Social and Economic Systems Studies: The Journal of the Japan Association for Social and Economic Systems Studies
Online ISSN : 2432-6550
Print ISSN : 0913-5472
Volume 14
Showing 1-27 articles out of 27 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Index
    1995 Volume 14 Pages Toc1-
    Published: October 21, 1995
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Nobuko IIJIMA
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 14 Pages 1-11
    Published: October 21, 1995
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    The history of environmental problems in post war Japan can be divided into three parts from the view points of the victims or inhabitants, of which view is one the characteristics of environmental sociology. These three parts are self-victimization period, victimizer period and victimized period. The"self victimization period"is the period that both the perpetrators and the victims of environmental problems are living inside the society. This period began in the 17th century to present time. There have been quite a few victims during the self-victimization period inside Japan. The"victimizer period"is that the perpetrators are still inside Japan, however, the victims are in other countries. This phenomena occurred typically since the 1970s. The "victimized period"means that the perpetrators are in other countries and victims are inside Japan. This phenomena has been seen since 1980s. That was the first time that Japan, as a nation, became the victim of environmental problems caused by other countries. This situation shows that environmental problems are now really vast social problems of the world. The key to improving this situation can be found in Japan's pollution control history, despite its many pitfalls. It will be found especially, in the history of anti-pollution movement or anti-environmental problems movement in Japan and in the world.
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  • Masazumi ITO
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 14 Pages 13-18
    Published: October 21, 1995
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Recurrent education system was worked out in 1960s in Sweden.It is a comprehensive education strategy for all post-compulsory education, the essential characteristic of which is the distribution of education over the total life-span of the individual in a recurring way, i.e.in alternation with work. Recurrent education system was established and prevailed in higher edcation and adult education in 1970s.It was very useful for bringing equal educational opportunities among different generations. But, the breakaway from recurrent education system began to occur from the beginning of 1980s.Firstly, job training within the enterprises increased rapidly.Secondly, universities have kept increasing the number of students in long courses instead of short courses which are based on recurrent education system.And the reform of university system in 1993 implies the end of recurrent education.
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1995 Volume 14 Pages 19-
    Published: October 21, 1995
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Tatsuya MURAKAMI
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 14 Pages 21-26
    Published: October 21, 1995
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    The ZAIKAI is the business world(Economic Organizations)in Japn.In recent years the business world has begun taking an active interest in the higher education in Japan.This is reflected by a drestic increase in the number of propositions of the business world to the university reformation.They contain a sharp criticism of the present educational system in Japan. Japanese educational system at universities has been criticized these days for several reasons:The system of the higher education in Japan is too hard(as iron)to develop creative or individualistic thinking.One of the problems in the Japanese educational system is that it tends to shape a whole population into a homogeneous national standard.This system tend to discourage individuality or creativity in students. The report of the Japanese business world outlines the "evils of uniformity".The key words of these report are importance of individuality or creativity.But this individuality or creativity have ever been considered rather negatively in Japanese companies. It's questionable whether the Japanese business world, which is talking about educational reformation, is prepared to do that.
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  • Hiraku YAMAMOTO
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 14 Pages 27-32
    Published: October 21, 1995
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    In Amerca, there are a great number of NPOs for maintaining the positive sum correlation in neighborhood communities, the partnership between municipality administrations and citizens, or between businesses and citizens, for prevaling the volunteer activities on the problems of juvenile crimes(gun, drug, alchol, murder), environmental pollution(waste, water, green), or social welfare(the aged, homeless people, the disabled).Some NPOs are training the political & social practices to cultivate the voluntary consciouness of citizens to participate these activities by applying the CL(cooperate learning)method, which aims to overcome the zero sum game of winner-take-all system.In Japan, like Amrican society, it is necessary to spread the volunteer activities, advocacy planning, philanthrophy of citizens all over the social spheres, and to allow NPOs to bridge the gap between public shere and private shere.But instead of leaving NPOs as they are scattered, we have to found the liaison office linking NPOs together.
