Social and Economic Systems Studies: The Journal of the Japan Association for Social and Economic Systems Studies
Online ISSN : 2432-6550
Print ISSN : 0913-5472
Volume 31
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Index
    2010 Volume 31 Pages Toc1-
    Published: October 30, 2010
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Kanji TANIMOTO
    Type: Article
    2010 Volume 31 Pages 1-14
    Published: October 30, 2010
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Koushi TAKESHITA, Masami TAKAHASHI, Masayuki IWATA, Toshiaki OGOSE, [i ...
    Type: Article
    2010 Volume 31 Pages 15-36
    Published: October 30, 2010
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Masaatsu DOI
    Type: Article
    2010 Volume 31 Pages 37-44
    Published: October 30, 2010
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The main purpose of this paper is to illustrate the basis for discussing issues associated with the structure of social businesses such as The Big Issue (5 branches in UK, 7 Big Issue models in the world), Swan Bakery (3 branches, 24 chains in Japan) and to provide method for the replication processes of these social innovations. There are at least three ways expand social business-through wholly-owned replication (branch structure), affiliation-based replication (JV, franchising and partnership agreements) and dissemination(Dees, Anderson and Wei-skillern 2004; UnLtd Ventures 2008). The Big Issue and Swan Bakery have adopted branch structures and partnership agreements for the purpose of expansion. Partnership agreements are usually the least resource-intensive and have little control over implementation in new locations. Therefore, it is significantly important for social businesses to maintain their social mission at the new locations. We can also identify a diversity of organizational forms such as business corporations, social welfare corporations, nonprofit organizations and shadanhoujin (incorporated associations) in the Swan Bakery shops. Partnership agreements can allow for flexibility against regional diversities but also have difficulty in controlling their brand images and social mission.
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  • Keiko ZAIMA
    Type: Article
    2010 Volume 31 Pages 45-58
    Published: October 30, 2010
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Zaima (2008a) showed that environmental information support by a certification organization and large companies was important in order to promote the environmental management of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In this paper, SMEs are classified into four types on the basis of the two axes of environmental management system and environmental business. It is shown that the environment management support demanded by each type is different. The present conditions of support for the environmental management of SMEs are clarified from the interviews with the SMEs, local governments, certification organizations, and so on. Subsequently, several problems in the promotion of environmental management are shown in order to examine an effective design of environmental communication in a local community.
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  • Kazutaka YAMADA
    Type: Article
    2010 Volume 31 Pages 59-66
    Published: October 30, 2010
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This article aims 1) to discuss whether social capital fostered by member of cooperatives affects community activities, and 2) to indicate complementarities between cooperative activities and community ties. Discourses on social capital influence our understanding about social and human relationships or community ties, which are global perspectives or local ones. Barry, W. (1979) tries to answer Community Question dealing with data of 845 adult residents of East Yorker, Toronto, Canada. He argues that intimate networks are found to be prevalent in not only minorities but also suburban residents, and that they are available in dealing with both emergencies and everyday matters from all intimate networks. Svendsen et, al. (2005) demonstrates that "the cooperative movement continued to play a crucial role in the success of agriculture. The Danish cooperative movement created a 'strong pillar' for various framing activities. Thus, a range of horizontal and vertical links between people satisfying their different needs in particular social groups existed in democratic societies." The article demonstrates cooperative movements affect their members' consciousness of participation in community activities, dealing with data of questionnaires for the members of the Cooperative Pal System Chiba, Funabashi, Chiba, Japan ("Pal Chiba"). As analyses indicate, the Pal Chiba movement clearly influences its members' consciousness and behavior for community or civil activities. The more positive attitude toward the Pal Chiba movement the members have, the deeper commitment to community or civil activities they have. And the more positive consciousness or practices of participation in community or civil activities they have, the deeper commitment to the Pal Chiba movement they have. Putnam, R.D., a political scientist known as an advocator of social capital, says that recent non profit or cooperative organizations diminish grass-rooted movements though they utilize social capital stored by community based ties as a resource in order to increase their newsletter readers (e.g. Putnam (1993, 2000)). But the analyses of this article lead us to deny Putnam's above arguments. The Pal Chiba's members foster grass-rooted movement and participation in community or civil activities with utilizing social capital stored by the cooperative movement, though the core enterprise of the Pal Chiba movement is individual delivery systems, not traditional joint purchase systems. Thus, social capital is available for the members of the Pal Chiba to improve or solve their problems of their daily life. And it plays a complementary role of diminished community ties for them.
