Social and Economic Systems Studies: The Journal of the Japan Association for Social and Economic Systems Studies
Online ISSN : 2432-6550
Print ISSN : 0913-5472
Volume 15
Showing 1-30 articles out of 30 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Index
    1996 Volume 15 Pages Toc1-
    Published: October 19, 1996
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1996 Volume 15 Pages 1-12
    Published: October 19, 1996
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Tamito YOSHIDA
    Type: Article
    1996 Volume 15 Pages 13-18
    Published: October 19, 1996
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    The modern science at large is now undergoing a following dual but inseparable paradigm shift. First, sciences related to information such as molecular biology and computer science, etc. have led to the appearance of the scientific concept of information as contrasted with the concept of mass-energy. This scientific concept of information may cover various types of information from its broadest sense of "any pattern of mass-energy" through "a set of signs in any stage of its evolution" to the narrowest sense of "a set of outer symbols which is transmitted and influences decision-making of an actor in terms of its cognitive function", that is to say, the sense of information as in natural language. Secondly, the above sciences related to information along with each "institution" school in the social sciences, also have led to an awareness that there can be another type of modern science, namely, program-explicating science as opposed to nomothetic or law-setting one. The scientific construct of program is defined here as "a set of signs in any evolutionary stage which emerges, is selected and stored in a biological or human system, generating, maintaining and diversifying the patterns of the structure and process of the system". The paradigm change of the 21st modern science as stated above will give birth to a new discipline of the social science called "socio-informatics", which is expected to offer new perspectives to solve the paradigmatic problems of the social science, utilizing the new concepts of information and program.
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1996 Volume 15 Pages 19-
    Published: October 19, 1996
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Kaname IIO
    Type: Article
    1996 Volume 15 Pages 21-25
    Published: October 19, 1996
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    This study prsents a new approach to comparative analysis of economic systems. A new systems space has three dimensions; agent, goal preference, and form of function. On the each axis of coordinates, there are two values. 1 Agent - Private agents. Public agents. 2 Goal Preference - Non profit-seeking. Profit-seeking. 3 Form of Function - Non market.Market. So, we can depict 8 fundamental points in the present economic system. We can depict new 4 points which represent important systems in the coming society of participative types. The 4 points are participative, management enterprises, philanthropy, and 2 types of the mixed sectors. These 4 points will play decisive roles in the transformation of the economic system, in collaboration with the social economy sector and the public sector.
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  • Yoshiyuki SATO
    Type: Article
    1996 Volume 15 Pages 27-32
    Published: October 19, 1996
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    The Seikatsu Club Consumers' Cooperative decided to establish workers collectives or self-ventures fitted to Japanese housewives movement in community. In the Japanese labor market, chances for women to be employed in the same conditions as men have not been still in existence. In addition, it is very difficult for housewives to get jobs which they are interested in. By establishing workers collectives the Seikatsu Club has made efforts to solve this problem. The way to work in workers collective can give housewives the chance to work near their houses and the jobs available which the government and the corporation cannot give them. Nowadays, women themselves have organized various types of workers collectives such as serving lunches for the workers or the senior people, offering services for the mothers before and after childbirth or for sickpersons, supporting the jobs of consumers' cooperatives, managing recycling shops and soap factories, and so on. In summary, the workers collective movement has many elements which are valuable for our society as job organizations of the third or commons sector.
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  • Yukie OHYA-SATO
    Type: Article
    1996 Volume 15 Pages 33-38
    Published: October 19, 1996
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Workers Collective is a form of the productive cooperative. It is generally defined by several features;every member is the financier, the manager, and the worker. And the important goals of management of organization are self-management, democratic meeting, and member's participation in decision-making. In this paper, I investigate three types of Workers Collective founded on the Seikatu-Club Kanagawa Consumers Cooperative. They have distinctions that almost every member is housewife, the kind of their business are based on experience and skill of household or cooperative work and activity, and they give attention to the process of production, taking environment into consideration. Since 1982, Women's Workers Collective movement have much influenced on women's life style, especially gender work. Now, Women's Workers Collective movement entered upon the second stage in 1996. For better communication among members and for better self-management, Workers Collective 'Ninjin' renewed their group rule, organizing system and divided into downsized groups according to the kind of work and local area. They are always striving against the existing concepts, framework of capitalistic labor and they aim to reconstruct the way of life in their community in the Aging Society.
