The gist of Edith Cobb’s insightful work, The Ecology of Imagination in Childhood, could be summarized in two points: 1) Children in their latency period become, using their vigorous imagination, what they watch, listen to and touch, which is also the creative act of “world-making”; 2) The creativity thus fostered strongly affects the creative power which is required to develop a unique personality as they grow up. Since Cobb’s explanation of how children’s imagination works is not necessarily clear, we introduce a different approach in terms of body-in-becoming in order to further explore her significant points.
First, we define the concept of imagination as follows: while in Bergson’s theory the integration of memory and body enables us to perceive and act in the world, in children’s imagination it is half-actualizedmemory and body that are to be integrated. When children become something, the imagining subject and the imagined object get permeated each other to form a specific world. In such creative processes, children could make the world they imaginatively dwell in.
Secondly, we assume that, when imagery and perception/action are unified, the rhythm of the subject and that of the object resonate each other. Resonance of two different rhythms could produce a third wavelength. That is what happens in “world-making.” When children repeat those processes, the foundation for the source of creativity is shaped in them, through which they develop a unique personality required in growing up. Therefore, if that foundation is fragile, their formation of personality must necessarily be stunted.
The education, which respect traditional culture of Japan has been required in the globalized international community. In order to realize the education for the development and the inheritance of Japanese traditional culture, Budo has been compulsory in junior high schools, for experiencing an inherent Japanese culture since 2012. Budo has not only aspects of Japanese traditional culture, but also aspects of one of competitive sports. Therefore in the education of budo, it is required to make students realize the essence of the traditional and cultural characteristics of budo not only skills. Budo had been positioned as optional program in physical education program of junior-high school, and practice of it had been left to the discretion of each schools. In such situations, making budo compulsory at junior-high school has introduced confusions into education.
The aim of this study is to examine the outlook for the future of the budo education through considering various issues facing the teaching budo in junior-high schools based on the results of some surveys.
In Japan, dance education had been only for female students in junior high schools more than 100 years since 1881. In 1989, in the shift to gender-equal society, males also became able to take dance for elective subject. However, dance had not been common elective for males due to its previous long history. Accordingly, in 2008, the course of study was revised and dance became compulsory subject for both males and females in the first and second grade in junior high school. On the other hand, in 1947, dance contents changed from a mastery learning of existing dance movement to a creative learning such as “creative dance”. Furthermore, in 1998, “contemporary rhythm dance” was adopted as creative learning content, although people had often treated it as a mastery learning of existing dance movement by misunderstanding or intentionally.
Therefore, I investigated the dance class plans in junior high schools; it was to make clear the transfiguration of dance education during transition period from the revision in 2008 to full implementation in 2012, and to clarify the problems about dance education in the future.
The results were as follows: Dance was become common as a compulsory subject in 2012. Since dance class increased twice, male teachers, as well as female teachers, were getting to teaching dance. 70% of dance classes were planned as single-gender class. And 70% of classes for male students were by male teachers. But, many male teachers didn’t have experience in dancing and teaching dance. Therefore, they were awfully confused. So dance classes often fell into disorder. 70% of dance classes were about “contemporary rhythm dance”, because many students had interest in it. However, misinterpretation had been made often on the learning content; deterioration in the quality of teaching was concerned.
These results suggested the necessity of training teachers in dance teaching and of study in “contemporary rhythm dance” as learning content.
The martial arts and dance were made compulsory at junior high school in Japan from 2012. What does it bring to school education? What will be the educational possibility of teaching the martial arts and dance at school? The purpose of this paper is to indicate the prospects.
First, the discussions on the problem by the researchers and school teachers of the martial arts and dance were surveyed in the special issues of Journal of Taiikuka kyoiku (Physical Education). It was clarified that the pursuit of enjoyment of the experiences, the stimulation of students’ intellectual curiosity, the importance of history learning, and the direction of moral and human education have been already suggested and shared among the people concerned. Second, the problem of handing down of the culture was considered in terms of the martial arts and dance, since there seems to be an emphasis on tradition and culture native to Japan behind the mandatory of the martial arts in particular. As the elements of the cultural transmission of the martial arts and dance, to learn the culture of model/style and to encounter with the arts of body movement dissimilar to the mechanical rationality in the modern West were pointed out. Third, the discussion on the generation of somaesthetic learning was presented as the fundamental significance of teaching the martial arts and dance at school. It was pointed out that the educational possibility of teaching the martial arts and dance at school was that both the martial arts and dance would be loci of somaesthetic learning which consists of sense/sensitivity, expression, skill, and active whole person. It was also suggested that the fusion of the school subjects’ framework would occur further according to the expansion of learning as a result of making the martial arts and dance compulsory in school education.
