The purpose of this study is to empirically assess, and do a factor analysis of, the sports lifestyle of the masters swimmers. The AIO (Activties, Interests, and opinions) approach is used to analyze the sports lifestyle. A battery of 25 AIO statements, partly based upon past literature, was specifically developed for this study. The data for the study were collected from a total of 258 masters swimmers who participated in Tokai Masters Swimming Festival, in Mie Prefecture in September, 1991. In this study, a factor analysis was performed to identify the factor structure underlying the sports lifestyle of 193 subjects. The classification analyses based upon sports lifestyle factors were done by hierarchical cluster analysis. The main results are as follws: 1. Eight sport lifestyle factors were identified and named: (1) sports effects, (2) community oriented, (3) sports models and sports fashions, (4) healthy lifestyle, (5) competitiveness, (6) personal interactions, (7) consumption patterns, and (8) experimentation in leisure activities. 2. The eight factors were grouped in four major clusters: (1) competitiveness-oriented cluster, (2) healthy- and leisure-oriented cluster, (3) personal-interaction oriented cluster, (4) community-oriented and sports leadership cluster. 3. The clusters were considerably affected by past sports experience in school sports clubs. However, lack of past sports experience also influenced the competitiveness-oriented cluster.
This study attempts to clarify the factors determining sport participation, especially the sport participation rate in each prefecture as an indication of total sport participation. This work is based on Factor analysis and Multiple Regression analysis; and on the analysis of “An examination of sport circumstances in each prefecture”, a study which ranks prefectures in terms of their sportenvironments. The main results are summarized as follows: 1) The sport participation rate in each prefecture is determined by the degree of urbanization and the quality of the sport environment. (Urbanization is largely a function of population density, a progressive spirit, and mental and cultural affluence. The quality of the sport environment is largely a function of the facilities.) 2) In traditional and popular sports the participation of popular teams and players is virtually required in prefectures. In addition, still more sport participation is sponsored by public and private enterprises. 3) Urbanization based on the development of infrastructure has reinforced the people's interaction of the community. Influenced by the urbanization and communal interaction, a positive attitude toward sport has been created in prefectures.
In this paper, I analyze the relationship between the official curriculm and extra-curricular sport activities. For this purpose, the “No-pass, No-play” rule of the Texas Government is a useful case. “No-pass, No-play” is the regulation which prohibits highschool students from extra-curricular activities if they cannot pass their examinations. Answering the questions “What's the problem”, “Why the problem”, “Who has power”, and “Why does he have power” will reveal the social basis of the relationship between the official curriculum and extra-curricular sports activities. The state's policy is “Academic are first, sports are secound”, coachesobjected to this discourse, but they were defeated. The reasons are: (1) Most citizens accepted the state's sports policy, because of the nation-wide Education Reform Movement. (2) The coaches could not demonstrate their doctrine that “Athletics are educational”. (3) The coaches changed their attitude from rejection of “No-pass, No-play” toward encouraging their boys' and girls'academics. The social struggle over “No-pass, No-play” revealed a more important social factor: the disadvantage of minority students who go to large-scale urban highschools. This means the problem of academic achievements is less a problem of extra-curricular sports activities, but a problem of social and educational disadvantage.
Today, women's participation in sports has been increasing with the changes in society. It's clear to everyone that female participation has been expanding in sports. Neverthless, sports are still undoubtedly prospering as part of male cluture. Since sports reflect sex differences distinctively and exaggerately, there is a great possibility that the differences can be reduced to biological ones. Sports may have a reproducing function in the society. If “sex-stereotyping” continuously restraints not only women's sport activities, but women's lives themselves in addition to male dominance and control, studying “sex-stereotyping” in sports based on the mutual relationship between sports and society will, I think, lead us to think about better sport activities and a better way of life in society for women. We need to clarify the sports world, which is based around male dominance, through a micro-persepective, dynamic study of “sex-stereotyping” in sports. And further, the hidden mechanism that produces sexual inequality in the society should be clarified. But there has been very little research done regarding this topic in the siciology of sports. I think that researching sports in school, which has a socialization function, may be the most effective means for enforcing stereotypes.