This study aims at describing how local communities managed disaster logistics after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami of 2011. Because of a lack of resources in local communities, multi-actor cooperation was critical to managing logistics after the disaster. This study conducted interviews with local government officers who led disaster logistics after the disaster. Based on the interviews, this study found that how local governments managed multi-actor cooperation to tackle challenges in disaster logistics, and what kinds of challenges they faced. To enhance multi-actor cooperation for disaster logistics, local government should place the right people in the right roles and make sure what types of contracts or cooperations they are going to have beforehand.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of innovation networks in the ICT industry. The patent data provided by the U.S. Patent Office were quantitatively analyzed for the information and communication industry that operates globally, focusing on the patent of the joint application. The result suggests that knowledge sharing across the boundaries of the organization could become sparse after 2010s, by using data of the joint application patent. Moreover, the analysis of individual companies based on centrality shows that the outstanding number of joint applications among specific companies would affect the interpretation, although companies in each period are different.
Environmental management as an approach to solving environmental problems has two dimensions: micro and macro. In order to design appropriate environmental policies, an environmental information system that makes micro-macro linkage is indispensable. However, the current management methods of environmental burdens and environmental accounting methods are limited to individual ones, and there is no micro-macro linkage perspective.
In this research, a bottom-up type environmental information system enabling micro-macro linking of environmental management is introduced. The main system is named Green Multi-dimensional Bookkeeping System based on Exchange Algebra. It is a method of positioning every material concerning processes as “potential environmental burden” and grasping the information. The main concepts and method are explained in this paper. Besides, a concept of environmental information platform in order to enable micro and macro linkage of environmental information is provided.
The purpose of this research is to examine the administrative responses to new risks caused by the advancement of information technology and manufacturing technology. New products and services make peopleʼs lives convenient. However, these are also easy to exploit. This risk is greatly noticed as something happens. But peopleʼs interests are lost rapidly as they move to others. As a result, it makes it difficult to cope with the problem. The ease of diversion for improving convenience and misuse is coextensive. Therefore, there is also a problem that it is not easy to obtain approval for regulation. Based on these points, this paper considers administrative responses to the new risks of society.
In this paper, we introduce the concept of “Constructive Social Systems Theory”. Constructionism treats the constructive process of the reality that is shared in a human activity system, while the traditional systems approach focuses on the functional aspects of the human activity system. We treat the concept of “reality” as a shared internal model in a society. Then we show that the concept of “Construction of Reality” is a key concept to investigate social, cultural, organizational and economic systems as historically constructed. Systems science for socially constructed realities is not the science of universal law, nor the science that induces the rational process to reach the unique reconstructed reality. In constructive social systems theory, we try to bridge between constructive and functional approach. For the purpose, we have to reveal the embedded and disembodied process under the existing realities and show the possible realities that can be reconstructed as socio-technological complexes. Constructive social systems theory also will support for constructing possible scenarios & deliberation to attain the new realities.