Japan Journal of Sport Sociology
Online ISSN : 2185-8691
Print ISSN : 0919-2751
ISSN-L : 0919-2751
Volume 21, Issue 2
Displaying 1-8 of 8 articles from this issue
  • The relation to the society facing “death”
    Yasunao KOJITA
    2013 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 3-12
    Published: September 30, 2013
    Released on J-STAGE: August 01, 2016
     The power of a human being to create society is such a spirit of depending on others. A human being is not independent, so cannot live without the help of others. But it is interesting that only when he depends on others, a human being can develop his ability freely and become any kind of man, because he is released from acquiring food that is most hard work in life. So Division of work and trade and society have been based on the man’s nature to depend on others.
     But there is a serious problem. If the nature of man is as I have mention above dependency, the population of man who is unwilling to acquire food by himself is increase more and more, and the society have to be ruined some day. So the leaders of pre-modern society made many regulations against man’s desire, and prohibited almost people to leave from agriculture, and built up the status society. But the leaders of modern society destroy those regulations and permit everyone to select any job freely.
     Why is it possible in modern society to do so? Because in modern society they put a confidence on the ability of market to coordinate between job and job, demand and supply. It has been thought that market had the ability to control the desire of man.
     But in the latter half of 19th century, the confidence on the market collapsed, because such a man lost his job began to kill himself very easily. It became clear that the harmony between a human being and market was illusion. Anything has been needed to adapt man to market. For Durkheim it was the power of gild. And for baron de Coubertin it was the educational power of sport. This is why Olympic Games started in 1896.
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  • The Historical Sociology of Body Culture
    Keiko NAKAE
    2013 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 15-30
    Published: September 30, 2013
    Released on J-STAGE: August 01, 2016
     The objectives of this paper is to shed a light on the question regarding what is the pitfall of the body and sports in the modern era by taking a broad historical perspective into the reexamination of the issue.
     For this purpose, this paper first briefly overviews the elemental form of learning and body in GreekRoman period, when the unique character of Western Civilization was formed. In that period, the erotic relations in ecstasies were considered to have a function of education, which deepens one’s knowledge about the world. Second, this study will show that in medieval era the chivalry, as a unique product of interaction between feudal ethics and Christian thought, created and spread out the idea that only by going beyond trials and suffering one can attain romance and happiness. The concept of education as a process of perseverance emerged during this period. Third, in the transition from feudalism to modernity, the conception that the true and pure moral attitude rests upon identification of social duty as one’s inner desire was passed down. The conception gave rise to the legitimacy of modern state’s imperative to discipline body of individual, which was regarded as the most “private” sphere of life. Fourth, this study reveals that it is the modernity that redefined the world of sports which had been limited status culture of knight class as the universal and idealized body culture. As a result, the core idea of the modern education that it was necessary to create the spontaneous motivation in inside of individuals came into being. This led to the transformation of the social function of sports from creating mutual respects among unequal players to producing hierarchical orders through the competitions among equal players. 
     Through the above-mentioned discussion, this article argues that the problem of sports and education in modern and contemporary society has its roots in the pre-modern ages, and that we need a broad and historical perspective to solve the problems and to liberate body and education.
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  • 1800-1892
    Masayuki ISHII
    2013 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 31-50
    Published: September 30, 2013
    Released on J-STAGE: August 01, 2016
     The term ‘sportsmanship’ was accepted as the dominant value system of sport. It is a term which had a moral power to regulate the athletes’ conduct in the early part of the twentieth century.
     We have been able to identify only one example of the term ‘sportsmanship’ in the 17th and 18th Century British Library periodicals collection (Burney Collection). However, after the first nineteenth century use of the word in 1825, ‘sportsmanship’ starts to become a more common term and we can see the numbers gradually increase from 1840s onwards. Its usage increases dramatically after 1892 and is sustained throughout the 1890’s, while there are only a few examples which refer to ‘sportsmanship’ in a wide range of modern sports (excluding field sports) of the term between 1885 and 1892. The majority of references to ‘sportsmanship’ in general newspapers and magazines are about football, rugby, and cricket.
     In most examples in this period the use of ‘sportsmanship’ was broadly synonymous with “fair play”. In some cases the term ‘sportsmanship’ was used in the context of criticising or commenting on a ‘lack of sportsmanship’. In the 1890s there was a huge increase in the frequency of use of the term ‘sportsmanship’ in the press because as sports expanded beyond the elite amateur confines, the meaning of the term was increasingly disputed. In this context not only professional players and officials but also Americans and Colonials were criticised for their ‘lack of sportsmanship’ because the English public school elite saw amateurism and sportsmanship as synonymous. The elite found out the ‘lack of sportsmanship’ outside of their ‘cherished circle’.
     Until as late as the mid 1890s ‘sportsmanship’ could still represent not only the virtue and skill in sport but also the membership of ‘gentleman-amateur’ because ‘sportsmanship’ and ‘statesmanship’ being a politician were wished to be both sides of being an ideal ‘gentleman’. However, in the democratisation of society after the Reform Act of 1885 ‘sportsmanship’ began to be required to the working classes as well. It seems to be the making of a widely shared belief in the value of sportsmanship as a part of the common national vocabulary of sport. But it also means ‘sportsmanship’ and ‘statesmanship’ were going to be separated.
