This paper analyses how a sports player's body is disciplined in the sport's peculiar culture, which is related to a national body culture. Using sumo as a case, this paper classifies three kinds of such relationships, examining “the body as receptacle of culture, ” “the body as expression of culture, ” and “the body as metaphor.” In the case of the “body as a receptacle of culture, ” the sumo wrestler receives the Japanese culture of sumo wrestling. He does so not only in first conforming to the Japanese “tachiai” style, but also, second, in his self-realization within the “sumodo.” Third, the naked sumo form holds a special place of legitimacy in Japanese body culture. For the “body as an expression of culture, ” the sumo wrestler's body first indicates an unconscious expression of a quantity and quality of training and attitude in practice. Second, the wrestler's peculiar style of emotional displays suggests an internationalization of the culture of sumo. Third, each sumo wrestler's fighting technique and pattern reflects his body's characteristics and, ideally but not always, a mental approach to the bouts more reserved and moderate than simply wanting to win. Finally, the “body as metaphor” relationship means that the sumo wrestler's body is a “play” form of Japanese culture, in which “personal body” intersects with “social body.” Viewed at home and abroad, the sumo wrestler's body represents a symbolic struggle to win power status among countries as a “political body.” The sumo wrestler's body is desribed as “fat, ” “big, ” and “filled with destructive power” in America. Of course, “the body as metaphor” is derived from the characteristics of sumo wrestling, but its manipulation as a political symbol transcends the peculiar logic of the sumo world.
Despite the increasing concern with the study of sport and leisure activities of the elderly, little attention has been given to the influence of sport and leisure activities upon quality of life. The purposes of this study were to replicate the Brown & Frankel study (1993) which analyzed participation in physical activity, leisure satisfaction, and life satisfaction, and to examine a modified model between the middle-aged and the elderly. A questionnaire survey was conducted to 458 people of the middle-aged and 212 elderly in Kakogawa city. The replication study indicated that the Brown & Frankel model accounted for 43% of the variance in explaining life satisfaction for males and 47% for females. It can be said that the Brown & Frankel model is applicable to the Japanese context. The findings indicated the generation differences in the influence of sport participation and free time upon life satisfaction between the middle-aged and the elderly. The results also showed that a significant association between sport participation and life satisfaction was found for the female middle-aged and the male elderly. It was suggested that active lifestyle might facilitate the improvement of quality of life in the future. Future study should pay attention to understand gender differences in the relationship between sport participation and life satisfaction from a life course perspective
Why is not professional wrestling treated as a kind of sports? It is certain that professional wrestling seems a fake or a drama which in advance has the known end, but this is not the only true reason why professional wrestling is not a sport. This paper seeks another reason not in the character of professional wrestling but in that of sports. In modern times sports are formulated by written rules. Such rules have one special factor which is not contained in any other writings (e. g. private diaries, textbooks and so on), that is, the authority. Written rules, however, have their own trauma that they are determined not in a rational and reasonable way but in a arbitrary way. In other words, though rules must be rational in order to function, they contain the arbitrariness engraved at birth. So this trauma must be concealed with a great effort. Yet, this trauma necessarily returns as a symptom through the referee's behavior and decision. Likewise, in professional wrestling the trauma returns, but it returns more evidently than in any other kind of sports. The referee in professional wrestling intentionally makes it return. In this way, professional wrestling touches and discloses the trauma which all kind of sports try to conceal. This is the solution which this paper shows to answer why is not professional wrestling treated as a kind of sports.
