Japan Journal of Sport Sociology
Online ISSN : 2185-8691
Print ISSN : 0919-2751
ISSN-L : 0919-2751
Volume 6
Displaying 1-8 of 8 articles from this issue
  • The Adjustment of a Mega-Event to a Local Culture. or: from Technocratic Fathering, via Anomic Pregnancy, to Popular Enjoyment
    Dag LEONARDSEN, [in Japanese]
    1997 Volume 6 Pages 1-16,123
    Published: March 20, 1997
    Released on J-STAGE: May 30, 2011
    Both theoretical and empirical sociological works tell as that rapid social change in a local society might produce conflicts and problems. This paper tells the story about what happened to the community of Lillehammer (23, 000 inhabitants) during the construction period and during the 16 olympics days. How did the local popuration react to the prospects of huge investments during a short time span? The paper lists four criteria for “the integrated society”, and asks if the community of Lillehammer experienced processes of distintegration during the construction period. To a certain degree, the construction period can be described as “an anomic pregnancy”; there was a feeling of “community lost” in the town. During the olympic arrangement, however, this situation changed dramatically. While the years before the Games could be described in terms of fission, the 16 olympic days turned out as an enormous fusion process. The local integrational effects of the Games is explained in terms of collective identity processes. The theoretical framework for much of the discussion is phenomenological: Based on stories written by the local population of Lillehammer, the author asks: How do people construct the new social reality which took place outside their windows?
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  • For Forming the Arena for New Way of River Improvement
    Kazushi MAEDA
    1997 Volume 6 Pages 17-29,124
    Published: March 20, 1997
    Released on J-STAGE: May 30, 2011
    People living in urban area is starting to notice importance of forest in upriver district concerning to the water resource and outdoor recreation. And networking on various levels between urban area and rural area in a river basin is demanded to reactivate communities in mountain region. The Teshio river in the northern part of Hokkaido keeps better condition of natural environment, because the river improvement work has been delayed there. The natural environment has a possibility to develop the nature based tourism by giving fields of canoeing for urban people. Networking of local governments in the basin was needed to realize it. But it had not been formed until the 1980s. Canoe clubs established by local resident in each municipality have started to form a grass roots network from the beginning of the 1990s. This network has formed a broader network that covered levels from grass roots to government by connecting with environmental groups, Hokkaido Development Board and Department of civil engineering construction that are managing river improvement and local governments. And it is initiating a project in the unit of the basin to reactivate communities. This paper will show the status and problems of the broader network in the basin by focusing on the relationship with the canoe clubs network.
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  • Takeshi NOZAKI
    1997 Volume 6 Pages 30-44,125
    Published: March 20, 1997
    Released on J-STAGE: May 30, 2011
    Many studies clarify that the modern Sport has modernism as main constituent element. The concern of this study is the contrary aspect of modern sport, anti-modernism. Modernism is defined as the phenomena that is caused by misunderstanding that the subject can control the world entirely by using his reason. Anti-modernism is defined as the mystic experience that activities in the world give the subject a new subjectivity all of a sudden. A hypothesis of this study is that modern sport has anti-modernism as a constituent elements, and has a effect to give the heeling of body to the modern subject.
    Main results are as follows;
    1) Inter-bodily performance is realized at the extreme situation in the significant game for sports players. Their self-consciousness and the intentional control of body of players are disappeared in the inter-bodily performance.
    2) It is an essential for realizing inter-bodily performance to have a rhythm jointly in their sport training.
    3) Inter-bodily performance has a effect to give the players body heeling. Sports players get a new subjectivity in inter-bodily performance.
    4) An aspect of anti-modernism in moderm sport has an effect to heel the moderm subject, but has an another effect to form the local universe exclusively.
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  • The Possibility of Positive Study about Running
    Minako TOBO
    1997 Volume 6 Pages 45-57,126
    Published: March 20, 1997
    Released on J-STAGE: May 30, 2011
    This paper tried to do positive study about running which is one of the case as “sports experience” by comparing the research on six runners using interview with Harada's positive paper “Phenomenology of Marathon”. The analysis was done with giving attention to “existential body” and “social body” especially.
    This paper revealed that:
    1) It is more important that runners with “existential body” araised by stripping social meaning find out self than that they associate with the another runners. and runners reconstruct own self-identity and real world in conformity to the self.
    2) Runners don't form the running ideology within peculiar scene of “Marathon” but reinterprete the meaning of experience on marathon and form the running ideology within usuall running scene. So we must give attenntion to usuall running scene as forming the running ideologiy.
    3) The process that runners reconstruct their self-identity and real world is influenced by social meaning. Then runners use peculiar tactics to elude the social oppression using new frame-work to interpret society, which is obbtained after the clash between “existential body” and “social body”.