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  • Yoshiaki TAKAO
    Type: Article
    2010 Volume 31 Pages 67-75
    Published: October 30, 2010
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The improvement of compliance in and around organizations is one of the critical problems for sustainability of social and economic systems. Studies on organizational compliance are mainly on practical and normative researches and insufficient in binding with academic studies on related disciplines. This paper aims to advance binding practical researches with theoretical works by constructing computational simulation model grounded on related theories. Our modeling of organizational compliance, which is based on theoretical studies on social norms, Barnard's thinking on moral responsibility, and recent leadership research, includes three reference structures: (1) mutual reference among organizational members, (2) mutual reference among plural norms or moral codes, (3) reference to leader's belief on compliance. Results of simulations are fully satisfying, and they suggest importance of 'judicial method,' which Barnard took for resolving conflicts among moral codes. Finally, limits of this study and possibilities of computer simulation modeling in organizational compliance study are also examined.
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  • Shinichi GODA, Yukio OHSAWA
    Type: Article
    2010 Volume 31 Pages 77-88
    Published: October 30, 2010
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, as a method to grasp and to help interpret the structure of chain reaction among world stock markets, integrated use of "time order method" and "directed KeyGraph" is presented. Two processes are necessary to make a convincing scenario for chain reacting stock markets-one is to grasp relations among stock movements by statistical method and the other is to estimate back ground of the grasped relations. The presented method is to help execute these processes in effective and integrated manner. As a case study, this method is applied to analyze the movements of world's major stock markets around "Lehman shock" and to write a scenario. Lehman Brothers, a major U.S. investment bank, bankrupted on September 15, 2008. On that day, U.S. stock index dropped 4.4 % from the previous day, and other major world stock markets also fell dramatically. This event is called as "Lehman shock". "Lehman shock" is generally regarded as to be triggered by "sub-prime loan problem". And the scenario, generally used among business and media persons, for the following downturn of world stock markets and world economy, can be summarized as follows; "sub-prime loan problem→Lehman's bankruptcy→decline of U.S. stocks→decline of world stock markets→global recession". We show that when we apply the presented method to grasp relations among the movements of the major world stock markets and interpret it in conjunction with major economic and political events, another more compelling scenario can be created.
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  • Kunihiko NAKANO, Hideyuki TANAKA
    Type: Article
    2010 Volume 31 Pages 89-94
    Published: October 30, 2010
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper aims to investigate what kinds of elements affect local government's information policy based on their web sites' analysis. We performed the logistic regression analysis focusing on two view points such as transparency and participation with the following four factors to investigate this issue; a ratio of population, a saturation level of broadband, a ratio of NPO per population, and a ratio of elderly people per population. The first result suggests that only environmental factors (a ratio of population and a saturation level of broadband) might affect a level of transparency in government's websites. The second result suggests that not only an environmental factor (a ratio of population), but also a citizen activity factor (a ratio of NPO per population) might affect a level of civic participation in websites.
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  • Hajime KITA, Hiroshi DEGUCHI, Hiroyuki MATSUI, Toshio OHASHI
    Type: Article
    2010 Volume 31 Pages 95-100
    Published: October 30, 2010
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Industrial accumulation, accumulation of many small factories in some region, enables various production in small lot sizes and with quick delivery times. It is one of the salient characteristics of Japanese industry. However, facing move of mass production to China and other Asian countries, we have to seek new industry exploiting the strength of the industrial accumulation. As one of directions toward future of industrial accumulation, the authors pay attention to change of movement in industry from 'quality' to 'creativity', and creation of production platform for highly-customized production and hyper-variety market. In this paper, through experience of several case studies of trial production projects held as collaboration among university researchers and industrial accumulation in Suwa area in Japan, the authors discuss potential and problems toward creative industry for Japanese provincial industrial accumulation.
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  • Sakae OKUDA
    Type: Article
    2010 Volume 31 Pages 101-107
    Published: October 30, 2010
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper we define technological system as a set of communications characterized by technologically realizable/unrealizable binary code. This binary code depends upon outlook on the world, criteria, the way to achieve something and so on. The concept of sustainability would be classified into several categories. In correspondence with each category a technological system can be defined. We consider social property of such a technological system. Above all, we focus our attention on the technological system leading to the stationery state and discuss its instability. In developed countries the stationary condition of population can be achieved. We pointed out here that a biased social security system leads to the declining birthrate. We call this mechanism as the tragedy of anti-Commons, that is, a cost to bring up a child concentrates on each family while its benefit is widely spread into the whole society. So the technological system that realizes stationary condition of population will start with the communication how we can achieve anti-Commons situation. On the other hand it will be more difficult to achieve the stationery condition of capital. Even if developed countries take the initiative in achieving this stationery state, sooner or later, by exposure to the competition with the developing countries, they will come to aim at the economic growth again. The stationary condition of capital may be instable as long as a competition principle is not excluded on a worldwide scale. The construction of this kind of sustainable technological system will start with the communication how we can remove a competition principle in the global scale.