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  • Naonori TSUDA
    Type: Article
    1996 Volume 15 Pages 39-44
    Published: October 19, 1996
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Co-operatives have various ethical aims such as democracy or participation in the organization and could contribute to the development of a humanistic society. But there are many factors which retard the growth of co-operative sector. The most influential retading factor is that the respect of democracy or participation would sacrifice the efficient function of capital. As a result, a shortage of capital or underinvestment would occur. Yet, invention of institutions or support organizations would overcome these factors which hamper the development of co-operatives. These support organizations would operate 1)within a co-operatives, 2)within a group of co-operatives, 3)outside a group of co-operatives. This article examines the above three perspectives and draws on concrete examples of support organizations from the UK.
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  • Naoki UMEZAWA
    Type: Article
    1996 Volume 15 Pages 45-50
    Published: October 19, 1996
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    There is a controversy among Marxist feminists about the way to clarify the discrimination of women's labour in capitalistic societies. That is, between the unitary theory and the dualistic one. They are quite different in their attitudes toward the relationship of these two systems, namely the capitalistic economic system and the patriarchy one, though they acknowledge them as essential in clarifying the issue. This opposition, however, is not so strong as to fail to reach some sort of compromise if the capitalistic economic system is recognized as more flexible than it is supposed to be. The reason for the flexibility of the capitalistic economic system is shown here by reconstructing the value theory of Marxian economics. Furthermore, there is also investigated the possibility of compromise by examining the criticism on both sides.
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  • Yuko OGASAWARA
    Type: Article
    1996 Volume 15 Pages 51-56
    Published: October 19, 1996
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Data collected through interviews with sixty sarariman(white-collar workers). OLs and ex-OLs(female clerical assistants) of large corporations are analyzed to understand how women effectively resist against male power, and why men, in spite of their exclusive command of authority, often subject themselves to women's control. In the workpalce, OLs seriously affect the efficiency and effectiveness of a man's work by refusing to take the initiative to help him or to do him a favor, by deciding arbitrarily the priority of assignments, and sometimes even by making an outright denial to cooperate. They also do harm to a man's reputation by informing the personnel department of a man's disagreeable behavior, and by giving him sosukan(total neglect). Women can take defiant attitudes toward men, because they are excluded from the race for promotion in the first place. With limited opportunities for advancement, there is not much incentive for them to care about their performance and the impression they leave on their bosses. In contrast, men who hope to make their way up the company ladder are saddled with the burden to prove themselves as competent managers. This article argues that what enables women to resist against male power is their accommodation to discriminatory company policies that set seperate career paths for men and women.
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  • Takashi MIENO
    Type: Article
    1996 Volume 15 Pages 57-62
    Published: October 19, 1996
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    The main purpose of this article is to consider the post-industrial society in the trend of maturity of various factors, such as social structures, social values, personalities, and so on. First, we focus on the maturity of society and individuals in details. In this study, we would like to describe the future image of our society. Second, we formalize some aspects of labor system(labor demand-supply system, labor organization system, etc.), and discuss the possibility of maturity concerning the change of its system. In this case, it is important for us to predict and consider the future economic condition. Third, we relate the concept of 'quality of life' to those of 'quality of working life' and 'symbiosis'. Fourth, we consider the flexibility of labor system in the post-industrial society, and point out the importance of the change of labor organizations. Finally, we discuss the viewpoints of human beings and social system in relation to our labor system. We should recognize the degree of freedom in our society to build the 'quality of life society'.
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1996 Volume 15 Pages 63-
    Published: October 19, 1996
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Hiroshi OKUMURA
    Type: Article
    1996 Volume 15 Pages 65-70
    Published: October 19, 1996
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    The 20th century is the age of large corporation based on mass production and mass sale. But in the 21th century large corporation will be dismantled and the limited liability corporation will go to decay. The forthcoming new enterprise is small business that is responsible to human society.
