In this paper, I discuss our encounter with a new model of agricultural practices and foods in connection with the 2020 Tokyo Olympics and Paralympics (2020 Olympics), and its significance for society.
The Japanese Government has led many organizations and stakeholders to expect huge economic growth during the 2020 Olympics. We can understand this in the existing climate of neoliberalism. The agricultural sector is no exception. In this context, agricultural and foods policies connected with the 2020 Olympics are also being aggressively promoted using key terms such as “food safety” and “organic.”
The organic agriculture trend has its prosperity in the 1970s, and started as a social movement to resist the economic system. The concern was directed not only to whether farmers used pesticides, but also to the resistance toward the publicness which related with body and food. Leaders of the movement aimed at the public safe construction. Consequently, that movement aimed to accomplish publicness related with food and body.
However, as described above, the 2020 Olympics promotes an organic agricultural philosophy. How should we understand this phenomenon and the conditions that have given rise to it?
In this paper, I discuss how the neoliberal need to deprive the publicness, has kept the relations between the 2020 Olympics and agriculture a closed subject. However, we have to think about the future. Depriving the publicness can have significant consequences for our body and food if the current global economy comes to an end.
Focusing on the best-seller on the “body” in recent years, we can see not only many books on diet, but also some books paying attention to specific body region such as legs, body trunk and calves, and thinking to solve any problems by caring the region. How was such an imagination on the body arisen? And, among these best-seller, a book on body trunk were written by Yuto Nagatomo, football player, who mixed up body training and self-development. Should we think such an imagination as his creativity? In this paper, I will investigate these questions.
About the attention to specific body region, I analyzed the body image on the lifestyle magazine an-an. In 1980’s, they focused the goods for beauty. In 1990’s, they focused the way of thinking for beauty. In the mid 2000’s, they focused on the physical disorder or “pollution,” and they began to seek its restoration or “purification.” After that, in 2010’s, they focused specific body region to restore or purify the physical disorder. Thus, the best-seller in recent years can be positioned on the genealogy of the imagination of the body image.
About sports and self-development articulation, I analyzed the books by athlete and sports manager. As a result, I could trace the genealogy of the articulation, not thinking simply it as the creativity of the writer or editor. The imagination on the body I analyzed in this article, can be included in the discussion of contemporary self-government which encourages to care and adjust their bodies by themselves. However, it is important for us to analyze the concrete development and variance of government in this society, rather than comprehensive government theory.
This paper aims to examine the publicness having been mentioned through discourses over health from a genealogical point of view. After World War II, health was commonly considered as being without illness. Since the last half of 1970s, concerns about environmental disruption made the health a significant value for those who reflected on and made head against dominant ideologies in modern industrial society. Subsequently, the word health had been stated as a utilitarian idea applauding preferable lifestyles in older age throughout 1980s.
In 1990s, experts from gerontology, kinesiology and public health started considering health as a means improving of the quality of life in older age, and developing techniques to prevent elderly from becoming bedridden. They justified training strategies to reduce risks of fall accidents among elderly in favor of reducing social security expenses. This was enabled by a logic that physical independence of body can achieve the society’s vitality, efficient finance of nursing care insurance in short, accompanying a concept Kenko Jumyo (healthy life expectancy). Consequently, the idea of independence as a right to self-determination used to be a basic principle over elderly care system has replaced with the another concept of independence in Activities of Daily Living and furthered prevention-oriented care systems.
We presented these changes as a part of critical transformation of publicness in Japanese society crystallized by social insurance system to a neo-liberal political scheme that gives insures and the assured incentives or financial penalties depending on health-conscious behaviors.
Owing to the shrinking size of schools and the decrease in the number of students caused by the declining birth rate in Japan, Bukatsudo is gradually losing its function of guaranteeing opportunities for students to participate in sports. This study explored the process of survival of Bukatsudo in the face of a lack of members, focusing primarily on the polarization among students.
In this study, the football Bukatsudo at a high school found itself constantly endangered due to a lack of students to form a team. In the Bukatsudo, even when only one member skipped the training, his absence seriously affected the achievement of the training. From this circumstance, the members of the Bukatsudo were divided into two groups: one group comprising constant participants and the other group whose participation was inconsistent. The students in the former group usually experienced difficulties not being able to have enough members present at daily training; nevertheless they did not go further into this issue of student polarization.
In conclusion, the students from the constant group accepted a “double standard” for participation in Bukatsudo activities. In other words, the students from the inconsistent group were able to participate in the activities whenever they wanted, which consequently enabled the conviviality of the two student groups in the Bukatsudo. Moreover, paradoxically, this double standard turned out to be effective in gathering a large enough number of students, by allowing some students to leave the Bukatsudo once and to enter it again.
After the Japanese Women’s Soccer National Team won the 2011 FIFA Women’s World Cup in Germany, the life style of women players has developed some problems. The media focuses on the issue that the most women soccer players also have to have different jobs while pursuing their soccer careers; thus, they are not performing as well as male soccer players. However, the women player’s daily routine and soccer practice schedule are not properly argued by the media. Therefore, the qualitative problems that women soccer players face have not been discussed thoroughly. How are they living their lives doing multiple jobs? What kind of conditions are involved for that? What kind of conditions are they going through to get jobs? In order to address these questions, approaching their life-styles in a qualitative manner is needed. Thus, this study mainly focuses on the players who are supported by “Sponsor Companies” in order to understand the player’s working conditions and their soccer practices. In conclusion, the life style of women soccer players is provided by creating a relationship which is called “support givers and receivers”. Therefore, this research addresses the importance of the “qualitative aspects” of a player’s daily routine.