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1995 Volume 14 Pages 33-
    Published: October 21, 1995
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Masaki KUSAKA
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 14 Pages 35-40
    Published: October 21, 1995
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    'Urban Systems'has been well studied by M.Castel etc., but 'Regional Systems'has not been studied fully.So, in this study, we treat Regional Systems, especially Local Political Systems, because of its important roles in present local area.At first, we examine closely the concept of Regional Systems, and then try two case studies, in which we require into the reform of Local Political Systems by the effort of citizens, residents and officialdom.Officialdom started the reformmovement of Local Political Systems. Citizens and residents acted in correct with officialdom positively. Citizens, residents and offcaldom were rewarded with two fields reform of local politcial systems. This model for Urban Social Movement differs from the model of M.Castel, R.E.Pahl and K.Nitagai.
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  • Kaname IIO
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 14 Pages 41-46
    Published: October 21, 1995
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Worker participation in the decision making within undertakings is the coming current in the world.In 1989, EU(EC)decided the Community Charter of Fundamental Social Rights, which declares that all workers in EU have the rights to information, consultation and participation.This current is called "workplace democracy", which claims the redustribution of the power in management as H.Ramsay said. In the age of information technology revolution, the intellectual and informational levels of workers, consumers and citizens are getting their high level, which enables and requests workers, consumers and citizens to participate in desision making within economic and industrial activities and various governmental activities.Workers participation in the undertakings, consumers participation to the business desision making and civil participation in communal desision making are the inevitable currents in the coming 21st century. We call these currents "participatory reforms". All revolutions in the past destroyed the old hierarchical systems and always brought the new hierarchical systems under the power of "new leadership". The participatory reforms are distinguished from all of these old-type reforms, because the participatory reforms aims at the participatory society where nobody has the right to dominate others.Cooperation of all members in peer-to-peer network is the essence. Under this situation, so-called "key-persons"will change their types.
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  • Muneo AZEGAMI
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 14 Pages 47-52
    Published: October 21, 1995
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    After a long period of silence, strongly controled by tradition and conservation, Japanese society has just started to face a critical era for a newvalue for the future, a strong leader defined here as"Key Person". "Key Person"is a person who has persued his profesion, and has practical Know-how in the field. He could change the existing systems in the society for better as he grows strongand mature. However, there is a hard wall between such person and the existing systems in society. The author emphasizes the necesity for professional expert to integrate and synthesize a three-fold characteristics; naturality(in born), spirituality(formed in his infancy), and intelligence(given by education), for breakthrough.
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1995 Volume 14 Pages 53-
    Published: October 21, 1995
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Makoto MATSUO
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 14 Pages 55-60
    Published: October 21, 1995
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    In many countries political systems are changing profoundly.However, these changes tend to be limited to institutional refoem in most cases, and the question of who is the "agent"of politics seems to have faded into the background.But the central problem is the shift in agency from"the politics of elites"to"the politics of the citizen-subject".This paper, by examining the Polish "Solidarity"movement, focusses on this question, and discusses both the concept and the reality of a"non-power oriented"society characterized by solidarity. The first point is thst the modern nation-state is coming to a dead-end.The relativizasion of the state is clearly proceeding in two directions.These are, firstly, the formation of three layers of govermnt(local-state-transnational/global)and, secondly, the re-generation of civil society. The second point concerns the establishment of two aspects of this reconstructed civil society:namely, the political public sphere, end the cultural public sphere. The polical public sphere froms civil society in opposition to political authority/power.With the democratization of political power, the political public sphere makes possible societal mutual consent and solidarity, unmediated by political struggle.
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1995 Volume 14 Pages 61-
    Published: October 21, 1995
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Kikuo INABA
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 14 Pages 63-67
    Published: October 21, 1995
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    The Creation of Sustainable Society is the most important subject at the present time. We must consider deeply enough how we can create sustainable society. I think it is the most necessary that our every economical action means our social action based on social justice under the market economy, but regrettably, both actions do not equal generally under the present society. Firstly, I analyze the management system of Water Suply Works, Sewage Disposal Works & Waste Disposal Works by public sector to find out the true reason. Secondly, I point out the dualism of the simple exchange between service and charge must be reformed to more flexible system by input of middle sector.On this cosideration, I propose one example of new middle system. Lastly, I emphasize the necessity of new administrative revolution to create the sustainable society near future.
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1995 Volume 14 Pages 68-
    Published: October 21, 1995
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Takatoshi IMADA
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 14 Pages 69-74
    Published: October 21, 1995
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Rapid gowth of electronic media technology including virtual reality, Internet, multimedia and PC-communication is bringign us a new frontier of virtual world which is governed by different principles of structure and function from real world.This world is to be considered as the numerical new continent equivalent to the geographical new continent(The New World)in the era of formation of modern society.This new continent should become a frontier of new civilization beyond modern society.We have not yet made up rules and manners of this new world, but from now on various kinds of trials of forming new social order will be made and the postmodern society in a exact sense of the word will be brought.