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  • Ryo ONO
    Type: Article
    1996 Volume 15 Pages 71-77
    Published: October 19, 1996
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Today, we are experiencing a great turning point in human history. In my view, this turning point consists of the following five major influences that are taking place simultaneously and synergistically. (1)Changes in the world wide political system that has continued since the end of World War II(the period of the conventional system;50 years.) -the end of the conflict of between the Western Block nations and communist nations- (2)changes in the economic system(100-150 years) -the end of both capitalistic and socialist economies- (3)changes in the modern system supported by a modern philosophy(300-500 years) -the limitations of a modern system built on the concept "liberty, equality, and fraternity"- (4)denial of nationalistics government organizations(thousands of years) -the denial of nations that have suppressed individuals'freedom- (5)denial of religions(tens of thousands-hundreds of thousands of years) -the denial of religions that have organized "God's" will and the amalgamation of mystic experiences and science- In my view, we must treat with these five points by a new method of science. European modern science has self-limited its domain to matter alone. As a result, modern science has been unable both to treat with consciousness and to deny religious dogma. But now, many approaches for new science are emerging in front of us dealing with both matter and consciousness by using same method. Therefore, we will be able to deny both materialism and idealism as ideological dogma. We have to consider our world as extremely complex woven by matter and soul. For example, in our economics, we will be able to present a new approach to think about the concept of "value" and "price". I think it is wrong to use both "labor value theory" and "utility value theory". Because, we need to estimate both material factors composing input labor times and conscious factors considering self-utilities. Furthermore, I want to explain "utopia" in which we will be able to have the right of a access to use and manage all of the social properties. That new system will be founded on a new property system which I call "social-individual ownership". Recently, in this point of view, M.Tabata proposed a new paradigm to re-interpret the concept of "the re-establishment of individual property" by Marx. I agree with his thought in many points, but I am disappointed by his hesitation in not creating a concrete shape of new association toward a "non-capitalistic market economy system" in which all persons will become independent and individual entrepreneurs.
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1996 Volume 15 Pages 78-
    Published: October 19, 1996
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Shuhei KAWAI
    Type: Article
    1996 Volume 15 Pages 79-84
    Published: October 19, 1996
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Information network is said to be able to exceed five walls. 1)the wall of time 2)the all of space 3)the wall of a large number 4)the wall of organization 5)the wall of mentality It is true, but in Japan, we have three walls to spread those network functions all over the company. 1)the wall of organization 2)the wall of culture 3)the wall of human-relations In Japan, businessmen have been trained to keep silent rather than to propose original ideas. Outstanding ideas usually bring something chaos in an organization. Japanese conventional leaders do not like such choas. Nowadays, however, Japanese business management can not avoid to change success pattern from "the Rising Countries Model(RCM)" to "the Advanced Countries Model(ACM)". In the RCM, growth was certain by duplicating advanced technologies and innovative products if they work hard and make some improvements only in operation field. In the ACM, however, originality or identification is essential. In information network days, originality or identification is also an important factor. So, the culture of Information Network is similar to that of the ACM. Here, we have a problem that it is difficult to change the operation oriented management(that is RCM) to the originality oriented management(taht is ACM). This big change can be performed only by a powerful top management not by able middle management's. In the ACM, flat and horizontal organization is appropriate. Horizontal organization means three tiers formulation. Three tiers indicate Top management・Division head・Team leader. In the ACM, organization must be down-sizing. That is, one division has to be smaller than 50 members and consists of several teams which are composed of less than 10 members. A big company who has thousands of employees will be divided to hundreds of Profit Centers. And hundreds of Divisions will be integrated by means of Info-Net. Japanese complicated organization that admits plural responsibilities will be trandformed to be simple as to survive in the ACM era. In such an organization, the principle of self-responsibility will be severe. So, you will be allowed to work at home by your own choice supported by Info-Net. But the results of your work will be estimated strictly by your team mates before evaluated by a Division manager. You will have to attend business seminars paying your own money if you feel value to take it. Whether you want or not, the tide of multimedia and globalization will bring about self-responsibility business work style as such.