This article sets out to make an analysis concerning the relationship between the discourses on‘youthfulness’ and ‘purity’, and thereby to clarify the formulation of images on the Koshien Baseball Tournaments in those days.
‘Purity’ was the term which was frequently used in the discourses on the Koshien Baseball Tournaments from the 1920s through the 1930s. At first, it didn’t quite represent exactly what the events were. This is because the newspapers which promoted the events ranked it as ‘slogan’ that players and concerned parties of the events had to abide by to the possible extent. However, after the middle of the 1920s, in the course of arguments on the events, the term began to be reinterpreted which could represent a unique appeal of the events the Tokyo Big6 Baseball League might not. As a result, the series of the ‘narratives’ depicting the events all of which had ‘purity’ in their core were generated.
The following viewpoints could be pointed out. ‘Youthfulness’ as ‘norm’ that the baseball circle during the end of the Meiji Era established for survival was the indispensable conditions precedent to conducting the events in the early stages. And in contrast to growing criticism toward ever-growing commercialism of the Tokyo Big6 Baseball League, the way of viewing the Koshien Baseball Tournaments as ‘others’ able to rightly embody ‘youthfulness’ began to be established.
In Japan, labor markets have been reduced since the 1990s, and there has been an explosion of homeless people in urban public spaces. The homeless who had been living in train stations, parks and streets have subsequently been forced to move from these public spaces. In addition, some forced eliminations were caused by sport. For example, Miyashita Park and Tatekawa Kasenjiki Park, recently eliminated a large number of homeless people due to construction projects for new sport facilities. Why has sport been used in the elimination of the homeless? What kinds of difficulties are brought to the homeless living in public spaces where sport facilities are to be built?
In Nagoya’s Wakamiya Odori Park, two sport facilities were constructed as a means of eliminating the homeless population. However, there are still a lot of homeless people living in the park, and the gate ball court in the park has been used as a soup kitchen. The following will be considered:
1) Sport facilities restrict the use of open/public space since they become places where we only do sport; therefore they create inhospitable environments for the homeless.
2) Homeless people and their supporters transform sport facilities into places where the homeless can live as a support to them, even though these sport facilities were built to restrict them to be there.
This paper clarifies how sport facilities are used by and impact people. This information is extremely important to understand before sport facilities are constructed in public spaces.
This paper reveals the features and trends of “football migrants” in the J. League compared with those in European leagues. Football migrants are professional footballers who migrate to play football. While the importance of their role has been recognized since the foundation of the J. League in 1993, previous studies have not investigated them in detail. Therefore, this paper explores the features of football migration in the J. League by comparing them to the findings of studies on European leagues.
We collected data from players’ lists, which are published before the beginning of each season, and analyzed whether (1) the patterns of footballers’ migration are the same as those in European leagues, in terms of the high ratio of South American, former Yugoslav, and African footballers, and (2) the characteristics of football migrants have changed since the foundation of the J. League.
The analysis reveals that the ratio of Brazilians, former Yugoslav, and Korean footballers is high, while that of African footballers is low. In addition, the variety of countries/areas of origin of football migrants is less than that at the foundation of the J. League. Moreover, the average age of football migrants is decreasing. Thus, while the J. League plays an important role in receiving football migrants, there are uninvestigated features of football migration. This paper suggests that further investigation is needed into football migration not only in Europe, but also in marginal areas such as Japan.
Endurance sports such as marathon and triathlon are prolonged athletic practices over an extended period of time and distance of suffering. They have been well enjoyed all over the world in recent years. Endurance sports have been concerned with their previous studies in sport sociology. In general, they have been taken and meant for kinds of personal practice on purpose to re-integrate one’s way of living under complicated or destabilized contemporary society. And some qualitative researches have argued such practice is facilitated by communal relationship between the self and others through endurance sports.
In light of the above discussions, this paper explored the communal experiences in endurance sports with others by gathering the data through participant observation and interviewing intended for triathletes in western Hiroshima. Their experiences with significant other triathletes having mutual supports of the practice known as “NAKAMA” were focused in particular. Moreover, how such experiences are positioned in the process of re-integration of respondents’ life was concerned.
The findings revealed occurrences of intercorporeality in triathlon that is ultimate individual sport with pain and exhaustion. For example, respondents are inspired their subjectivity from efforts or cheers of “NAKAMA” while having training and competition. Besides, the realization of the self from such preconscious experiences has leaded their life re-integration. It was discussed and concluded that the research case is possible to add new logic to self-reflexivity which is referred to as broad infiltration in today’s society. Further, its detailed theoretical consideration is pointed out as a future issue.