This paper uses the cultural moment and site of Rugby World Cup 2019 to explore the state of the sports’ historically most successful team, the New Zealand All Blacks. More specifically, the paper: (a) provides a brief historical overview of the development of the professionalization and commercialisation of New Zealand rugby and the All Blacks; (b) identifies some of the contemporary challenges faced by New Zealand Rugby (NZR) and how they are responding; and, (c) offers comment on the state of the rugby as a global sport at the historical juncture of the 2019 Rugby World Cup.
World Rugby is an organization that governs the unique world of rugby union globally, such as being in charge of 15-a-side and 7-a-side games and the qualification criteria of national representative players not seen in other competitions. From the 1980s World Rugby has been aiming to integrate every detail of world rugby into one, and this paper clarifies for what purpose and using what method that world should be developed.
World Rugby sets the norm and value of what rugby should be, is committed to that realization, and is a collective entity that governs the world of rugby based on that result. In other words, World Rugby brings morality and value to rugby governance, not only to formally control members' freedom, but to adopt methods that emphasize dedication towards common interests such as the ideal development of rugby and strong connection between members.
Also, if you unravel the activities of World Rugby at that time, in the process of expanding its sphere of influence, it developed various international competitions through the inclusion of females and youth, and rugby sevens, and has made efforts to improve their social value.
From the backdrop of these activities, amateur status showcases an open seam, amid concern for division and confusion of the world, an image of World Rugby emerges that protects the world of rugby from external commercialist pressures, aiming for autonomous development.
Since the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, sports mega-events (sports mega-event hereinafter called “SM”) held in Japan have been associated and discussed in conjunction with the disaster. The efforts to recover the daily lives of the disasteraffected areas must be closely linked to SMs, and although these efforts are important in studying the relationship between the disaster and SMs, earlier studies have not fully discussed this area in depth.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the logic behind a city affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake to host Rugby World Cup 2019 (hereinafter called “RWC) matches, by focusing on Kamaishi City in Iwate Prefecture which is hosting RWC matches. The study conducted research of resource materials and interviews to trace the process that led to Kamaishi City hosting RWC. This study first clarified the city government’s strategic approach in aiming to host RWC, which is considered to raise the prospect of overcoming regional issues faced by the city since before the disaster while utilizing local resources. It also highlighted the fact that discussions in depth related to hosting RWC could not be held between the local government and residents due to factors such as structural constraints caused by the disaster and SM. In order to achieve post-disaster reconstruction through hosting a SM, this study suggests the importance of examining the possibility of hosting a SM in tandem with concrete efforts toward reconstruction in the disaster-affected area.
This paper can be positioned as an introduction to an attempt to reconstruct the discursive space about the postwar extracurricular sport activities targeting the “Coach Discourse” that has been overlooked in research until now. In particular, we tried to overcome the dichotomy between “Discipline” and “Autonomy” which have been the central educational values of extracurricular sport activities. From the viewpoint of the “Game of Freedom and Security” and the “Strategic Logic” by Michel Foucault, we pointed out the need to grasp “Discipline” and “Autonomy” not as “Educational Values”, but “Educational Techniques” that lead students’ conduct. Based on this argument, we analyzed the “ Coach Discourse” from the mid 1970s to the 1980s.
As a result, this study identified three characteristic narratives. First, as coaches recognized attitude like egoism, apathy or indifference in the students at that time, extracurricular sport activities were positioned “Human Education”. Under these circumstances, “Autonomy” was used to impose harsh discipline on the students. On the other hand, the difficulty of coaching focusing on “Discipline” was recognized. Therefore, practice was distinguished from competition, and “Discipline” allocated to the former whereas “Autonomy” to the latter. This can be indicated as a new problem setting on how to allocate “Discipline” and “Autonomy” that has been overlooked in previous studies. Finally, based on this analysis, we considered the question why coaches all of a sudden had become able to narrate wordily from the mid 1970s to the 1980s.
Sport for Development and Peace (SDP) has been attracting attention as a new form of development aid. In response to this trend, some NGO actors in developed countries are beginning to implement sports promotion activities in developing countries. Regarding this trend, this article focuses on examples of Japanese baseball promotion activities in Africa and the resulting sport labor migration, then considers how sport a physical and cultural activity can solve various problems of developing countries.
The cases covered in this paper are cases of baseball players from Africa, who contracted with independent professional leagues which play a role as a training center for upper professional leagues, born as a result of baseball promotion activities by Japanese NGOs. The first case of Zimbabwean player was carried out as a last resort due to promotion activities there had become difficult because of the deterioration of the domestic situation. As a consequence, “professional baseball player through development aid” has become one model case. In some cases, the main purpose is not to provide development aid but to send “professional player”. However, in reality, players in the independent professional leagues earn a little salary. Thus, it is difficult to regard it as aid for economic independence for developing countries through the promotion of sport. And there a suspicion about the self-evaluation of the actor’s side that baseball promotion activities in Africa can help the enlightenment activities.
Baseball promotion activity in Africa is only a means of development aid of providing entertainment. Thus, accepting that limit and seeking the effectiveness such as educational effect through team play is the direction of baseball promotion activity as a part of future SDP.