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1996 Volume 15 Pages 85-
    Published: October 19, 1996
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Toru TSUDA
    Type: Article
    1996 Volume 15 Pages 87-91
    Published: October 19, 1996
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    People want to have individuality valuing society in which they can find their worth while life and create new cultures useful for human being in the big changes of social environments in the 21st century. But it is difficult to realize such society by present efficiency oriented social systems. In this paper, necessary conditions for new work fields suitable for such society and classfication of work fields are shown and an information communication system satisfying necessary conditions is proposed. As main necessary conditions, to more value individuality, to be more suitable for creative work, to be adaptable to high aged society and so forth are taken up and as classes of work fields, three types of hardware, semi-hardware and software are proposed. And it is pointed out that hereafter, semi-hardware type of work fields will become more important. The proposed system is a distributed multimedia information communication system. This system has functions of agents which execute on behalf of users not only information retreaval but also teleaction by using auditory, visual and moreover tactile media. And an example of this system applied to a manufacturing company is shown.
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1996 Volume 15 Pages 92-
    Published: October 19, 1996
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Kikuo INABA
    Type: Article
    1996 Volume 15 Pages 93-97
    Published: October 19, 1996
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    It is very important to introduce such system which integrates Municipality and its Citizens for the creation of Sustainable Society. I think it is the most effective to apply the framework of Environmental Managament System Audit on Municipal Management Problems. This Paper considers the significance on the cooperation between municipality and citizens, the structure of system applied and the method of its application. I believe the considerations written on this paper will give some suggestion to reform the the present society into more sustainable open middle system.
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1996 Volume 15 Pages 98-
    Published: October 19, 1996
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Muneo AZEGAMI
    Type: Article
    1996 Volume 15 Pages 99-105
    Published: October 19, 1996
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    The social system administration by the Government Authorities is prevailin into daily life, life cycle and community activities of inhabitants. Infant education, for instance, is in a critical situation under the influence of high growth economical system. The destruction of bubble economy and globalization of social system, nowadays gave a big chance for inhabitants to participate into the Government Authorities system, which become a very crucial issue. In this report, "inhabitants'participation" was made as a hypothetical theme in a cycle comprising : (1)Policy establishment, (2)Planning, (3)Implementation, (4)Management, (5)Trouble shooting and (6)Review of administration and finance policy. This actual research report is compiled on a concrete Project implementation applying "inhabitants'participation" substitute, in a case study on "Final wastes disposal area in Hinode Cho, Tokyo".
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  • Yoshihide HORIUCHI, Akino OSAKABE
    Type: Article
    1996 Volume 15 Pages 107-113
    Published: October 19, 1996
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    SSNV is a multi-layer ideal-seeking design system developed by Horiuchi in 1994. Ideal-seeking design system is a normative planning paradigm seeking ever getting closer to the ideal images identified by the stakeholders. It is a new concept for the Japanese, since they are pragmatic rather than abstract, incremental rather than normative, and prefer mix of logic and sentiment rather than pure logic. Hence, in order to introduce SSNV to Japan, basic concepts of ideal-seeking design system and SSNV are explained for the Japanese with their cultural background in mind. Also, a simplified example of SSNV application to a hypothetical Japanese person's life-planning is prepared. SSNV adaptation to the Japanese management and social systems followed as a discussion for the next future step in the research. Traditional Japanese management system used to provide life-time employment system, seniority-based promotion, etc. for the employees, in return for their devotion to the company. However, since the "economic bubble burst" in the early 1990's, such a Japanese management system is rapidly changing to more American-style, performance-based personnel management systems. In such a turbulent environment, Japanese employees need to develop one's own life-planning by balancing his/her own personal desires and their contributions to the company's well-being. For such planning, SSNV can be of a help. If such an adaptation becomes successful, this could open up a new systems view for the Japanese management systems, and social systems.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1996 Volume 15 Pages 115-
    Published: October 19, 1996
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1996 Volume 15 Pages 115-116
    Published: October 19, 1996
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1996 Volume 15 Pages 116-117
    Published: October 19, 1996
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1996 Volume 15 Pages 117-121
    Published: October 19, 1996
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1996 Volume 15 Pages 121-124
    Published: October 19, 1996
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1996 Volume 15 Pages 124-128
    Published: October 19, 1996
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1996 Volume 15 Pages 128-136
    Published: October 19, 1996
    Released: July 28, 2017
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