Erving Goffman's analysis, in his early stage of ‘cooling of the mark out’ views the handling of failure as something concertedly to be coped with. He suggests that the arrangements of everyday life contain built in cooling processes and the application of the cooling notion to a wide range of social life. Given this suggestion, an educational sociologist Takeuchi Yoh who taking an examination system as the example, says that the system is apparently filled up with the warm-up slogan but in fact, it is stationing prep students according to each one of real ability, so implicitly it cools them out. In this paper, also discuss a sport is the same as that examination system, and although it is visible like an agitating culture on a message level, if it sees by the function achieved to implicit is the meta-level, it is claimed that is the calming culture. One of the reason is that participants, excluding the professional elite of a sports event be father than the rating scale which is sorting out prep students convinced to the rating scale which classifies the victory or defeat. The second basis is the sports world which consists of framed reality and belongs to the domain of ‘jeu’ unlike the everyday ‘profane’ life world. The theories to which it otherwise referred are, the scrupulous argument on the routinization of charism by M. Weber, triadic model of ‘sacré·profane·jeu’ by R. Caillois and the theories about the latent functions of conflict by L. Coser. I want to also add the point that the suggestions about “nobility of failure” by Inoue Shun is a big hint to the last.
This study presented a framework for study on mind and body in sport based on the phenomenological mind and body theories which were grounded by Hiroshi Ichikawa and the mind and body science of Yasuo Yuasa and so on, and considered some problems as a “introductin to mind and body theory” adding some preceding study results. Such concepts were adopted in the framework as “figure and ground”, “complex” and “sympathy” of Ichikawa, “affordance” from Gibson, “three circuits” of Yuasa, and “theory of body” from Takizawa and so on. And arguments on mind and body in sport of Kameyama, Kusaka, Nishimura, Nozaki and so on were located along with this framework, added some considerations and contributed to hereafter studies. There scattered not a little considerations on mind and body in physical activity (movement) of human beyond that. This field should be a important area of sport sociology one of which misson is the criticism to modem. And it is possible and necessary for this field to approach from deliberated various perspectives beyond that framework in this study.
The rise of football in late 20th century Japan cannot be grasped adequately without reference to the wider context of social and cultural change. In this article, football is conceptualised as an event which is produced and managed under very specific conditions for temporary groups of participating audiences. From an anthropological perspective, I argue that supporters and spectators occupy a central role in the ‘performance’ of sport events. From a sociological perspective, I show that due to its specific structure and contents (sport) events are well suited to fulfill the social needs of the inhabitants of late modernity. As the context of events in general changed from the extraordinary to the ordinary, while its core meaning continues to underline the outstanding particularity of its experience, football has come to play a typical role within the eventisation of Japanese society.
On the football matches of European leagues, occasionally, male players kiss each other to celebrate their goals. Generally, it is regarded as the expression of their emotion, however, according to usual context of gender regime, such performance as same sex kissing is likely to be understood as the deviation from common sense of masculinity. The purpose of this paper is to examine the meaning of kiss performance on football. The concept of homosociality is the key to understand the relation between sport and masculinity, because masculinity is just idea and cannot be shaped without supported by homosociality, which provides the concrete structure. Theoretically, homosociality includes misogyny and homophobia in itself to complete and maintain masculinity. In fact the institution and practice of professional sport has been clearly divided by gender. It means that, as long as remained inside of that structure, the exclusion of women is perfectly completed. Meanwhile homophobia becomes more severe to police homosexuality which is the only one threat for homosociality after the completion of misogyny. As assumed theoretically, homophobia in the realm of sport is much stricter than other social area. According to the evidences which were drawn from the remarks of players, kiss performance has been doing based on tacit, but firm premise that they were not homosexuals. It should be understood that the kiss between male football players is the expression of masculinity in paradoxical way. This fact also suggests important view to prove that the linkage between gender and identity is arbitrary and gender such as masculinity is constructed performatively by performance.