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  • Saburo AKAHORI
    Type: Article
    2010 Volume 31 Pages 109-114
    Published: October 30, 2010
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The concept of self-description plays an important role in Niklas Luhmann's sociological systems theory. In the systems theoretical sense, self-description does not mean description of self but description of society by society itself. The implication of self-description (of society) lies in that we cannot describe society from outside of society. From the systems theoretical viewpoint, we can see society as a system that contains various self-descriptions and therefore we should not ask what society is but how society is described. Systems theoretical description is the meta-level description (i.e. second-order observation). It can especially be characterized as the description of differences. Meta-level observers try to indicate what kind of distinctions or borderlines are drawn in a certain observation or description. Such a viewpoint enables us to see the hidden side (blind spot) of description of society and that is indeed the advantage and the true charm of the systems theoretical description.
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  • Hiroshi DEGUCHI, Shungo SAKAKI, Yuji ONUKI
    Type: Article
    2010 Volume 31 Pages 115-120
    Published: October 30, 2010
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Social statistics is divided into the two parts such as fundamental statistics and fundamental statistical surveys in the new statistics act of Japan. The statistical survey is mainly carried out by classical paper based method. On the other hand enormous information, that can be used for the statistical survey, is carried on the Internet and various types of intranets. In this paper we focus on social statistics and its crowdsourcing. New architecture design for the electronic statistical survey is required to construct a social infrastructure by crowdsourcing. Our society is now changing rapidly, thus the quick social decision making is required for the risk management of financial, business, public health and many social & organizational activities. For the purpose statistical system itself should become a quick responding and small time constant system. We also have to design the social statistical system as a new social infrastructure for evidence based policy and decision making. For the purpose we propose to construct the tertiary statistical system as a simulation based scenario estimation system in addition to primary and secondary statistical system. In this paper we clarify the subjects to be solved for the new architecture design of social statistics and its research program.
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  • Yoshiyuki SUZUKI
    Type: Article
    2010 Volume 31 Pages 121-129
    Published: October 30, 2010
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, we discuss the system of religious ritual in the relation between animals and man. Eating animals means to kill them. People go on killing animals for the sake of life. In the mountainous region, people maintain close relations with animals even in the present days. They depend on hunting animals for most of their food in ancient times. In this article, we bring out "the ritual of Shiromi shinto shrine" that is considered as "victim ritual". This ritual was formed and has been handed down in Miyazaki Prefecture Saito City in the deep and steep mountainous region. It is the religious ritual system that shows the way of living within a community. The death of animals means that animals dedicated themselves to people's life. So they have a deep sense of gratitude for the victim of animals. For the above people are deifying animals. In divine's presence, people are required to behave lovely and show a clean behavior towards animals. On the other hand, the process is about hunting and eating animals; "to rear-to kill-to dismantle-to cook-to share-to serve to the animal's soul". In divine's presence, people behave good enough in order to make public their "food activity's process". It is done by preventing evil. And thus people's behavior includes "pureness". On top of that, their behavior is closely tied to the order of the ritual. After this stage, "the soul of the animals", "the animals to eat", "the behavior of people" were purified. Furthermore, in this occasion, the religious world appears that includes the relation among "soul of animals", "behavior of people", "the divine". For the above reasons, "victim ritual" is considered a socioeconomic system that integrates communities.
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  • Shungo SAKAKI
    Type: Article
    2010 Volume 31 Pages 131-151
    Published: October 30, 2010
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We investigate a measuring method of national accounts system based on micro transaction data. We have hitherto developed the technology for crowd-sourcing and managing the transaction data of individuals, firms and governments. We have been designing and experimenting such a national accounts and statistics systems using data and exchange algebra. The objective of this paper is to formulate a plan of the Transaction-based Economics by combining the concept of the electronic post office box (e-POB) and the technology of crowd sourcing and Algebraic Accounting Description Language (AADL).
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