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  • Yoshihide HORIUCHI
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 14 Pages 75-79
    Published: October 21, 1995
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Normative systems thinking such as Ackoff's ideal-seeking systems design defines an ideal, then, designs an interactive path toward such an ideal.Social Systems Navigation(SSNV)is a new, multilayer, ideal-seeking system, which is inspired by the latest long-range aircraft navigation method called "On-route re-flight-planning." SSNV is a flexible systems plannig paradigm with multilayer of ideals, with which the Social Systems Navigators design and implement an action plan toward their intermediate ideal image and an ultimate ideal image;and review their progress as well as their intermediate and ultimate ideal images after a period of time.The process continues iteratively.Hence, in an "SSNV navigational map, "there is a multilayer of intermediate ideal images, and at each layer, there are several alternative intermediate ideal images.As the journey proceeds, it is possible to have alternative ultimate ideal images, too. We propose that SSNV is a system to assist social systems navigators to become creative and utilize both Polanyi's tacit knowing and formal knowledge into the forms of ultimate and intermediate ideal images for social systems planning.
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1995 Volume 14 Pages 80-
    Published: October 21, 1995
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Koji KANAGAWA
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 14 Pages 81-86
    Published: October 21, 1995
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    In well matured society, it is getting difficult to fill the needs of social members, by supplying public goods only from the public sector.Under these conditions, the role of NPO(Non profit Organization), which is the main service supplier of the third sector, grows important. This paper examines the role of the volunteer group as a representative fo NPOs, by taking the case of home help service.Home help service in Japan consists of public service and private servie. Many public services are contracted to "silver business"or NPOs.But actually, because the contracts are made to specific organizations, there is quite limited selection for the service recipients.Under these conditons, we should introduce "plural purchase system"which enables the recipients to select suitable service.In addition, by adopting this system, beneficiary would select NPOs as attractive service suppliers.So that the NPOs can receive the effect as if to get more subsidies from public sector. On the other hand, because NPOs have less man power and physical resources, they must attain the purpose of organization more effectively.These NPOs are requested to acquire more complicated management skills, compared with profit-making corporations. In considering Japanese original type of NPO system, we must first of all construct the system to support the NPOs which provide standard level of services, especially demand increasing field like welfare.
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  • Hiroyuki TATSUTA
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 14 Pages 87-91
    Published: October 21, 1995
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Author think that dust and disuse matters are potential resorce. So this paper deals with what are dusts and disuse, social conditions of which people reform them into resources.Dusts and disuses belong to not commodity in marketing channel but no-commodity in distribution and circulation system. According to author no-commodity is explained using positive/negative/zero-value as new terminology. Peoples think uselessness, oldness, needlessness, value-lessness, no-seconduse, keeoing space, usedness, and no-disposality as elements of consisting in dusts and disuses, so they are used for dust analysis of deriving conditions branching resorces from dusts and disuse matters.In conclusion the responsiblity of dust trouable rests with faults of social system rather than awakening to person.
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  • Sakae OKUDA
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 14 Pages 93-98
    Published: October 21, 1995
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    We would like to suggest a framework named "poly-agent theory of reference activities(PATRA)".As immediately understood from its name, this framework describes any system, as a system consists of several agents who decide their behavior referring to their own inner models.In the main part of this article, we try to analyze the change of systems in the framework of PATRA.From a PATRA point of new, the change of systems is reflected on the change of their own inner models.Any change of an inner model of an organizational intelligence is associated with change of inner models of its constituents.We consider also how the firms under Japanese-style management systems organiza their inner models following the dictates and constraints of Japanese culture.
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1995 Volume 14 Pages 99-
    Published: October 21, 1995
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 14 Pages 101-
    Published: October 21, 1995
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 14 Pages 101-103
    Published: October 21, 1995
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Download PDF (371K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 14 Pages 103-105
    Published: October 21, 1995
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 14 Pages 105-107
    Published: October 21, 1995
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1995 Volume 14 Pages 107-118
    Published: October 21, 1995
    Released: July 28, 2017
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