Sports have emerged a strong cultural dimension with the rapid expansion of sports industry. Sports especially allows a wide range of options, and consequently sports involvement have diversified in various places. This phenomenon has brought about a change it the consumer behavior. But even then not much is known about the essential nature of sports consumer behavior. The consumer bahavior has diversified at present with emphasis on consumption. Keeping this point in view, this study assumes the sports consumer behavior that includes one to use diverse goods and facilities as a very important factor, and has tried to throw light on the basic mechanism of socialization of the sports consumers who are showing diverse behavior. We discussed the effectiveness of “socialization into sports” by taking note of the fact that “behavior of day to day living” is a social activity carried out through the medium of goods and facilities, and also assuming that “sports involvement”, a leisure activity carried out in the third living space, is a consumer behavior. The results can be summed up as follows; 1) The difficulty involved in understanding consumer behavior from conventional view of functionalism suggests a new area of study, namely, sports consumer behavior, from the total viewpoint of realm of living. 2) The sport involvement activity that cannot exist without the place of activity has a strong selective element of goods as the figurative symbol. 3) Adoption of social system in sport consumer behavior is a very meaningful thing for explaining the process of socialization of consumer as an area of interdisciplinary study. 4) The careful study of the way of life and lifestyle will provide new theoretical data for concepts related to sports socialization research, method of analysis and preparing conprehensive model for the variable factors.
According to the report by the welfare Ministry in 1994, the average life expectancy of the Japanese keep the highest in the world with 76.25 for males, and 82.51 for females. The increase in the life expectancy of the aged, however, is causing many social problems accompanied by the aging society, such as the increase of the bedridden, the dementia and suicides. The present study aims at clarifying the factors of the participation in leisure activities of the aged. A survey was made in the form of a questionnaire to 1, 170 persons above 60 years old in Akita, Yamanashi and Kochi Prefectures. The data was analyzed according to Hayashi's quantification theory II, with the quantity of leisure activity as a dependent variable, and 11 variables affecting it as independent variables. The result proves that the following seven variables constitute the most influential factors for leisure activities of the aged with the 64.9% of the discriminant hit ratio and the 0.337 of the relative ratio: (1) degree of the contentment in dairy life (category score range=0.64) (2) education background (ditto=0.42) (3) gender (ditto=0.24) (4) physical fitness scale (ditto=0.222) (5) practice of sports (ditto=0.22) (6) leisure admission scale (ditto=0.21) (7) health condition (ditto=0.21) Money, free time in leisure activities for the aged, described in the previous study, was not so strong factor as younger people. This study showed the necessity of the participation in various leisure activities from younger days, the maintenance of physical fitness and health and positive attitudes toward leisure activities, in order to enrich the leisure activities of the aged in future.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the sociological factors which determine the life-satisfaction of middle and senior aged sports participants. The data used for this study were collected from a total of 779 men and women participating in four sports at the 7th National Festival of Sports and Recreation, in Kitakyushu, Fukuoka Prefecture in November, 1994. The questionnaire was distributed to a representative of each team and was collected at the completion of the game by research assistants who were properly trained. The rate of data collection was 50.9%. Of the 779 questionnaires, usable data were 455. The Life-Satisfaction Index-A (LSI-A), developed by Neugarten, Havighurst and Tobin (1961), was used analyzing the present life-satisfaction of the sample subjects. A mean score of the total LSI was 9.77. Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.82, which was relatively highly reliable. I used the Hayashi's Quantitative Theory in analyzing the relationships between sociological factors and LSI. The main results of this study were as follows: 1. Female participants had higher values in the total score and each element's score than their male counterparts. 2. Total score of LSI seemed to be determined more strongly by the demographic, social economic, and physical status factors comparing with the factor of practical sports participation. 3. Total score of LSI can be determined by qualitative variables rather than quantitative variables in relation to the physical activity and sport. 4. Among most determinant factors of LSI, the gender differences were found from the factors of the self-evaluation of health and physical fitness, and professionalization scale toward play.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in spectators'motives by gender at a soccer game. To attain the purpose, I surveyed 351 spectators at a stadium with a questionnaire. Making reference to previous studies, I classified these motives into 8 groupes. They are: The motive of appreciation, the motive of support, the motive of learning, the motive of gambling, the motive to follow fashion, the motive of change, the motive to follow suit and the motive of innovation. As a consequence, men have motives of support, and high level learning, women have motives of appreciation and of beginners learning. That is to say the men surveyed have a strong native spirit supporting their local or hometown team and learn how to play the game. On the other hand, the women surveyed appreciate smart players and learn how to enjoy the game. The attitudes of the women surveyed showed growth in the desire for knowledge. On the whole, few surveyed spectators, regardless of gender, regard the soccer as a fashion.