Social and Economic Systems Studies: The Journal of the Japan Association for Social and Economic Systems Studies
Online ISSN : 2432-6550
Print ISSN : 0913-5472
Volume 18
Showing 1-17 articles out of 17 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Index
    1999 Volume 18 Pages Toc1-
    Published: November 10, 1999
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (68K)
  • Hiroshi YODA
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 18 Pages 1-11
    Published: November 10, 1999
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A gender gap of voting behaviour in Japan would be caused by the education and expected role for women different from these for men. A gender gap of the education and expected role would lead to a situation that women's political literacy would be limited to an artificial one which is the least ability necessary to vote, and women might cast their votes depending on the other's intelligence. A reduction of this gap is observed in the recent study of Japanese voters. Hypothetically the reduction might be a result of the changing of the education and expected role for women and be created by their own effort in order to improve their social status.
    Download PDF (911K)
  • Yumiko NARA
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 18 Pages 12-18
    Published: November 10, 1999
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Under this information-oriented society, children can take a lot of information thorough various channels of media directly and easily. Concerning such situation, to bring up the children's information literacy (including the independent discernment) is important. The purpose of this paper is to grope the adults' possibility of participating in the children's information system. Focusing on the sex information, the author carried out a survey with questionnaire on the students of junior high school and senior high school of Osaka prefecture. 1331 students of junior high school and 1660 students of senior high school were sampled. The results are as follows : when the children have following attribute, they criticize the telephone club or prostitution system, 1) who get sex information from their teachers, 2) who have high score of emotional empathy scales, and 3) who are received by their parents. These indicate the adults especially parents can involve in the transformation process of children's information system.
    Download PDF (755K)
  • Masaki KUSAKA
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 18 Pages 19-25
    Published: November 10, 1999
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Many problems on urban life occur because of being not done resident's duties. An useful measure that copes with these problems is making new rules by residents themselves and holding in common them. So, we set up the purpose of this paper definning conditions for making and holding in common new rules; details are follows. Firstly, we made five models which pointed out the process of makig and holdingin common new rules. Seconderly, we analyzed those conditions thorough five case studies which were related to former five models. It is comparatively easy to make and hold in common new rules between small groups, but not easy between big ones. In case of small groups, it is useful to offer informations which are closely related with urban life of each residents and to debate openly between residents. In the meanwhile, in case of big groups, we think that it is useful to offer informations every small area or to enlarge the extent under the application of new rules which have been made in small strong groups.
    Download PDF (704K)
  • Tomitaro SUEISHI
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 18 Pages 26-32
    Published: November 10, 1999
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    For a long time, the word of "literacy" has been meaning human ability of reading, writing, and reckoning. Recently, however, it seems revised with the development of informatics such as computerization, communication net works and picture handling. The informatics is gradually intruding into "urban storm drainage" society, which results in : 1) a gap between dissemination of weather data and probable incidents of inundation in urban land due to heavy storm occurrence, and/or 2) an inconsistency in a concept between hypothesized hydrograph/pollutographs and real time-space control (RTSC) techniques. These contradictions may come from; 1) the lack of useful action, for citizens do not know how to use the weather data brought in by TV medium, and 2) the traditional study style stacked in statistic approaching to storm behavior, even though it is simultaneously monitored on the basis of the meso-scale meteorological information which is supplied from only the several hundreds meter high above the sea level.The new literacy will be subdivided into two phases; 1) emergence of complexity science which makes possible to deal totally with pollutographs of many quality indices, and 2) citizen's high concern to weather forecasting, the Internet utilization and so on. Therefore, the administrative specialists should alter the traditional designing of huge storm infrastructures construction in order to allow the citizens involvement into RTSC of storm storage or discharge, even in the built-up area. In this paper, a general view of rainwater and information flows of RTSC is illustrated.
    Download PDF (1288K)
  • Haruki OGAWA
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 18 Pages 33-39
    Published: November 10, 1999
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The number of personal computer is increasing gradually in local-government body. In using personal computer, there are some problems which have to be solved. The problems are as follows. 1)Compatibility between the versions of product is incomplete. 2)The cycle time of renewal of version with hardware and software are shorter than the period of lease. 3)In local-government body the concept of TCO is not accepted in compilation of the budget. 4)In local-government body the staff has personal change every few years, and he may make a wrong choice the because of the shortage of knowledge. I propose four solutions. They are as follows. 1)The acceptance of TCO in compilation of the budget. 2)The establishment of standard in system development such as shortening of the period of lease, using the software for developmet in ordinary way. 3)The introduction of assessment system after system running. 4)The introduction of, what is called, out-sourcing. Moreover there is possibility of introducing the system constructed by simple computers called thin-client.
