This paper describes the image processing system that automatically analyzes the size distributions in droplet video images. This processing system, based on a conventional video camera, a digital image processor, a 32 bit personal computer and a monitor, is operated by a software written by the Basic of program language. Images are generated by taking the microphotographs of the water droplets captured on a plate of glass coated with a slightly deteriorated cylinder oil. After image acquisition, the recorded video frames are replayed and analyzed under computer control. The performance data are given from the experiment which is carried out to compare measurements of real spray distribution obtained by using the automatic system with those manually obtained from a microphotograph of water droplets. Consequently, the accuracy for the both measurements is 7.54 % in relative error for 290 water droplets used here being varied over the range of 3 to 136μm in diameter. Furthermore, it is found that by utilizing the image processing algorithm, the optimum threshold level is selected and this level is the value just before the black shadow begins to appear in the background of a monitor.
At present, Nox and SOx emission from the diesel engine in ships are regulated, because of destruction to the sea environment. The photovoltaic energy has a great future as clean energy instead of fossil fuel which has many environmental problems such as exhausted gas or pollution. This paper presents the ability to apply the photovoltaic power system to electric power source in a ship. The new electric power system with the photovoltaic power system are designed in a harbor ship. A harbor ship is selected as an example of the small ship. The NOx and SOx emission are estimated by the comparison between the present system and the new system with the photovoltaic power system. It is shown that the photovoltaic power system can apply to electric power source in harbor ships by the results of this study.
The Boiler Research Subcommittee of the Marine Engineering Society in Japan (MESJ) has surveyed the prospect of autmatic water treatment for marine auxiliary boiler by the use of the questionnaires to marine engineers, which included the questions for present situation and future demand regarding the water treatment. Requirements of energy conservation and labor-saving has been increasing year by year since the oil crisis, and moreover, recently, mixed-crew vessels have increasing rapidly. Responding those trends, most of answers desire the introduction of automatic techniques for some items of water quality control, particularly in continuous monitoring. The answers show also, however, that some items do not necessarily require the introduction of automatic control. There is the analysis of questionnaire shows that it is desirable to introduce not the full automation systems but an effective automatic techniques for some important items of water treatment. The authors would be glad if this paper could be helpful to the the people concerned with automation of water treatment.
In the middle of the 80's, when the fuel cost was reaching very high values, all means to reduce the specific fuel consumption were looked for. Therefore, S.E.M.T. Pielstick launched the long stroke PC20 and PC40 in-line engines series running at lower speeds and increased peak combustion pressures. To-day the fuel cost has dropped to quite lower values and, to fit to the market demand, following engine features are getting to relatively increased importance: - Low specific cost (or Price/kW) . - High reliability and low maintenance costs. - Reduced nitrogen oxides emissions. Therefore, S.E.M.T. Pielstick decided to develop a new generation of PC2 and PC4 engines, the <<B>>-types, which main features are: * Stroke increase within limits to allow to keep the same engine bulk of V-type engines, to minimize the cost increase and to uprate the power at unchanged running speed. * Peak combustion pressure increase, to keep the fuel consumption at satisfactory levels, making use of the reinforced components developed for the PC20 and PC40 engines.