    As a rusult we can discover the interaction between “existential body” and “social bodey” in the process of comprehending “sports experience”.
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  • Masako TANIGUCHI
    1997 Volume 6 Pages 58-69,127
    Published: March 20, 1997
    Released on J-STAGE: May 30, 2011
    In studies of the relation between sports and gender the concept of gender has not been used in the sense of “order owing to gender”. The purpose of this paper is to consider of the relation between establishment of order in sports and gender.
    We shall consider the subject from historical sociological point of view and note sociality in body.
    We can see from this viewpoint about the relation between abstracting process of everyday norm and gender, charactristic norm in sports and gender, capitalism in progress and gender.
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  • From a Life History of a Wheelchair Basketball Player
    Motoaki FUJITA
    1997 Volume 6 Pages 70-83,128
    Published: March 20, 1997
    Released on J-STAGE: May 30, 2011
    There are a few researches focus on influences of the macro level factors of socialization into sport. We can also find a few papers mention detail personal attributes of socializee in the field of socialization into sport.
    The purpose of this paper is to understand a process of socialization into sport of an athlete with physical disability. The socialization process takes place in social interaction between social agents and the socializee. To achieve the purpose, the life history method was adopted in this paper.
    To get the information, the author had a non-directive interview with a female athlete with physical disability who plays wheelchair basketball. The author also interviewed some people concerned with her and analyzed some documents to follow her life history.
    The results found in this paper are as follows:
    1. The socializee had social interaction with some different important social agents at the same period.
    2. The socializee is an individual who could made herself socialized into sport, and was able to influence others.
    3. To this athlete with spina bifida from her birth, good rehabilitation done in her childhood is very important for socialization into sport in her later life.
    4. Integrated play, integrated physical activities, integrated sport and integrated physical education may provide good influences to the sport socialization of children with disability.
    5. The process of the socialization into sport concerns itself with the social agents, social contexts, institutions, and culture.
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  • The Relationship Between Sports and Gambling
    Takeshi FURUKAWA
    1997 Volume 6 Pages 84-96,129
    Published: March 20, 1997
    Released on J-STAGE: May 30, 2011
    In the case of sports, gambling influences the character of any game. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the history of keirin in Japanese postwar society, and, further, to consider the relationship between sports and the gambling.
    Keirin is the term for professional bicycle racing in Japan, a sport that began in 1948. It is one of the publicly-managed gambling sports called kouei-kyougi. Among professionalsports in Japan, keirin has had the largest number of professionals.
    Moreover, there are 50 keirin racetracks spread throughout Japan. The IOC has even decided to adopt the sport as a new event in the Olympic Games to be held at Sydney, Australia.
    Yet, despite its successes, keirin usually has not been treated as a sport in Japan.
    Keirin has had a poor reputation due to the many problems associated with it in its early years. In various ways, the managing organization of keirin has been taking measures to sweep away those bad images.
    They have made efforts to rationalize the system of management and refereeing as well as the administrative system that governs pro-racers. Keirin has grown relatively unpopular since the 1970s. In response, the management organization has subdivided the proracer ranking class into smaller parts in order to complicate prospects for the outcome of the game.
    All of these efforts have sought to better the game, to legitimate keirin as a substantive sport.
    Keirin has thus been transformed, serving as an example of the process of the modernization of sports. In this paper, I argue, in sum, that concerns over gambling brought about the modernization of keirin as a sport.
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  • Reflection or Contribution to the Cultural Separateness
    Hitoshi EBIJIMA
    1997 Volume 6 Pages 97-102,130
    Published: March 20, 1997
    Released on J-STAGE: May 30, 2011
    ‘Troubles’ in Northern Ireland is deep rooted and its stubborn linkage with two deferent cultures backed by the different faith does not allow the politicians to reach the break-through without any problems.
    Sports played in such a divided society in a way or another have reflected or contributed to the conditions where the each side of people has the difficulties in understanding the different way of living.
    Three different kinds of sports are selected to illustrate the cultural separateness in Ireland. Namely GAA (Gaelic Athletic Association), rugby football (union) and soccer, which are supposed to be major sports in Ireland, are deeply integrated into the unique Irish cultural history and environment.
    GAA is widely believed to work as a nationalistic symbol and actually has been a part of power bloc in the country. Irish Rugby Football Union has managed to produce one united national team regardless of southern or northern. However the united Ireland is nothing but a myth in reality. Soccer has two different representative teams and organization, so in a way reflected the reality well.
    It is discussed that the educational system have played a key role in the reproduction of the cultural division in this society.
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