An increasing number of articles have been written since the late 1980's about sports in non-western societies. Sport sociologists turn their attention to non-western regions to understand global sport developments. They view sports from a political economic perspective that draws on cultural imperialism or cultural hegemony. The irony, however, is that this perspective hardly takes the indigenousness of a particular sports field into account. Several studies have condemned this approach generalizing sport practices without in-depth fieldwork. This paper investigates the potentialities of perceptions and understandings of surrounding the indigenousness of a sport. Drawing upon a review of existing studies, I intend to examine what has been lacking in these articles. I propose that doing fieldwork research at the micro-level and theorizing about the logic of everyday forms of sport practices in a particular field depend on the reflexivity of the researcher's posture. Mandle's concept of ‘open cultural space’ and Wacquant's description of ‘Pugilism’ in black American boxers are also of relevance. Attention to the indigenousness of a particular field can help us become critical of reductionist theory centered on the macrostructure of political economy.
This paper focuses on the process by which the personality layer of nationalist was strengthened through the involvement in the traditional sport (GAA) in Ireland. The general understanding about Irish nationalism generated through the GAA activities is that the IRB took control from the beginning and the nationalist feeling was reproduced through the GAA activities. The different viewpoint about this is provided in this thesis. The parish-based club system played a main role in the creation of the cohesiveness among the GAA members. Irish National League was another key player for this role. Catholicism and introductory campaign for home rule were two ideological backgrounds for the establishment of the GAA. Subsequently the networking between parishes or counties was enhanced through the GAA activities along with the other nationalist movements. The web of interdependency was extended in this process and a rather isolated unit of a parish became more integrated to the nation-wide nationalist movement. Through this process, the parishioner's layer of nationalist became more dominant than the other layers in their mentality. Finally several nationalist movements became inter-linked with each other and amplified its sentiment towards Independence. Local club histories were used to illustrate the grass-roots sentiments rather than the decision of the Central Council of the GAA. Consolidated ‘single-layered’ sentiment, which was facilitated by the Ban, against political and cultural colonization by Britain was a key factor to explain the generation of Irish nationalism within the GAA members.
The purpose of this paper is to consider the importance of the baseball stadiums, which railroad companies built and managed, in prewar Japanese baseball. It was a national trend that railroad companies built the baseball stadiums around the railway as part of passenger attraction or residential section development. In the prewar period when the public baseball stadiums still hardly existed, railroad companies' baseball stadiums, where stand equipment was also ready, were pioneers in Japanese baseball. Moreover, baseball conventions were excellent items for railroad companies to raise passenger traffic receipts. They contributed to the birth of the Japanese Professional Baseball League. It is worth mentioning that the railroad companies' baseball stadiums existed in Kansai and Nagoya although there was no baseball stadium for professional baseball in Tokyo at the time of the establishment of Japanese Professional Baseball. It is also significant that half of the professional baseball games was held in the railway companies' baseball stadiums in the prewar period.
Most studies regarding sport and gender in Japan have criticized the images of female sport players who are showed on the basis of sexual stereotype through the mass media. Nevertheless females contributed to sports development, they have been represented by conventional gender stereotype. Today, we would think of figure skating as a sport for females because of women's skaters, which was regarded as a sport for male in past. It is important for us to analyze how female sports players have been represented. We overview a female skater, Sonja Henie who was a Norwegian skater in the 1920s and the 1930s and was called “Queen of Ice.” Viewing her skating achievement, the roles of her movies and her real life, we analyze how female figure skaters had been represented and been defined in the historical context. We consider (1) contributions of four female skaters before Henie, and (2) symbolized heroines of the ideals of women, which Henie played in six movies on the 1930s. The above-mentioned, we examine how the stereotype of “Queen of Ice” has been constructed. “Queen of Ice” had appeared in the 1920s, the era of “New Woman.” We discuss “Queen of Ice” had been distorted by the conservative and traditional male dominant ideology.