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  • Hideto SUZUKI
    2013 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 51-62
    Published: September 30, 2013
    Released on J-STAGE: August 01, 2016
     Generally it is believed the direct origin of physical education as a subject was “gymnastics” lessons in the latter years of the 19th century. However, this paper assumes that sports as extra-curricular activities in English Public Schools led to the origin of modern physical education. Because most of the contents of the present PE curriculum are “sports”, not “gymnastics” and English Public Schools found out the educational value of sports besides simply training body and discipline.
     The purpose of this paper is to trace the past of PE focusing on English Public Schools and to describe the present PE connected with the influence of the past, finally to try to examine the future of PE which promise to conquer the present.
     The process in which sporting activities had been recognized as education can be divided into three stages. First of all, teachers repressed and prohibited sports from the latter years of the 18th century to the earlier days of the 19th century. Secondly, teachers gave official approval to sports to gain the co-operation of boys in order to maintain discipline from the earlier years to the middle of the 19th century. Thirdly, teachers encouraged sports positively therefore sports had their own educational values for building boy’s character after the middle of the 19th century.
     The most important stage was the second one. The character of these days’ sporting activities was a means of social control for teachers but must have been pure “play” for boys. We have to pay attention to the fact that the starting point of sports as education was produced by the spontaneousness of boys.
     When we look back at the history of PE above , we can notice that PE even up to now ignores the fundamental meaning of physical exercise for the people who play them which is to have fun. With this viewpoint, the possibility of the theory “Tanoshii-Taiiku” which emphersizes the play element of physical exercise can present one of the future directions in physical education.
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  • An Essay on the Relationship between Violence and Boundaries
    Naoki ISO
    2013 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 63-78
    Published: September 30, 2013
    Released on J-STAGE: August 01, 2016
     In this essay, with the concept of reflexivity, I apply the theory and the methods of Bourdieu to analyze the data collected from my fieldwork at a Judo club in a Paris suburb, infamous for a poor and dangerous area. Wacquant (2004, 2008) bridge Bourdieu's reflexive sociology and my fieldwork. From this ethnographic research, I found the social boundary in the area and that it was closely related to the order of violence there. In the "dojo" at the Judo club, the boundary did not make sense and then the order of violence changed. The children of the club learn the values and the morals that are not common in the area but are more extensively in France in practicing judo. This can imply social mobility of the children and their potential departure from the area in the future.
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  • Focusing on the Company Sport Facilities and Participation Rates
    Shinta SASAO
    2013 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 79-88
    Published: September 30, 2013
    Released on J-STAGE: August 01, 2016
     This paper analyzed the partial sports participation of labors during the period of rapid economic growth in Japan (1955-1973). Company sports facilities played an important role in the involvement of workers in sports at that time. Referring to the research data by the Ministry of Labor, this paper revealed that size and job type accounted for differences in the construction of company sports facilities. Based on data from the Prime Minister’s Office, it also demonstrated that employees who worked in small and medium-sized businesses, independent businessmen, and family workers did not fully participate in sports.
     This paper raised two viewpoints to explain this problem, the “social welfare model” and the “leisure choice model.” The former perspective regards the disparities in sports participation and company sports facilities as a big problem and explains why such problems occurred. Referring to research on a company-centered society, it clarifies why Japanese society built a unique social welfare structure.
     The latter viewpoint does not evaluate such inequalities as serious problem. It explains why some workers did not choose sports activities during their leisure times. It analyzes working hours, labor intensity, and the leisure choices.
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  • Protest Movements against the Dow Chemical Company’s Sponsorship for 2012 London Olympics
    Takuji KIMURA
    2013 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 89-96
    Published: September 30, 2013
    Released on J-STAGE: August 01, 2016
     As described in the Olympic Charter, “promoting a peaceful society concerned with the preservation of human dignity” is one of the goals of Olympism (“Fundamental Principles of Olympism” 2). Environmental issues are also critical for the Olympics, London 2012 has promoted itself as the “world's first sustainable Olympics.”
     In July 2010, the International Olympic Committee signed a sponsorship agreement with Dow Chemical which is said to be responsible for environmental and humanitarian issues, such as the production of defoliant “Agent Orange” used during the Vietnam War, and the world’s worst chemical factory accident “Bhopal tragedy” occurred in 1984.
     Victims, politicians, human rights organizations, and athletes stood against this agreement and joined protest movements. The London Assembly has passed a motion asking the IOC reconsider this contract. In the Olympic Charter, it is specified, as a “Mission and Role of the IOC,” “to encourage and support a responsible concern for environmental issues” (2. 13). Paradoxically, thanks to the number of protests sparked by Dow Chemical’s sponsorship, the IOC has enlightened the awareness of environmental issues.
     Companies face corporate social responsibility. “Greenwash” is a strategy to overturn low evaluation of CSR in the environmental dimension by showing superficial concern for the environment. As long as the IOC neglects an evaluation of corporate ethical responsibility in the light of CSR, there is the possibility that the Olympics continue to be used as an opportunity to greenwash. Worldwide protests against Dow Chemical’s sponsorship demand that the IOC evaluate sponsorship in the light of ethical norms.
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