In China a sociological study of physical education and sports started from the Open Market Reform period. With the progress of the sociological study of physical education and sports in mind, this report intends to clarify what the fundamental character of the study is in today's China; and presents representative results which have been obtained from theoretical studies as well as social researches in each stage of the period. By examining 1) the changes occurred in the social role of physical education and sports in the each successive stage of new China's history, 2) the significance of the sociological studies towards the reforms needed in physical education and sports, and 3) the relation between economic development and sports, this report refers to the historical mission that sociological study of physical education and sports should carry out to social science.
In this paper we provide a critique of the work of Left intellectuals who have seen in sport a location where efforts to overcome capitalism might successfully be mounted. As an alternative to this perspective, we examine the content of sport, exploring the reasons for its influence and attractiveness. We conclude that sport is an activity which is important and positive in its own right. In particular sport, we believe, dramatizes aspects of human existence, referred to by the philosopher David Best, as “life issues.” Two of the most important themes which emerge in sport concern the nature of justice and the necessity for human cooperation. Because sport participants must rely exclusively on their own and their teammates' skill, motivation, and intelligence, competitive outcomes are determined exclusively on a meritocratic basis. Sport, we think, therefore represents an oasis of justice in society. Sport also dramatizes the fact that cooperation is the basis of human endeavor. It demonstrates how conflict can be handled without destroying social interaction, and how individuals can master skills cooperatively. Sport, in short, is neither an opiate nor an activity in which an explicit contestation for political power occurs. Rather, it is a location where important issues of justice, interdependence, cooperation, conflict and accomplishment are articulated. In this connection, we note that the incentives present in professional sport's compensation systems encourage individual and not collective achievement. Because that is so, we voice our concern that those systems may put at risk precisely the qualities which make sport attractive.
Analysing ‘tanimachi’ which has not dealt with in study of SUMO. This study tries to clarify the function of SUMO-society to the whole society. SUMO-society and external society keep the complex interaction through ‘tanimachi’. Network analysis is effective in study of imformal groups that we cannot grasp as ordinaly organization which has obvious structure in it. Therefore, network analysis is suitable for study of ‘tanimachi’ as hidden group in external society. The characteristics of ‘tanimachi’ network analysed in this study tell us that SUMO-society has the role to hide the arbitrary design of political and economical networks which are hidden in external society, and that such SUMO-society as a social system might be one of elements which constitute the whole society.
This paper tries to reconsider TV-sports from descripting mechanism and the people in it as it is in the field of production of sport programs. The focus of preceding studies has been on effects, functions and social, cultural interpretation of meaning in our society, situated TV-sports in oneside communication from pruducers to audiences. Therefore, the key that TV-sports is situated in interaction relationship (pseudo conflict) was demand from the case of relaied program and news program. The results of this fieldwork are: 1) there exists an invisible technical manual and method of covering in the field of selection of picture, TV-sports's produced by poewrfull control from media technology; 2) the specified same pattern on TV-sports program was brought by not only control of media technology but also the method of production corresponded a variety scene in sport, news network and the organization of station of journalists in space; 3) the mechanism under the field of production were formed from that producers imagined “uke” of audiences who can't meet directly. Consequently, it could be said that a new direction might emerge to study of TV-sports; TV-sports is situated in relationship of pseudo conflict with producers and audiences.
Nowadays, the sporting world has been greatly influenced by commercialism. Sports are required to be friendly spectator. This phenomenon is caused by the mass-media and sponsership. This study investigates the influence of commercialism on Triathlon rule. Generally Triathlon is known as an endurance sport, for top category Triathlon race are now changing to became “spectator sport”, which spectators want to watch. Therefore the bicycle's drafting rule is now allowed the elite category races for international event. Allowing the drafting rule has caused serious problem for the competitors. It has changed the essence of Triathlon. In Triathlon, the competitor swims, cycles, runs for oneself with no help from another competitors. The main opinion of this study are fellows. Firstly, Triathlon's development to a Olympic standerd can be considered to be a form of social development. Proof of this, the increase in number of triathletes, the growth in the number of races and the increase in standerd. Further, the establishment of world wide organization. Secondly, the increasing commercialism of Triathlon can be traced to the theories of social modernization and industrialization. Under capitarism, market value is most important factor. The allawence of the bicycle's drafting rule has made Triathlon more exciting, better to television and therefore increased its market value asspectator sports. Triathlon is now a degree controled by the needs of mass-media and sponsership. Therefore the bicycle's drafting rule has became an important change in Triathlon. With this change in rule, Triathlon can compete successfully in the market place with other major sports.
The purpose of this study is to examine the changes brought to the environment surrounding such sports-related activities as enactment of relevant laws and regulations, construction of facilities, formations of organization and creation of leaders which have all contributed to increasing involvement of Koreans in sports events. The study method we have adopted is to collect and analyse comprehensively the data and literature related to the sports environment published in Korea from 1980s up to the present time. In order that social activities like sports may continue to exist and prosper, such activities, as mentioned in Parson's theory, have to adapt to the natural and social environment, try to achieve the objective by first setting it up, and maintain the value placed on such objective by strengthening the felling of solidarity of the people. This study, which is based on the preceding studies, has taken up the four factors: 1) sports facilities, 2) sports-related laws and regulations, 3) sports organizations and 4) sports leaders as the subordinate system making up the sports environment. The results of the study are as follows: 1) Sports facilities: The facilities provide a physical environment for people's involvement in sports. From 1984 to date the sports facilities in Korea have gone through many phases, development of public facilities being especially prominent. The number of public facilities has increased from 451 in 1984 to 688 in 1988, 2, 261 in 1994 and 3, 307 in 1996, the budget for sports-related expenditures, e. g. for maintenance and extention of facilities, having correspondingly been increased. 2) Sport laws and regulations: A number of laws and regulations related to sports activities have been en-acted to establish the objective of the people's involvement in sports activities and to mobilize resources to achive such objective. The basic laws regulating the sports activities in Korea are “Advancement of National Physical Education Laws” of 1962 and “Establishment and Utilizations of Facilities for Physical Education Laws” of 1989. As the result of these laws the national objective has been clearly given to construct sports facilities, to secure the necessary budget and to foster and train leaders. 3) Sports organization: Sports-related organizations perform the funcations of unifying of themselvesas well as people involved in sports activities. As the governmental organization “Ministry of Physical Education” was established in 1982 to promote and encourage sports activities in Korea vigorously. On the other hand YMCA and Social Physical Training Center as the civil organizations have contributed to people's more intensive involvement in sports activities. 4) Sports leaders: Leaders of sports activities are responsible for maintaining and supporting the organizations of people involved in sports activites. Under Advancement of National Physical Eduacation Law the number of the registered sports leaders hascontinually increased from 177 in 1986 to 2, 629 in 1989, 2, 951 in 1992 and 1, 595 in 1994.