the intermediate domain that is neither private domain nor public domain. That is, the organization is different from a private company, a national institute or a university. To access cutting-age R&D resources around the globe and to form flexible partnership, it needs to act on its own initiative without being bounded by government policies and corporate interests. Second, the organization constructs global partnerships among private businesses. It functions not by further tightening limited coalitions among participating companies but by generating new inter-business relationships. To make an open relationship building process, the organization has the unique intellectual property management system in its R&D program. The system makes it easier to access partners' achievements. And by using this unique system, the organization accumulate R&D results among partners, as it opens the way for sharing contexts with partners and for bringing them into the next set of R&D activities. Third, the organization acts as a node for setting up partnerships between the public domain (e.g. universities) and private domain (e.g. companies). By conducting pre-competitive R&D, it bridges the gap between them. This paper explains that the intermediate organization effectively functions in the evolution of the industrial system by focusing on IMEC. The organization enables to tie-up companies partnerships and business-academia collaboration by proactively offering R&D programs in the intermediate domain.
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  • Shungo SAKAKI
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 25 Pages 117-124
    Published: October 30, 2004
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    For sustainable economic growth, over the long term, the products of technological innovation prescribing the economic system as a whole must be disseminated throughout the entire national economy, while at the same time, we must manage the evolution of technological innovation to limit any "locking into" existing forms of technology or knowledge (stagnation of technical innovation) and to trigger all-new technological innovation for the next generation. The problem associated with this kind of resource allocation is one that is relevant on a both the micro- and macro-economic levels in terms of R&D in companies and science and technology policies for the national economy. The primary objective of this paper is to argue the conditions for innovation and economic growth over time and the results of innovation management in the Japanese economy. A several results could be suggested by computer simulation and an empirical examination as follows. Depreciation rate management can maintain sustainable growth with technological change over the long term. And Japan's asset securities reports demonstrate that Japan's listed manufacturing companies have satisfied the conditions for managing sustainable growth as suggested by the simulation results. But the private sector capital stock statistics demonstrate that Japan's unlisted manufacturing companies, which account for 99% of all manufacturing ones in Japan, might have failed to manage sustainable economic growth with technological change by depreciation rate since the late 1990s. It can be pointed out that one contributing factor to the IT productivity paradox is inefficiency that is caused by systemic inconsistency between Japan's listed and unlisted manufacturing companies.
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  • Kouichi KARAKI
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 25 Pages 125-131
    Published: October 30, 2004
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    "Community Investment" is investing various resources including funds for the purpose of the support for activity concerning the self-supporting, autonomous and sustainable regional economy revival by the community residents itself, namely Community Economic Development, and is one form of the social responsibility investment, SRI, which is attracting attention in Japan in recent years. This paper considers the meaning of community investment on the topic of Social Exclusion used as the big social problem in Britain. Financial exclusion is one form of the social exclusion, and such exclusion leads a person to poverty with difficult recovery. Community Investment serves as a tool of Social Inclusion by carrying out empowerment of the funds to those who are excluded. Companies are expected to play important roles in there because of their economically sustainable mechanism.
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  • Toshiro HIROTA
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 25 Pages 133-138
    Published: October 30, 2004
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    This paper deals with the interactive generation of social innovations and business system innovations. Social innovations are defined as evolutionary processes from an existing established socio-economic system to an emerging more convenient socio-economic system. These evolutionary processes are occurring everywhere due to the various problems within the current social and economic system. Only a few entrepreneurs have been able to come up with excellent solutions to these problems and they were able to initiate new business system innovations. Such business system innovations make it possible to reorganize the flow of materials, information, and people in a fundamentally new way. As a result, many people seem to appreciate the merits of these business innovations. Therefore, these business system innovations will eventually bring forth society-wide innovations called "social innovations." Social innovations can be widely recognized through service industries such as finance, transportation, and information businesses. Within the service industries, the service delivery modes have been kept intact due to the various constraints enforced by laws and regulations. There has also been a lack of severe competition. However, these situations are beginning to change due to the introduction of deregulations and aggressive applications of various technological innovations such as the Internet. In addition to these changes, entrepreneurial ambition and creativity has triggered the interactive generation of business system innovations and social innovations.
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  • Tadashi KOTANI, Hirozumi KANEKO, Masaki KUSAKA
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 25 Pages 139-145
    Published: October 30, 2004
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    This study is conceiving of formation of society with little load to earth environment. The technology of using hydrogen is one of the technology with little load at earth environment. The technology of manufacturing hydrogen is applicable to disassembly of an organic waste. One of the environmental problems is brought about by abandonment of an organic matter. Incineration of waste generates the dioxin which pollutes environment. The manufacture technology of hydrogen is technology which disassembles an organic waste. Disassembly of an organic waste converts the processing method of the waste of incineration, loss in quantity, and reclamation into a new method. This method is a social system which uses the technology of manufacturing hydrogen, on a scale of a city. The conventional social system has been built by the energy system by carbon circulation. A new social system builds the energy system in hydrogen circulation. The energy system in hydrogen circulation is begun from stopping incineration of the organic matter which caused environmental pollution, and building the institution disassembled into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. This institution is called circulating point of cascade recycling. The society with little load to earth environment can form an organic waste, the biomass, and natural energy by connecting with hydrogen. We call this method Human Act Absorbable System.