    Download PDF (898K)
  • Kaname ITO
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 18 Pages 40-
    Published: November 10, 1999
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (127K)
  • Hajime NAKANO
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 18 Pages 40-44
    Published: November 10, 1999
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (573K)
  • Koichiro HIOKII
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 18 Pages 44-47
    Published: November 10, 1999
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (496K)
  • Hirosi YODA
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 18 Pages 47-53
    Published: November 10, 1999
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (865K)
  • Kaname ITO, Hajime NAKANO, Koichiro HIOKII, Hirosi YODA
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 18 Pages 53-65
    Published: November 10, 1999
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (1444K)
  • Yasuhiko TAKAHARA
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 18 Pages 66-77
    Published: November 10, 1999
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper presents a comprehensive model of an organization and formalizing it mathematically, shows theoretical results. Due to the space limit the proofs of the results are not included. The comprehensive model is given by specialization of the hierarchical complex model of the mathematical general systems theory. In particular, an organization is defined as a contrived system with a goal called organizational goal and is modelled consisting of three management layers, operational, organizational and institutional. The theoretical results are derived for three aspects of the model. First, the hierarchical structure is formalized as a tree of the graph theory so that a mathematical theory of an organization chart is presented. Second, the coordination function of the organizational layer is investigated so that a condition when harmonization of the operational layer implies realization of the organizational goal is given. Finally, the adaptive function of the institutional layer is studied in terms of the variety concept of Ashby and showed in a formal way that a sustaining organization should satisfy the variety matching principle against the environmental change.
    Download PDF (962K)
  • Akira TOKUYASU
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 18 Pages 78-83
    Published: November 10, 1999
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We propose the concept of an 〃intermediary unit〃 and discuss its significance and relevance in the social systems theory. In the background of this discussion there lies the actual situation that there is no system of meaning and values valid in all the areas in the world society which has emerged in the process of functional differentiation and globalization, nor can we design such a system theoretically. How can we interpret the plurality of meaning-spaces in the world society? How will this plurality develop in the future? And how can people construct their identity in such a situation? Guided by these questions we consider the significance of intermediary units, define the competition of intermediary units and meaning-spaces in the actual social process as the 〃politics of meaning〃, and propose the new form of pluralism based on the concept of 〃poly-contexturality〃.
    Download PDF (713K)
  • Saburo AKAHORI
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 18 Pages 84-89
    Published: November 10, 1999
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Modern society (functionally differentiated society) has been paradoxically described. Some say it is one-dimensional (meaning-construction in society is monotonous), while others maintain it is multidimensional (meaning-construction in society is colorful). In modern society, people are deembedded from a fixed context of a particular class or community and can gain access to several communication codes. Therefore, at the individual level, various perspectives are possible. Such a society is multi-dimensional. From another viewpoint, however, because of the diversity of individuals, control of meaning-construction (way of thinking) becomes stronger into the private domain. Such a society is one-dimensional. Which is true? To answer this question, the second-order approach must be used, that is, a description of communication codes. From this angle, we can understand this paradox as a problem of self-description in one-dimensional/ multidimensional code. If we want to describe the multidimensionality (polycontextuality) of a modern society, we have to distinguish between the codes.
    Download PDF (624K)
  • Koji KANAGAWA
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 18 Pages 90-96
    Published: November 10, 1999
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    There are hot arguments to which sector we entrust the supply of goods and services relating the emerging of Nonprofit Organizations. In this paper, the meaning of existence of these organizations are examined especially from the point of 〃public〃 and 〃mutual〃. And the formation of NPOs are studied from the relationship with other sector e. g. government and market. The formation of mutual type of NPOs are under some limitations; e. g. the level of national income, homogeneity of population, and social solidarity. In addition, there are some differences between 〃public〃 and 〃mutual〃 organizations. In the case of public type of Nonprofit Organization, supplier of resources (donor or volunteer) and demander of services are separated. On the contrary, in the case of mutual type of NPOs, they are not separated. Government, market and nonprofit sector are respectively have a short coming and they should supplement the shortage with each other. In the well-matured society like Japan, a large choice of services which are supplied from various sectors should be sought.
    Download PDF (829K)
  • Kazufumi UENO
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 18 Pages 97-102
    Published: November 10, 1999
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We are now living in a society in which our life space enlarges rapidly by the improvement on transferability of persons, goods, and information. We call such society "highly integrated interacting society", in which we are demanded to harmonize both logic of life and regional development. We define the interaction theory as a theory that can meet the demand above. The theory aims to describe and explain the problems of confrontation between use and management of regional resources. And for that it must have some requisite as below; (1) To treat life activities as the process of solving life problems, (2) To introduce the concept of the transferability above into the process, (3) To specify an area for regional development and set the structure of supply and demand of the resources there, and (4) To put the mechanism of resource supply based on the cooperation formed by residents and visitors in the area.
    Download PDF (760K)
  • Sakae OKUDA
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 18 Pages 103-109
    Published: November 10, 1999
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    When a method of specific knowledge creation is dominant, knowledge created by means of other methods would not be recognized as knowledge. Therefore, those who engaged in such a knowledge creation had to be isolated socially. But resent development of communication technology boosts not only centralization but also diversity and complexity of the world, and works in a direction canceling their social isolation. In other words, knowledge which would never growth in former environment will get new (virtual) footholds for knowledge production and be possible to exceed critical point. In this report we discuss the methods how to support such footholds for knowledge creation dispersing in global scale, clarify their course of growth, and attempt to make a knowledge connection between them. We also consider how such knowledge creation footholds related with each other, and the logic such as coexistence and an integration or rejection working between those new footholds and existing ones. The case adopted here is so called Sokal Affair which has been struggled between natural scientists and philosophers of science based on cultural studies.
    Download PDF (818K)
feedback
Top