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  • Hirozumi KANEKO
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 25 Pages 147-152
    Published: October 30, 2004
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    A case on the solid waste management planning with public participation is analyzed. The issue of the case was how the local government would recover the confidence of public that has been lost by the problem of dioxin pollution. One of the meanings of public participation is to perform accountability on the process of discussion. An important problem on the solid waste management planning is how to build up procedure with multi-stage Public Participation after the example of Public Involvement Process.
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  • Reiko GOTOH
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 25 Pages 153-167
    Published: October 30, 2004
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the factors behind the success of labor market policies in OECD countries and to consider what employment policies should be adopted in Japan on the basis of this analysis. The reason why OECD countries have adopted the "welfare to work" strategy over the last decade is that the multiplier effect of conventional Keynesian policies is falling away in an age of flexibility. We can not maintain conventional policies as hitherto. However, we must not forget the cost of unemployment. The important thing is to ascertain the long-term effect of policies for employment. For that purpose, it is essential to explicate the macro-micro linkage and to provide microfoundations for macroeconomic policies. It is also useful to relate policies for cyclical unemployment with policies for structural unemployment and to involve the private sector in design and management of labor market policies. A case study on labor market policies in OECD countries suggests that the key factors enhancing labor market performance are as follows: (i) "job matching" -open vacancy display and self-service facilities over the Internet, job-search assistance, and developing vocational classification and training awards; (ii) "employability" -training and job creation for youths, targeting not easy-to-place jobseekers but workers at high unemployment risk, and training for the vocational skills that are in market demanded; (iii) "activation" -relating active labor market programs with passive labor market programs, which are selective and voluntary up to a defined date and then universal and compulsory thereafter, and revision of eligibility criteria; (iv) "decentralization" -co-operation on design and management of labor market programs with local partners, co-ordination of the local labor market based on local partnerships, governance and accountability of decentralization by utilizing information and communication technologies. We will next discuss the implications for employment policy in Japan. First, public work-related expenditure to absorb unemployment in Japan is weighted too much towards social fixed capital formation. The effect of creating productive capacity in social fixed capital stock is falling away, so we must revise the allocation of public expenditure. Second, design and management of labor market policies in Japan should be reformed on the basis of the above analysis of factors leading to the success of labor market policies. Finally, it should be emphasized that decentralization is essential not only to attain "flex-icurity" but also to promote "market democracy". We would like to state that there is also a need for reform in the rule of both the public and private sectors as part of the design and management of employment policies. The reform of implementing multiple partnerships with local actors may evolve the role of government from a position of decision-maker to one of mediator.
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  • Shuji OHIRA
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 25 Pages 169-181
    Published: October 30, 2004
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    The purpose of this paper is to make clear how Nonprofit Organization (NPO) raises funds from individuals in the view of marketing. It is important of NPO to attract individual donors. Since NPO is restricted to collaborate with firm or government, so it has to collect funds from individual donors to accomplish it's own mission. First, we propose the framework for the purpose of analyzing how NPO acquire individual donors in the view of marketing. The essence of marketing is "relationship", which means the system constructed between one and the other. Second, we give a case here of Medecins Sans Frontieres Japan to clarify the way how NPO attract individual donation in the view of marketing. And then, we classifyindividuals into donors and non-donors to make clear the process of having non-givers to be givers who are donating. Third, we discuss the results of this study in the following 2. One is if the case is suitable for clarifying this research problem, and the other is how the result of this study can be generalized. Finally, we conclude this study that the way NPO raises funds is to practice marketing under the concept of the process of "recognition→persuasion→selection→information". It suggests that the result of this study can be applied to another resource attraction such as volunteer. In addition, the limitation of this study is the lack of the view of donors, so the following study will be both in the view of NPO and donors.
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  • Nobuyoshi OHMURO
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 25 Pages 183-196
    Published: October 30, 2004
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Argument about the usual social innovation has been discussed variously from the micro point of view and the macro point of view since the 1960's. But, those arguments were confined to a partial interpretation like creation of the regeneration of the area and the middle organization, and then only a term had walked them one person without detailed argument. So, the purpose of this thesis is to analyze the function of the social innovation which hasn't been discussed fully and a role from the point of view of the business and the society. The priority of the solution of the social problem which a market function was used for as a center function of the social innovation is discussed in this paper first. Next, I divide that social innovation into three, and indicate it clearly with the case. Then, the common process of that social innovation is explained from six stages. The function of the social innovation clears the matter that the stabilization of the market and the composition of the market society change it from the argument until now. Multiplex governance structure and the need of the collaboration with other sectors are explained at the end to make a social innovation work.
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